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LIFE OF THE GERMAN SCULPTOR RAUCH 

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LEE AND SHEPARD PUBLISHERS BOSTON 



OF 

CHRISTIAN DANIEL RAUCH 



OF 



BERLIN GERMANY 

SCULPTOR OF THE MONUMENT OF QUEEN LOUISE, VICTORIES 

OF WALHALLA, ALBERT DURER, FREDERIC 

THE GREAT etc. 



DRA WN FROM GERMAN A UTHORITIES 
BY 

EDNAH D. CHENEY 

AUTHOR OF " GLEANINGS IN FIELDS OF ART " EDITOR OF " MICHEL ANGELO's POEMS " CtC. 



BOSTON 
LEE AND SHEPARD PUBLISHERS 

I O MILK STREET 
1893 



COPYRIGHT, 1892, 
BY EDNAH D. CHENEY 



All Rights Reserved 



LIFE OF CHRISTIAN DANIEL RAUCH 



C. J. PETERS fc SON 

TYPE-SETTEES AND ELECTBOTYPEBS 

145 Hiou STREET BOSTON 



TO 

ANNE WHITNEY 
SCULPTOR 

To you, true daughter of Art, my thoughts have often 
turned while I tried to bring out the noble life of this great 
man, who believed in Art as the expression of the highest in 

4 

Humanity. 

You share his Faith and his Devotion, and to you, as to him, 
Art has been an elevating vocation which has made you 
every year higher, wiser, and sweeter. 

May I dedicate my earnest though imperfect work to you, 
with the deep respect and affection for yourself and ad- 
miration for your work which a friendship of many years, 
cemented by holy memories of the one who brought us 
together, has established in my heart. 

EDNAH D. CHENEY 

JAMAICA PLAIN , June 27, i8q2. 



PREFACE 



IN the autumn of 1877 I visited Berlin, and for the first 
time saw the statue of Queen Louise, by Rauch. It was 
a revelation to me in modern art, and I felt the joy of the 
discovery of a new star in the heavenly galaxy. So simple 
without weakness, so pure and sweet without affectation, 
so noble and so modest, I accepted her as the queen of 
modern womanhood and the ideal of artistic representa- 
tion. When I turned to the statue of the king, and found 
that this artist did not depend upon the exquisite senti- 
ment of his first subject for his results, but out of far less 
promising material had gained an even greater artistic 
success, I felt that here was indeed a power, and, still more, 
a trained and educated power, that must help forward the 
progress of art. 

When I spoke of him to an American sculptor of fine 
intellectual culture, as well as artistic feeling, and found 
that he did not know him even by name, I felt a great 
desire to introduce Rauch and his works to the better 
knowledge of my countrymen, who are in that formative 
stage of art when such an influence is most precious. 

Since that time the great political movements in Ger- 
many have kept her people and country so much in our 
thoughts, and the stream of travel in the direction of Ber- 
lin has so much increased, that I have no doubt that this 
artist is far more widely known than he was then ; but I 
am equally sure that those who know a little will desire to 
know more, and I have therefore hoped to do a service in 

v 



Vi PREFACE 

introducing him to an American public, so many of whom 
have had, or will have, an opportunity of seeing his original 
works. 

During my brief visit I spent what time I could at the 
Rauch Museum, and in seeing the monumental statues, 
and tried to obtain some account of his life. A very in- 
teresting address made at the commemoration of the cen- 
tenary of his birth was all that I could then find. 

It was with great delight that I learned after my return 
home of the publication of the first volume of Dr. Eggers's 
" Life of Rauch," which I at once ordered. This work 
was projected by the brothers Eggers, both of them artists 
of high reputation, and friends of Rauch in his later years. 
By the death of Friedrich Eggers the whole work was 
left in the hands of his brother Karl. The publication of 
the later volumes was delayed by the acquisition of a large 
quantity of new material, consisting of letters to Goethe 
and others, and necessitating an entire revision and re- 
arrangement of the manuscript already prepared. The 
succeeding volumes followed slowly ; the second was pub- 
lished in 1878, the third in 1886, the fourth in 1887, and 
finally the fifth, which is hardly a part of the narrative, 
but rather an illustrative appendix, appeared only in 1891. 

During all these years, as far as other claims would 
allow, it has been my pleasant occupation to study this 
life, and to make real to myself the character of this man ; 
and as the image of him grew clearer in my own mind, so 
did the purpose to try to present him to my fellow-country- 
men in his "very habit as he lived." 

I am almost entirely indebted to this biography for the 
material of mine ; indeed, it would have been folly in this 
distant land to have attempted to go behind a work so 
carefully executed with every advantage, and seek to make 
an original book. A full translation would have been too 
large a work for a publisher to venture upon, and I have 



PREFACE 



therefore done as I felt that I could, gathering up the facts 
into my own mind, and striving to reproduce them in a 
popular form. When I again visited Berlin, in 1891, it 
was with this purpose in view and partly executed ; and I 
received from Dr. Eggers permission to make such use of 
his work as I had proposed. 

I wish here to make to him the fullest and most grateful 
acknowledgment not only for this permission, but for the 
excellence and fulness of his biography, which has left so 
little to be desired. I availed myself, however, of every 
opportunity within my reach to obtain independent im- 
pressions of Rauch's personality and work, and was fortu- 
nate enough to meet one person who had known him in 
youth, and another who had a hereditary knowledge of 
him, besides gathering the general impression of feeling 
in regard to him, and again seeing his works. 

I have found great difficulty in following any strict 
chronological sequence in presenting the facts of Rauch's 
life. As one of his great works often occupied him for 
many years, and others were in different stages of progress 
at the same time, it seemed better to take up each as a 
separate theme, and describe the whole course of its pro- 
duction, from its beginning to its close. I have, however, 
endeavored to give so many dates as to keep the epoch of 
any event easily before the mind, and show the onward 
march of time. 

I have made one addition to the life drawn from other 
sources ; viz., the chapter on Queen Louise. It is through 
her statue that Rauch is more generally appreciated by 
travelling Americans than by anything else, and yet this 
woman is not so well known as she should be, and as she 
is destined to be in coming years ; for Germany to-day 
reveres and loves the mother of her emperor, and, as he 
said, " the founder of German Unity," far more than even 
in her lifetime. I have, therefore, given a sketch of her 



Vlii PREFACE 

life, which of course Dr. Eggers did not think it necessary 
to do for a German public. 

While I have thus freely used his facts, statements, and 
opinions, often being obliged to condense them very much 
in order to bring five large volumes into the compass of 
one small one, and also to translate very freely, I have put 
into quotation marks the direct extracts from Rauch and 
others, and also any sentences of Dr. Eggers which I 
could translate pretty literally, or which seemed especially 
good in expression, or for which I preferred to have his 
direct authority. If I am accused of plagiarism, I can only 
admit the charge by the wholesale. It would be entirely 
impossible for me to say what part of the book is my own 
thought, or what was suggested by another. I have so 
made it my own by long possession, that I feel like the 
mother of an adopted child who thinks his virtues are in- 
herited from her. I have given no statement which I did 
not believe, and have uttered no opinion which I am not 
willing to maintain ; and if the book only interests the 
reader in my subject, he is perfectly free to give the merit 
of it where he thinks it is due. 

If I shall induce any one to study the original volumes 
of Dr. Eggers, and, above all, the sculpture of Rauch, I 
shall have done him a service which I am sure will atone 
for all my deficiencies. 



CONTENTS 



CHAPTER p AGB 

I. BIRTH AND CHILDHOOD. LIFE AT COURT. 1777-1804 . i 

II. ROME. RETURN TO BERLIN. 1804-1810 n 

III. QUEEN LOUISE OF PRUSSIA. BORN MARCH 11,1776. DIED 

JULY 19, 1810 28 

IV. STATUES OF QUEEN LOUISE. 1810-1827 62 

V. BERLIN AND LAGERHAUS. 1815-1816 77 

VI. GERMAN ART. SCHOOLS AND MUSEUMS. 1819-1822 . . 94 

VII. RAUCH AND GOETHE. 1797-1832 122 

VIII. HISTORIC MONUMENTS. POLISH PRINCES. ALBERT DURER. 

1815-1840 137 

IX. KING LUDWIG OF BAVARIA. 1812-1852 163 

X. HOME AND FRIENDS. SCHOOL AND ATELIER. 1830-1840, 188 
XI. PORTRAIT AND MISCELLANEOUS SCULPTURE. 1821-1844 . 210 
XII. CONDITION OF ART IN GERMANY. WALHALLA AND VICTO- 
RIES. 1830-1857 233 

XIII. MONUMENT TO FREDERIC THE GREAT. 1780-1850 ... 251 
XIV. POLITICAL CHANGES. VISITS TO ST. PETERSBURG, COPEN- 
HAGEN, ANTWERP, AND LONDON. 1840-1852 .... 266 
XV. LAST JOURNEYS AND LAST WORKS. 1853-1857 .... 288 

XVI. THE CLOSE OF LIFE. 1857 299 

XVII. RAUCH'S SCHOOL AND INFLUENCE ON MODERN ART . . . 309 

LIST OF WORKS 321 

INDEX 327 



IX 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS 



CHRISTIAN' RAUCH Frontispiece 

KING WILLIAM AND QUEEN LOUISE, CHARLOTTENBURG 69 

ALBERT DURER, NUREMBERG 160 

VICTORY, VALHALLA 244 

FREDERICK THE GREAT, BERLIN 258 



LIFE OF CHRISTIAN DANIEL RAUCH 



CHAPTER I 

BIRTH AND CHILDHOOD. LIFE AT COURT 

1777-1804 

THE little city of Arolsen, not far from Cassel, was in 
the eighteenth century ruled over by Prince Friedrich, a 
man of high culture and strong character, who loved 
science, and cared much for the improvement of his peo- 
ple. His " Kammerdiener " was named Johann Friedrich 
Rauch. From the papers of this person, we learn that 
his prince sent one hundred and thirty soldiers to aid 
George III. in prosecuting our Revolutionary War. His 
Kammerdiener apologizes for this transaction of his prince, 
and says that he was very careful that the agriculture of 
the country should not suffer from it. 

In this letter we also find the first mention of our hero, 
January 18, 1778. 

The family then consisted of three sons. The oldest 
was fifteen and the second son twelve years old. Next 
to them there had been two daughters, who were now 
both dead. The youngest child, then a year and six days 
old, was 

CHRISTIAN DANIEL RAUCH, born January 2, 1777. 

This date at once indicates at what an important epoch 
in the history of both Europe and America he lived, and 
how a biography of him must represent, from an indi- 



2 LIFE OF CHRISTIAN DANIEL RAUCH 

vidual standpoint, many of the most striking political and 
intellectual influences that have made the present condi- 
tion of the Christian world. 

The father, who had been a soldier, and had become a 
court-servant, was noted for his strict order and integrity, 
and also for the punctuality and fidelity with which he 
fulfilled the duties of his little office. These traits re- 
appeared in his son. His mother was the daughter 
of a mason, and this fact also may have influenced his 
tendencies. 

The children were brought up in the strictest simplicity. 
Until his twentieth year, Christian did not know the 
luxury of an overcoat in that severe climate. At home 
he wore a " Gatten-jacket." As this garment was espe- 
cially convenient for sausage-making, it was called the 
"sausage-jacket." He grew rapidly, was vigorous, and 
had a fine appetite. If he was sent to the apple store- 
room, he filled his pockets and sack with apples for his 
own eating. His mother was aware of the trick, but said 
nothing, "they tasted so good to him." 

According to his own statement, he was not the finest 
of the children. "His eldest brother," he says, "was the 
handsomest and the best." He died when Christian was 
only a few years old. His death-bed was surrounded 
with African marigolds, and Rauch could never bear the 
sight or odor of these flowers, so forcibly did they recall 
this early sorrow. A younger brother, "beautiful as a 
picture," as Rauch was wont to say, died in Poland ; 
and only one, Friedrich, who became court-gardener in 
the princely garden of Herrenhausen, survived to full 
maturity. 

Rauch's education up to the age of fourteen was very 
narrow. The Old and New Testaments, the Catechism of 
Martin Luther, and the "Book of Saints " were his only 
books of study. An old atlas, used by the choir leader 
to raise his seat, gave him his first ideas of geography. 



BIRTH AND CHILDHOOD. LIFE AT COURT 3 

He learned French from two old mechanics in whose 
workshop he delighted to play, and a French emigrant 
whom his parents invited to their house for his advantage. 
In his ninth year he was obliged to attend regularly to his 
French lessons, and he found this early knowledge of 
French very useful to him. He attended church service, 
with singing and preaching, and also Sunday-school on 
Sundays and on Tuesdays and Fridays. 

He was so bright and studious as to attract the atten- 
tion of the prince, who looked over his exercises, and 
once gave him a pair of new silver shoe-buckles as a 
reward for a clever composition. His brother Friedrich 
aided and encouraged him, and brought him books to 
study. 

"The teacher says so," was a frequent formula of the 
conscientious child. One rainy day, when walking with 
his father, he took pains to walk exactly in his father's 
footprints, and as with his short legs he was obliged to 
spring from one to another, he spattered mud over his 
father's stockings. His father said, "What nonsense is 
this, youngster ? " " Father, the teacher says, ' Children 
must walk in the footsteps of their elders.' " ' This was 
not a joke, but a literal fulfilment of a duty, as was 
always so characteristic of the man. 

Another anecdote illustrates his simple belief. An old 
linen weaver came every spring and set up his loom, and 
stayed with them. He slept in the same room with 
Christian, who found him an agreeable companion, one 
who answered all his questions. 

As the Passion of Jesus was read in school at this 
time, the boy became so absorbed in it, that he imagined 
that the scenes of the Crucifixion were actually taking 
place in Jerusalem. He believed in the resurrection, and, 
thinking that it must spread a glory over the whole earth, 
he waited anxiously for Easter morning. " It is going 
on now," he called out suddenly, raising himself up in 



4 LIFE OF CHRISTIAN DANIEL RAUCH 

bed. "What is going on ? " said the old weaver, waking 
up. "The Resurrection of the Lord!" "Oh! young- 
ster," cried the weaver, " that was over long ago. Go to 
sleep!" 

His father's position enabled him often to visit the 
princely apartments. There hung pictures and prints 
which fascinated him, especially " The Death of General 
Wolfe," one of the best pictures of Benjamin West, 
finely engraved by Woollett in 1776. A bust of the 
Apollo, four feet in height, and busts of Frederic the 
Great and of Goethe also interested him. He had 
access to the workshop of the sculptor Valentin, and 
having made acquaintance with his apprentices he saw 
their work, and noticed especially a marble chimney-piece 
for one of the castles. Valentin had much to tell of 
Lorrdon and the glories of Westminster Abbey, which 
the boy never forgot. 

According to German custom, when the boy was of 
suitable age thirteen years old he was confirmed in 
the church, and was then to choose his life-work. Chris- 
tian himself had no doubt what it should be, but it re- 
quired some entreaty on his part before it was agreed that 
he should be apprenticed to the court sculptor in Helsen. 
This took place October 1 7, 1 790. The contract was for 
five years. As he boarded with his parents, he had to 
walk five miles daily to his work-place. The work con- 
sisted mostly of funeral urns, chimney-pieces, sandstones 
for graves, and ornaments of wood for picture-frames. 

Christian fulfilled his five years' apprenticeship, wander- 
ing between Arolsen and Helsen, working earnestly, and 
looking dreamingly forward into the future. His first 
glimpse into the outer world was gained by a trip on foot 
to Cassel with his comrade Wolff. Here he first saw an 
antique marble statue, but he was much more moved on 
visiting the atelier of Ruhl, where he saw active, progres- 
sive work. Ruhl had just returned from Rome, and 



BIRTH AND CHILDHOOD. LIFE AT COURT C 

brought with him fragments of ancient art, and designs 
for new work. He told much of living artists, especially 
of Canova, and the boy saw the process of modelling a 
lion in clay. 

In every little court of Germany at that time was to be 
found a prince who imitated Louis XIV., and tried to sur- 
round himself with French influences and ornament. 
Such a man was Count Friedrich II. von Hesse. He was 
the founder of an academy which did service to art. 
When Rauch's apprenticeship was ended, he came to 
Cassel to be under the especial instruction of Ruhl, who 
was the life of the academy. He arrived there in Sep- 
tember, 1795, with three French " laub-thalers " 1 and a 
lucky penny in his pocket. For his work as helper in 
wood, and then in stone, he received one "laub-thaler" 
per week. In the evenings he went to the academy, and 
modelled in clay after the living model, by which he gained 
a silver medal. 

In four months' time Christian was thrown still more 
on his own resources by his father's death ; but his 
brother Friedrich, the Schloss-castellan of Sans-Souci, sup- 
plied his place as far as possible, sending him books, and 
directing the course of the young sculptor. 

But this support was soon withdrawn. In January, 
1797, the painful news came from Potsdam of the danger- 
ous illness of Friedrich. Christian hastened to Potsdam 
only to find his brother in his grave. 2 He took his papers 
to carry to the king, who had felt great sympathy for the 
young castellan, and wished to see his brother. The beau- 
tiful young sculptor charmed the king, and he offered him 
aid in his art. But the Kammerdiener Rietz, to whom 
the matter was left, wished to engage him in the personal 

1 The laub-thaler was an old French coin with a wreath of leaves upon it, and 
hence its name. As it had gone out of general circulation, it was often used as a 
lucky penny. 

2 For the grave of this brother, Ranch designed the statue of Hope, which was 
one of his last works. It was left unfinished, and was placed over his own grave. 



6 LIFE OF CHRISTIAN DANIEL RAUCH 

service of the king, and represented to the youth that he 
would have to struggle long and hard as a sculptor, while 
a place at court would at once enable him to support his 
mother and younger brother. Therefore Rauch entered 
into the personal service of King Friedrich Wilhelm II. 
February 7, 1797. 

The king having been ordered to try the baths of 
Pyrmont, Rauch, who knew the locality well, went thither 
to make arrangements for him, and was allowed to spend 
a week with his mother, for the last time, as it proved, 
although she lived thirteen years afterwards. 

On the death of the king in the autumn, Rauch had 
much leisure for his work, but he remained in the service 
of Queen Louise, the wife of the new king, Friedrich 
Wilhelm III. He used all his spare time for study ; and it 
is said that the queen even allowed him to draw while 
waiting in her antechamber. At this time Berlin afforded 
him rich opportunities for study. The plans of Frederic 
the Great in founding an academy, and inviting men of 
talent and distinction to his capital, had been followed by 
Friedrich Wilhelm. Best of all, Schadow, then only 
twenty-four years old, had been called back from Rome, 
had been made director of the Royal Atelier of Sculpture, 
and had received a commission to finish a monument for 
"den Grafen von den Mark." 

From this time dates the project for the statue of Fred- 
eric the Great, which the army had wished to erect even 
before his death, but which Friedrich Wilhelm II. preferred 
to erect at his own cost. Schadow, at the king's desire, 
had made a model in Greek costume, and the disputes in 
regard to classic or modern drapery had already begun ; 
but little did any one think that the artist who was to 
complete the monument was then spending his precious 
days in the queen's antechamber. 

Only in the evenings could Rauch attend the studies of 
the academy, or the lectures of Hirt and Rambach, but 



BIRTH AND CHILDHOOD. LIFE AT COURT 7 

he worked unweariedly in every moment of leisure that 
he could command. He accompanied the youthful royal 
pair on a visit to Silesia and Posen. They were every- 
where greeted with the warmest enthusiasm. The simple 
citizen's life of this happy couple might seem to allow 
much time to Rauch, but the frequent changes of resi- 
dence left him little opportunity for study ; and he became 
impatient at the want of satisfaction for his strong desire 
for progress in his art. With his intense love of work, 
this easy service was very irksome to him. 

In 1798 he petitioned the king for a small pension, with 
opportunity to give his time to study. The king refused 
to exchange his salary as " Lakay " for two-thirds of the 
sum as an artist, suggesting that, as he was situated, he 
had sufficient opportunity to perfect himself in art. 

In 1802 the Emperor Alexander of Russia came to 
Prussia, and formed the well-known league of friendship 
with its king. Rauch was appointed to the special service 
of the emperor, who gave him forty ducats for his attend- 
ance. On his return journey he saw Warsaw for the 
second time, and met the artists there more intimately. 
Meantime his unwearying friend, Baron von Schilden, had 
secured for him six months' leave for study in Dresden. 
In addition to the emperor's gift he received ten Fried- 
ricks d' or from the king, a sum we need not despise 
when we remember how frugal the king was in his own 
household, and in gifts to his own children. 

In this year the first work of Rauch was exhibited. 
The Sleeping Endymion and Artemis, as well as some 
busts, were shown in the academy. 

Through the winter he continued in the service of the 
beloved queen, but felt discontented that he was not fol- 
lowing the right path. This early court favor, which would 
have seemed the height of good fortune to many men, 
was almost the only hindrance which Rauch had to struggle 
with in his artistic career; and, since his mother and 



8 LIFE OF CHRISTIAN DANIEL RAUCH 

young brother depended on him for support, it could 
hardly have been won for them, at less cost to his artistic 
life, in any other way. 

But the next summer brought to him an influence which 
made him feel more imperatively the necessity of follow- 
ing out his own path. 

Schadow had paid little attention to Rauch, considering 
him only as an amateur, and believing that if he had any 
real artistic power he ought to have shown it at an earlier 
age, since he himself at twenty-four was already court- 
sculptor, while Rauch only exhibited his first work at 
twenty-five. As soon, however, as he perceived the real 
earnestness of the young sculptor, he sympathized warmly 
with him, gave him a large relief to model after a sketch, 
and in the autumn commissioned him to put it in plaster. 
The subject of the sketch was "The Physician Giving 
Help on the Battlefield." The classical tendency is very 
strong in this work, and one might imagine it a scene 
from the " Iliad." Besides the regular pay, Schadow gave 
Rauch a gratuity of a hundred thalers for this relief, which 
made Rauch very happy. He felt the joy of earning in 
his own true line. Even the service of the lovely queen 
was joyless in comparison, and again and again he sought 
to be released from it. 

But his request was always refused on account of his 
charming personality, for others did not suspect the 
greatness in him, which was yet unknown to himself. He 
made one more effort with the king, and at last, January 
31, 1804, the long-desired release was granted. A pension 
of one hundred and twenty-five thalers and twelve groschen 
was allowed him, with permission to go to Rome and 
spend it there. Thus his full desire was gratified ; for all 
his longings turned to Italy. Baron von Schilden offered 
him two hundred thalers for his journey to Rome, and as 
a return Rauch modelled a bust of the baron, for which 
he received one hundred thalers more. A young Count 



BIRTH AND CHILDHOOD. LIFE AT COURT 9 

Sandretzky had expressed the wish for the company of a 
young artist on his journey to Rome, and it was decided 
that Rauch should accompany him, going to Dresden on 
the first of August. The court passed the summer at 
Charlottenburg, and Rauch was allowed to model the bust 
of the queen. According to his own judgment, this work 
was somewhat dry and stiff, although it had true and good 
points. 

The young traveller had already begun to keep a diary, 
as he continued to do all his life, but it was usually more 
a record of observations and facts than of feelings ; but 
as he started on this eventful journey he looked back 
over his youthful life and made these notes in pencil. 

" I left Schwalbach with peculiar reflections. I was 
here in March, 1793, at the beginning of the second cam- 
paign of Prussia against the French. I met my brother 
on the march hither near Wickert, and made the march 
to that place with him ; slept one night there, and then, 
having seen my brother less than twenty-four hours, I 
travelled back in storm and snow over Wiesbaden to my 
parents. I was then a little more than sixteen years old, 
and beginning to learn sculpture. The future lay in the 
dark distance before me. All was expectation : this 
tumult of strife before me, never before seen ; the crowds 
of discontented people ; the devastation of war, then in- 
comprehensible to me ; the throng of people, which 
formed like lines on foot and horseback on all the roads, 
amazed me. One saw this scene from every hill, the 
fearful Mainz always before the eyes. All this made me 
sick, although I was sound in body. At Wiesbaden, 
where I slept the next night, I became homesick, and I 
hurried with all my force towards home, where my parents 
and friends expected and received me. Perhaps I tell 
this little digression without connection, but it escaped 
me without my will, and my last word was ' reflections.' 



IO LIFE OF CHRISTIAN DANIEL RAUCH 

With these I left this morning the misty Schwalbach, 
which brought back again all the ideas and wishes with 
which I then travelled this way ; and I now compared them, 
thanking Heaven and blessing my parents that what I 
longed for eleven years before (it always seemed to me as 
if my innermost wishes would be gratified, but I could 
not count upon it then) was brought to me in all its ful- 
ness at this moment, when I was hastening to glorious 
Rome, my goal, the goal of all men who love the noble, 
especially the goal of artists and poets. I have the joy of 
which hundreds are worthy, and yet they cannot reach it. 
" Grateful and happy, I stood upon the height and 
looked over the broad Rhine valley. The Rhine streams 
through this beautiful meadow about green islands which 
seem made for his pastime, or as if he made them himself. 
Above, perhaps in the region of Mannheim, one sees it 
in a long stripe as it bounds the horizon, and through this 
distant opening it seems to rush towards one. Mainz has 
something fearful to me, it lies so big, so strongly forti- 
fied there, watching the Rhine ; there is something com- 
manding in this part of the landscape. The cathedral, 
the castle, the specially large buildings, have a decided 
blood-red color, and this is fearfully mirrored in the water. 
The long bridge of seven hundred and thirty paces appears 
from the road like a little string of pearls binding both 
shores together. 



ROME. RETURN TO BERLIN 



CHAPTER II 

ROME. RETURN TO BERLIN 

1804-1810 

AUGUST was approaching. Rauch's friends feared 
that the young count would fail to accompany him, but 
Rauch felt sure of him, because, in ten minutes' conver- 
sation, he had found in him so much confidence and 
sympathy. The count was awaiting him in Dresden, 
and they visited the gallery together. They left Dresden 
the fifth of August, passing by Weimar, Gotha, Eisenach, 
Frankfurt, and Mainz ; then down the Rhine, travelling by 
boat, by carriage, or on foot, with extra post as opportunity 
offered or the humor prompted them. 

Rauch's diary has preserved for us a most interesting 
and precious record of his experiences and thoughts. 

At Ludwigsburg he first saw a monument of Dan- 
necker's, and soon afterwards became acquainted with 
him. He speaks thus of the now world-renowned Ariadne : 
" Dannecker has modelled a life-sized nude Ariadne rid- 
ing on a tiger ; 1 she is so boldly outstretched that, while 
taming this wild beast, she seems to be pleasantly carried 
along with it ! " 

He shows in his journal the keenest sensibility to the 
beautiful natural scenery of the Rhine, and no less to the 
interesting historic associations, as well as the rare objects 
of scientific interest, like the beautiful crystals. Always 

1 Rauch calls this animal a tiger, but opinions seem to differ in regard to it, and it 
is commonly called a panther. I do not know of any classical authority to establish 
the point. 



12 LIFE OF CHRISTIAN DANIEL RAUCH 

and everywhere he had his eyes open, and was never weary 
of observation and study. 

The journey through all the magnificence of Switzerland 
is described in glowing colors. He noted everything, the 
mountains, the trees, the flowers, the old monuments, and 
the merry dances of the people. But he felt so deeply, 
almost painfully, the awful sublimity of the Alpine heights, 
that the smiling beauty of the valleys and the home-life 
of the peasants was a relief to him. At Geneva they 
rested a fortnight, and the count began to model under 
Rauch's direction. Rauch himself made a sketch for a 
Genius of Death, in which he unintentionally made a strik- 
ing likeness of Frederic II. the Great ; he also sketched 
Ariadne lost in grief. He thought of carrying out this 
idea in Rome, but nothing remains of it. The travellers 
passed into France by Lyons, and on the sixteenth of 
October Rauch visited the atelier of Chinard, of whom he 
speaks with generous but discriminating praise. "On the 
whole," he says, " the mixture of old French and modern 
Greek style is mingled in his work in a somewhat curious 
manner, but one sees in it the industrious artist full of 
talent. I have never seen better executed busts. His 
atelier is excellent. It was formerly a church, which stood 
in the Revolution. It was a pity that we did not see him. 
He was absent in Bourdeaux." 

At Nimes, Rauch first saw one of the monuments of 
that classic antiquity whose spirit he had imbibed so fully. 
" October 18 we saw in Nimes the splendid theatre, this 
immense building ! For the first time I greeted with rev- 
erence a work of the genius and the hands of Roman 
greatness ; it was always my childish wish to see the Col- 
iseum ; here I see the daughter ! Timidly, as becomes a 
child of nobody, of misery, I stand there with open mouth, 
and nod to my neighbor : Yes, yes, that is true, that is a 
building ! That is very beautiful ! The count has the 
good idea that one might, with right good profit, give up 



ROMP:. RETURN TO BERLIN 13 

a whole life to be a Roman only for four weeks : I believe 
it with a good conscience, without fearing repentance." 
This almost boyish enthusiasm for antiquity lasted all 
through his life. " Then we went to the so-called Maison 
Carree, a very poor name for a very fine temple. It cor- 
responds completely to the idea of joyous holiness, a canon 
for beautiful, light, pure architecture." 

At Marseilles, Rauch gives vent to his enthusiasm for 
the sea and the noble ship, " so built that the sea cannot 
destroy it, only iron and rock." But a day or two after- 
wards he saw the reverse side of sea life, for he was "ganz 
teuflich" seized by sea-sickness, and at no price would he 
stay on the rocking vessel. He preferred to seek an old 
house, three-quarters of an hour away, there to eat a sup- 
per of bread and oil, with bread perfumed with spoiled 
olives, and to make his night-quarters in a bed three steps 
high from the ground, and on straw that had lately been 
trodden by the cattle. " We would have slept with all 
that as in Abraham's bosom, but the rats must hold a fes- 
tival, which they do once every year, for I never heard 
leaps and tones of such a wonderful kind from these 
people." 

December 2, at two o'clock in the morning, they arrived 
in Genoa, in beautiful, clear moonlight, so that he says, 
" The palaces and churches of polished marble shone out 
like the eyes in a peacock's tail." 

After describing the splendid buildings and porches, he 
writes, " This was not all that made it so imposing, but 
the plan, the thought, the construction, the relation of the 
single parts to the whole. One does not look for the 
Greek style in it, but for the old time of the kingdom, 
the broad consciousness of power and freedom, when 
Andrea Doria ruled the sea, and each looked up with 
envy to the higher power ; so one sees here the strife of 
rank every one is prince. Quite lost in these monu- 
ments of former greatness, I enjoyed these impressions, 



14 LIFE OF CHRISTIAN DANIEL RAUCH 

which the 'Superb Genoa' will always keep for me. From 
my childhood the name of Genoa was for me bound up 
with the mystic, the sublime. The actual has often 
shown me my impressions were wrong, but not here. 
Indeed, my Genoese are no longer in the long halls and 
secluded streets of Genoa, but her whole I, her character 
in special, speaks plainly in these surroundings which she 
created around her. Exactly as the Greeks and Egyp- 
tians speak in their temples, so do the Genoese in their 
palaces." This extract shows with what living imagina- 
tive observation the young artist looked at everything. 

On the twenty-third of December, 1804, he attended a 
great ball in Genoa, in honor of the coronation of Napo- 
leon I. as emperor. Everything was in great splendor, 
only guests failed. At eight o'clock, although the invita- 
tion was for seven, not a dozen guests had arrived. " Was 
a slight rain the hindrance ? " he asks, " or did the invited 
not care to join in festivities on this occasion ? " 

The travellers hoped to pass New Year's Day, 1805, in 
Milan, but they were so much delayed by the bad travel- 
ling that they reached there only on the second. The 
beautiful cathedral was not then finished, but Rauch 
admired its great extent and richness. "The first thought 
inspired," he says, "is rest." 

He speaks with enthusiasm of the " Last Supper " of 
Leonardo da Vinci, which is injured, "but not enough to 
prevent one's finding in it all the great essentials of art." 
" Only a few times in my life," he says, " have I had much 
satisfaction in pictures, and never, I believe, any like this." 
The concentration of interest of all the characters in the 
scene passing before them impresses him deeply. 

At Parma the loveliness of Correggio gives him delight. 
In the convent of San Paolo a French painter was copying 
the groups of boys looking through the windows, and 
Rauch had an opportunity of close study from the scaf- 
folding. He says, " Correggio never could have produced 



ROME. RETURN TO BERLIN 15 

anything more lovely, more charming, nor even Raphael; 
but how dangerous for a convent ! " 

Ranch entered Rome, not only secured against outward 
want by the pension granted him by the king, but amply 
prepared to enjoy and learn from everything, by his pre- 
vious study and observations. From the beginning of his 
artistic career his longings had turned thither, and he had 
so prepared himself for acquaintance with its treasures 
that he need lose no time in beginning his work. He 
arrived at Rome at a favorable time for art. The Ger- 
man revival, which began twenty years before Rauch's 
birth, was now in full flower. Lessing and Schiller had 
done their work in poetry and criticism. Germans were 
taking the lead in sculpture at Rome. Winckelmann had 
opened anew the study of Greek antiquity. When Gott- 
fried Schadow was in Rome, from 1785 to 1787, he often 
found himself alone in the great galleries of sculpture, in 
spite of the great number of artists in the city who might 
have been expected to be attracted by them. The French 
David, in 1784, was devoted to the classic in his way, and 
he held modern Rome inthralled by his picture of the 
" Oath of the Horatii and Curatii." " David and his 
school," says Dr. Eggers, " is a back-grasp into the Roman 
world, with that theatrical accent brought out which is 
alike characteristic of old Rome and of modern France." 
Then Carstens, and others who had seen the Greek with 
more sympathetic eyes, followed in the same path. 

Rome was undisturbed by the stormy scenes of the 
French Revolution, and afforded a quiet spot for the 
unfolding of art. Karl Ludwig Fernow had introduced 
the philosophy of Kant with enthusiasm to Rome, and 
thus Rauch became interested in the great master of 
thought, whose monument he afterwards erected in stone. 

Many other important influences were at work. The 
young Rumohr had just made the first of his five Italian 
journeys which led to those " ForscJiungen " which must 



l6 LIFE OF CHRISTIAN DANIEL RAUCH 

count as the foundation of the German study of art 
found in Hegel's " Philosophy " and Kugler's " History of 
Painting." Among the Catholics was D'Agincourt, who 
had written a history of the art of the Middle Ages. 
Protestantism had also its representatives. "August Wil- 
helm von Schlegel, Tieck, and his brother, who was de- 
voted to Greek forms, formed with Madame de Stael a 
distinguished company." 

But the person who united most perfectly this society, 
"the like of which," says Dr. Eggers, "was never seen in 
Rome, either before or since," was Wilhelm von Hum- 
boldt, whose noble personality drew around him all that 
was most learned and artistic from every land. 

He went to Rome in 1802 as resident minister of Prus- 
sia, an office which clothed him with a certain authority, 
although it involved no pressure of business. Full of 
learning, liberal and moderate in religion, and loving 
Rome as the Romans did, no minister had ever been so 
beloved by all classes of people. Fate willed that even 
a dearer tie bound him to the classic soil, since his beloved 
eldest son was buried in Roman ground. His wife, full 
of every womanly charm, joined in his studies, while she 
cared diligently for his comfort ; and her wide correspond- 
ence with many of the best artists of her time shows her 
deep and intelligent interest in art, as well as her motherly 
kindness. 1 

While Humboldt was busy in collecting a museum of 
casts to remind him of Rome in quiet Tegel, his wife em- 
ployed the painters ; for this happy couple were comple- 
ments of each other, as his nature was inclined to plastic 
art, and hers to painting and music. From splendid recep- 
tions, where princes and cardinals were present, to the 
simplest artistic reunions, the most charming society was 

1 Yet later, one New Year's time, when Rauch was in Berlin, Frau von Humboldt 
had filled his bureau with fine linen shirts, so that he declares the drawers do not shut 
so easily as before. 



ROME. RETURN TO BERLIN \-j 

found at this house, and all its delights were brought to 
their height when Alexander von Humboldt returned from 
America. All hung on his lips as he described the won- 
ders of a newly discovered country in his mingling of 
scientific and poetic speech. 

Into this charmed circle Rauch was welcomed most 
cordially, this family becoming as dear to him as his own. 
The relation of unbroken love and intimacy remained un- 
changed to the latest day of his life. Could the inherit- 
ance of a kingdom have been so helpful to a young artist ? 
As Wilhelm von Humboldt studied language, and found 
in it the means of expression, so Rauch made plastic art 
the vehicle for every thought and feeling. 

Rauch assisted Humboldt in making his collection of 
casts, and took charge of his house and grounds when he 
was in Albano. He instructed the children in drawing, 
and here showed those admirable powers of teaching, 
rather by examples and facts, than by words, which came 
afterwards into play with the numerous pupils in his 
atelier. 1 

While Thorwaldsen, in his devotion to classic art, had 
at once begun to express himself in works in direct imi- 
tation of the antique, Rauch felt it to be a necessary 
preparation for his future career to study the antique 
thoroughly, and, as it were, to assimilate its life, that he 
might reproduce it in relation to his own time. This 
course marked a strong characteristic of his art, which 
was so filled with the past and so true to the present. 
The celebrated scholars Zoega and Welcher were his 

1 A funny incident will illustrate his methods of discipline. He thought that the 
children were too devoted to their dolls, of which they had a numerous family, and 
one morning they found them all hanging to the bell-rope. The children felt deeply 
for the ignominious suffering of their family through the night, and sought revenge 
on their master. They put a dozen eggs into his bed under the sheets, and watched 
eagerly in the morning for their teacher's coming. To their surprise, he came in with 
a basket in his hand, saying that he had a gift for the most industrious. Their faces 
lengthened when, at the end of the lesson, he brought out the eggs, which had given 
him as bad a night as he had the dolls. 



1 8 LIFE OF CHRISTIAN DANIEL RAUCH. 

guides in these studies, and he was busily engaged in 
making collections, and in drawing for himself and Hum- 
boldt. Finally he decided to make an attempt at an 
original work, and he modelled a relief of Jason. It re- 
mained long unfinished in Thorwaldsen's studio, and may 
now be found in the Ranch Museum. He also made some 
busts, especially one of Queen Louise, which led to his 
first great work. 

The stirring political events in Europe, which affected 
Prussia so deeply, obliged Wilhelm von Humboldt, who 
had never meant to leave Rome, to return to Germany, to 
give his aid in defence of the Fatherland. In the autumn 
of 1808 he went thither, taking only his son Theodore, 
and leaving the rest of his family in Rome. Rome had 
become a French state, and Rauch received an appoint- 
ment to select works of art for an exhibition. Amid all 
the political excitement, Wilhelm von Humboldt did not 
forget the friend he had left behind, but succeeded, to the 
astonishment of many, in procuring a cabinet order increas- 
ing his pension from one hundred and twenty-five to four 
hundred thalers. Humboldt expresses his delight at this 
success, and also his pleasure in Rauch's restoration of an 
ancient bass-relief. 

Frau von Humboldt kept Rauch's twenty-third birthday 
by a delightful reunion of artists, where Zacharias Werner 
declaimed and sang, and Jagemann blew on the horn 
melodies which Thorwaldsen was heard repeating in the 
workshop. The " incomparable Li," as they called Frau 
von Humboldt, exerted all her powers to make the evening 
delightful. 

In March, Rauch went with Frau von Humboldt to 
Naples. He found the living art miserable. "One would 
think the artists were only joking," he said ; a severe 
criticism from Rauch, to whom art was ever the most 
serious vocation. 



ROME. RETURN TO BERLIN 19 

This year brought to him and to Prussia a heavy loss. 
On the thirty-first of July came the news of the death of 
Queen Louise. Ranch completed her bust, and ventured 
to send it to the king on the seventh of September. 
Here begins the story of the celebrated monument by 
which Rauch is best known to American travellers, and 
perhaps to all the world. As its history runs over several 
years, I shall leave the subject now, and bring it into a 
separate and connected history. 

Wilhelm von Humboldt was appointed Minister to 
Austria, which led to his wife and family leaving Rome 
and joining him in Vienna in 1810. The loss of the home 
which had afforded him so many happy hours made a 
great change to Rauch. He accompanied the family to 
Florence, where the presence of Thorwaldsen afforded 
some relief to his loneliness. He needed all this conso- 
lation, for it was indeed a great loss, which changed all his 
life at Rome. He almost tired Thorwaldsen out, driving 
from gallery to gallery to drown his grief. All his affec- 
tions clung around the rooms in Trinita del Monte, and 
all others seemed strangers to him in comparison with the 
beloved family. His thoughts follow them to Vienna, 
and, when he hears that they are all re-united there, he 
exclaims, "How much joy in one day, in one family! 
What is a wedding-day compared to it ? " These words 
give us a glimpse of the strength of Rauch's affections, 
which he was rather chary of expressing. 

Humboldt's letter (which is spoken of elsewhere), 
recalling him to Berlin, fell like a bombshell into Rauch's 
heart, which was so full of his work in Rome and the 
garden which he was taking care of for Frau von Humboldt. 
He had sat so steadily at his work on the Jason, that the 
thumb of his right hand was disabled. But now the 
model was finished in all its folds, even to the smallest 
details. 

But Ranch had no choice but to leave it all. The long- 



2O LIFE OF CHRISTIAN DANIEL RAUCH 

expected sons of Schadow arrived, and he left to the 
sculptor Rudolf his atelier, and his dwelling-house to 
both of them. He gave his relief to the moulder to make 
an impression, to keep until he could take it up again 
from the beginning. 

He left Rome on the second of February, and passed a 
happy week with the Humboldts at Vienna. He found 
the lady of the house in better health and more delightful 
than ever, while Humboldt himself had become more 
earnest and thoughtful, and even older. It was no wonder ; 
he had learned to take the sufferings of his people to his 
head and heart, and was for a short time relieved from 
his diplomatic activity. 

Rauch had been absent from Berlin six years. They 
were student years in every sense of the word. In the 
society of the most cultivated men of his time, absent 
from the exciting political disturbances of his country, 
freed from pecuniary care, he enjoyed one of the greatest 
of mortal privileges, that of carrying out his own life in 
freedom. Now his work was to begin. 

The meeting with his early benefactor, Friedrich Wil- 
helm III., was full of both joy and pain, since during his 
absence the king had lost half his kingdom by the 
peace of Tilsit, and half his life through the death of his 
wife. The king was too much overcome by emotion to 
speak of the commission he had given to Rauch. The 
artist found the king's countenance ennobled by these 
deep experiences, and was struck by his beauty and his 
frank, manly bearing as never before. Perhaps at this 
moment arose in his mind the ideal of a true king, which 
he has so beautifully embodied in the statue made many 
years later. 

Next to the welcome of his bereaved king, he felt the 
kind greeting of his master in art, Schadow, who offered 
him a place in his home and his atelier. 

Rauch was now settled at Charlottenburg, in order to 



ROME. RETURN TO BERLIN 21 

begin the work for the full-sized monument of the queen. 
He had his workshop in the spacious castle. From it he 
looked into the large garden remarkable for its beautiful 
trees. " There," says Dr. Eggers, " in his leisure hours 
he walked with his little daughter, whom fate had sent to 
him ; there, after the refreshing rains, he enjoyed the 
luxury of the North German summer." 

This brief mention is all that the biographer gives 
of the relation which brought to Rauch his "adopted 
daughters," who became to him a great joy and comfort 
for the rest of his life. Although there are various rumors 
still afloat in regard to this connection, they differ so 
widely that I cannot venture to give any of them as 
reliable, and I must leave the subject under the kindly 
veil of mystery which has always shrouded it. 

While we cannot approve the action of Rauch, if, as 
conjectured, he formed such a tie without legal sanction, 
it was too common an occurrence at that time to incur 
severe censure ; and the whole testimony is that he did 
everything to atone for his fault, by the adoption of the 
children, whom he fondly loved and carefully educated. 
The universal affection and respect felt for him led to 
their full reception in the distinguished society in which 
he moved ; and, as we shall see in the course of our narra- 
tive, he was exemplary in his relation as a father, and his 
daughters returned his affection and repaid his care. 

From his pleasant retreat at Charlottenburg, Rauch 
kept up an active correspondence with the friends he had 
left at Rome, with his dear ones at Vienna, and with 
Lund at Stockholm. Unlike most artists, Rauch was an 
excellent correspondent, and his letters, written in a free, 
vigorous style, give us vivid pictures of his life and 
thoughts. 

When the king consented to Ranch's return to Rome, 
to put the model of the queen's monument into marble, he 
made diligent preparation for his journey and his studies 



22 LIFE OF CHRISTIAN DANIEL RAUCH 

there. He filled up the hollow of the model of the statue 
with Greek translations, which he bought for twenty- 
seven thalers. He longed for the sunshine of Rome. 
He had contracted a fever from working in the damp, cold 
room of the castle, and Kohlrausch, a friend of Humboldt, 
took care of him. In the days free from fever he made 
two busts, one of the Countess of Brandenburg, in which 
he took little satisfaction, as she had a cold, expressionless 
face, while he worked with enthusiasm on that of the 
king, whom he greatly admired. This bust in plaster was 
freely sold, and he was now obliged to make one of the 
Princess Wilhelm. But being again attacked with fever, 
the king sent him to his physician Hufeland, who decidedly 
advised his departure. It was arranged that Rudolf 
Schadow, who had returned to Berlin for a while, should 
be his travelling companion, and a carriage was bought 
for the journey. 

He took leave of the king beside the monument, and at 
this time proposed that a pair of white marble candelabra 
might be placed at both sides of the statue, to which the 
king assented. He was all impatience to start, but found 
the truth of Frau von Humboldt's saying, " Reisen Icidet 
immer Aufschub" They did not get away until January 
4, and did not reach Vienna until the fourteenth. Schadow 
was invited to stay with him, and they passed two happy 
weeks at the Humboldts', where he had to renew his 
acquaintance with the children, who had grown apace. 

He went also to Munich, invited by the crown prince. 
The Crown Prince Ludwig was then twenty-six years old, 
and already devoted to art. He had begun to make collec- 
tions of antiquities, and he wished the assistance of 
Rauch in securing them, as he feared the competition of 
" the rich English." He also wished him to make several 
busts ; and Rauch took with him to Rome models of Van 
Dyck, Snyders, Tromp, and Hans Sachs. Rauch won the 
friendship of the crown prince, who kept up a constant 



ROME. RETURN TO BERLIN 23 

correspondence with him. He also rejoiced in an inti- 
mate acquaintance with Schelling. Still, he felt keenly 
the separation from the Humboldts, and the uncertainty 
of seeing them again ; and it was not until he arrived at 
Florence that the old charm of Italy began to work upon 
him. Schadow went on to Rome ; but Rauch went to 
Carrara, where he spent the whole day in mountains and 
quarries, seeking for stone suitable for his work. He 
decided to stay in Carrara through the summer, to block 
out the statue and sarcophagus there, and so send them 
much lightened to Rome. 

He was full of excitement in Rome, revisiting old 
places, greeting old friends, and noting the changes which 
even a year of absence had produced. All Rome was then 
excited over the expected coming of the Emperor Napo- 
leon. Rome would again be the seat of empire, and rule 
the world. The Pope must depart. " Long live the 
emperor who will come and live on the Quirinal ! " was 
the cry. The artists were full of zeal to decorate the 
palace for the residence of his Imperial Majesty ; and 
even Thorwaldsen, who had been ill and miserable, worked 
himself well over his great bass-relief, " The Procession 
of Alexander." 

Rauch was entirely out of sympathy with this feeling, 
looking upon Napoleon as the arch-enemy of his father- 
land. He regarded the shows only with an artistic eye, 
finding much opportunity for observation and study. 
While waiting for his restored models to dry, he made a 
bust of Thorwaldsen, which his friend liked so much that 
he put it in marble. The crown prince Ludwig of Bava- 
ria kept up a lively correspondence with him, and could 
buy nothing for the future Glyptothek without his advice. 
He was also to have all the busts he had modelled for the 
prince put into marble. On the thirty-first of July he left 
Rome again for the quarries of Carrara. At that time 
Carrara seemed a place of banishment from Rome, for the 



24 LIFE OF CHRISTIAN DANIEL RAUCH 

artists did not generally work there. Rauch proposed, 
however, to have all the busts for Prince Ludwig cut at the 
quarries ; and he even suggested to the king to have all the 
mausoleum made in Carrara, as he found better workmen 
than in Rome. Here, to his delight, were both Tieck and 
Bartolini. He also proposed to cut a sitting statue of 
Humboldt's second daughter, Adelheid, of which he had 
made a model on a former visit to Rome. He delights in 
this work, and sends to Vienna for an exact profile, as, 
although he remembers her face well, she has changed in 
the ten years since he has seen her. 

For this, as for the queen's statue, he can hardly find 
marble pure enough ; but at last he selects a suitable piece 
of Erestola, and on the fourteenth of September the first 
point in the stone is made. 

During his stay at Rome at this time Rauch felt much 
annoyed by the tendencies of the artists towards Cathol- 
icism. When he came into their society, formerly so 
pleasant, and wished to hear the news from beyond 
the Alps, " the mad Zacharias Werner took the word, and 
when he was through with his crosses on the platter, 
plate, bread, breast, and brow, talked incessantly of the 
miracles of Monsignor Manocchi." 

The company at table, except Rudolf Schadow, and 
Thorwaldsen, who talked little, held the Church Fathers 
closely to heart, and the most unpleasant things were 
said against the faith in which Rauch had been piously 
brought up, by those who had foresworn this faith only a 
few weeks before. 

From such troubles he turned to work as his great 
consoler. He kept a constant oversight over all that was 
doing in Carrara, inquiring about every part, and knowing 
to what workman it was committed. He wrote regularly 
once a week, and these letters are filed in perfect order, 
and if one is out of the regular time it is marked "extra." 
He was thoroughly exact and orderly in all his accounts. 



ROME. RETURN TO BERLIN 25 

It is to these traits that he owed the freedom from 
pecuniary embarrassments and other petty cares which 
have despoiled the lives of so many artists. It is good to 
see that order and exactness are not inconsistent with 
genius. 

If it had been possible to put the affairs of Rome and 
Germany into order with a chisel, Rauch would have been 
the man to do it, and he would have been at peace, but as 
it was, he was full of unrest. 

In his letters to Tieck he constantly mixes up sculpture 
and politics, and one might gather the whole history of 
the German uprising for freedom from his letters. This 
lively correspondence attracts the attention of the French 
police. He is arrested and taken to prison, and his cor- 
respondence examined and sealed up. He is held only 
twenty-four hours, and his papers are returned, except the 
correspondence with Bussler in regard to the queen's 
statue, which has never come to light. 

But good news soon came from Berlin to make up for 
this annoyance. Schadow writes him the most glowing 
descriptions, first of the battle of Grossbeeren, and then 
of the glorious victory of Leipzig. "I never had such 
joy in my life ! " he exclaims to Tieck. " If you were 
only here, that we might rejoice together over our happy 
lot ; for every day brings something newer and better, for 
freedom is the highest blessing." He pities his friend 
that he must spend the long evenings alone there in 
Carrara, when the seven stars and the clear moon are 
shining on such beautiful things on the surface of the 
earth. 

In spite of his care in sending letters under cover, he 
is again arrested by the police, and ordered to quit Rome 
within twenty-four hours ; but by the intervention of 
Canova, a deputation of French artists, with the director 
of the academy at their head, procured him permission to 
remain. 



2 6 LIFE OF CHRISTIAN DANIEL RAUCH 

These events made his residence in Rome very dreary, 
and, much as he feared the solitude of Carrara, he longed 
to go thither to get through his work. He beguiled his 
anxiety with reading, especially Roscoe's " Leo X.," and 
the memorials of that great time ; and M. Angelo's works, 
which he had formerly been too much absorbed in Greek 
art to attend to, now began to occupy him. Excavations 
were also going on in Rome, and the Barberini Faun and 
other statues were purchased for Prince Ludwig. 

Canova and Thorwaldsen were producing their best 
works, and Rauch speaks of Canova's Three Graces as 
" happy and original in composition, living and naive." He 
is also especially interested in Thorwaldsen's Procession 
of Alexander, which he considers the best thing in this 
art in modern times. These distinguished sculptors were 
equally pleased with his work, and proposed him as a 
member of the senate of the Academy of St. Luke. 

January 19, General Pignatelli took possession of Rome 
in the name of the King of Naples. Rauch would have 
preferred that the Germans should be the liberators, yet 
he was delighted to be freed from the French rule. The 
winter was pleasant, without snow or ice, and he says, 
" Everything is green like our hopes." 

On his way to Carrara, February 12, he was attacked 
by robbers, but escaped at the cost of nine Roman scudi. 
He was so deeply interested in current events, that his 
walls were hung with military maps, which he now en- 
joyed more than the pictures of Raphael. Great was his 
delight, therefore, to receive from Prince Ludwig a com- 
mission to make a bust of Bliicher, the hero of the day. 
As this was to be from life, however, he had to defer it 
until he could leave Italy. He expressed his feelings by 
modelling a bust of the king crowned with laurel. He 
was anxious to hasten to Berlin to meet the statue of the 
queen, but many unfinished works tempted him to delay. 
He employed seven workmen, and would have liked many 



ROME. RETURN TO BERLIN 2/ 

more. It was a perpetual joy to him to design his works 
and put them immediately into marble. When at last he 
left Carrara, he chose the quickest way, by the mule- 
drivers' route over Pontremoli. He enjoyed the scenery, 
and hoped to see it again with friends ; but now he hurried 
on, not stopping even at Vienna, although the Congress 
was sitting there, and Prince Ludwig was very desirous 
to see him. He was anxious to be in Berlin to meet the 
king on his return from the Congress. 



28 LIFE OF CHRISTIAN DANIEL KAUCH 



CHAPTER III 

QUEEN LOUISE OF PRUSSIA 
Born March 11, 1776. Died July 19, 1810 

THE name of Rauch is so indissolubly connected with 
that of Queen Louise of Prussia, not only by his country- 
men, but by all Americans who visit Berlin, that no one 
interested in the sculptor can fail to desire more knowl- 
edge of the heroic queen, the gracious and beautiful 
woman who was not only his early benefactress, but the 
inspiration and subject of his most beautiful, if not his 
greatest work. Therefore, before giving an account of 
this justly celebrated statue, I propose to offer a sketch 
of the principal events in the life, and the leading traits 
in the character, of Queen Louise of Prussia. 

We should be obliged to go far back into the history of 
the various provinces of Germany to trace out fully the 
heredity of this princess, for she united in her ancestry 
the leading families of Sigismund and Hohenzollern. 

She was the sixth daughter of the Prince, subsequently 
Duke and Grand-Duke, Karl von Mechlenburg-Strelitz. 

Her mother was Princess Frederika Karoline Louise 
von Hesse Darmstadt. 

Her father was at the head of the Hanoverian army of 
his brother-in-law, the King of England, and furnished to 
his assistance those hated Hessian troops whose employ- 
ment our fathers resented so bitterly. 

An early portrait of the mother is preserved, in which 
the traits of the daughter may be traced. 



QUEEN LOUISE OF PRUSSIA 29 

Her great ancestor, the Elector Frederic William, who 
founded the kingdom of Prussia, welcomed the Protes- 
tants, who were driven out by the edict of Nantes, so that 
Berlin became nearly half French. The elector married 
Louise of Orange, who built and adorned Oranienburg, 
one of the favorite residences of Queen Louise. 

Louise, the third surviving daughter, and the sixth 
child of the family, was born in the palace in the Leine- 
strasse, Hanover, March 10, 1776. She was baptized 
Louise Augusta Wilhelmina Amelia. 

Three years younger than herself was a brother, who 
became Rauch's steadfast friend, George, Duke of Mech- 
lenburg-Strelitz. The lovely child grew up in a sort of 
earthly paradise, in a home adorned with beautiful gardens 
and fountains, statues and vases, according to the stately 
but artificial fashion of the day. Sorrow soon came into 
her Eden, however, for she lost her mother when only six 
years old. She was devotedly attached to her, and drooped 
so much from her sorrow, that she was sent for a short 
visit to her maternal grandmother, the widowed Princess 
of Hesse Darmstadt. In 1784 her father married the 
sister of his wife, the Princess Charlotte Wilhelmine 
Christiane. She lived, however, only a short time ; and 
after her death the Duke decided to leave Hanover and 
reside at Darmstadt. 

Here the young girl was much under the influence of 
her grandmother, a woman of remarkable character and 
ability. 

When Louise was only nine years old she first met the 
poet Schiller, who came to Darmstadt to see the wife of 
Goethe's friend, the Duke Karl August of Weimar. He 
read the first act of Don Carlos to the princely circle. 

The young princesses at this time lived very simple, 
healthful, and happy lives. We are told that they were in 
the habit of making their own silk shoes. 

Louise had a pretty face and figure, a fair complexion, 



30 LIFE OF CHRISTIAN DANIEL RAUCH 

with a soft color in her cheeks, and a lovely light in her 
open blue eyes. 

Her first governess was Fraulein Agier, who was dis- 
missed as being too severe, while Mademoiselle Gelieux 
gave great satisfaction, and helped to form the pleasing 
manners of the princess. 

The French influence was very strong in Louise's life, 
and French was always her familiar speech ; but this fact 
did not overcome her patriotic feeling, and she is often 
called "The German-hearted Queen." She took great 
pains, in later years, to acquire full command of the Ger- 
man language. 

Her governess sought to cultivate her heart as well as 
her head, and led the princess to seek out the poor and 
the suffering, to sympathize with their sorrows, and to 
comfort their distresses. She was carefully instructed in 
the Lutheran faith, to which she always remained constant, 
and was warmly attached to one of her teachers, the Rev. 
Andreas Frey. A little anecdote of her girlhood shows 
how early she learned to consider others before herself. 
She visited Strasburg, and was so much delighted with 
the noble cathedral that she wished very much to go to 
the top. Her governess did not forbid her doing so, but 
said, " It will be very fatiguing for me to go up, but I can- 
not let you go alone." The princess yielded to the feeling 
of her governess, looked wistfully upward, but did not 
ascend. 

When Louise was fourteen years old a great event 
occurred at Frankfort, September i, 1790. She was pres- 
ent at the coronation of Emperor Leopold II. The part of 
the city allotted to guests from Hannover included the 
street called the Hirschgraben, in which stood the house 
of Frau Rath Goethe. She was now a widow, and her 
only son, Johann Wolfgang, the great poet of his country, 
was naturally the joy and pride of her heart. It was 
arranged that the princesses Louise and Frederika should 



QUEEN LOUISE OF PRUSSIA 31 

be sent to her house, at which the dear old lady felt highly 
honored. The young people enjoyed their stay with her 
very much, for she allowed them to eat salad and eggs of 
her cooking, and to pump water in the yard to their hearts' 
content, preferring to incur the indignation of the gov- 
erness, rather than deprive them of girlish pleasures. 
Here Louise also probably first met Von Stein, the states- 
man who afterwards proved a true friend. It was while 
the princesses were staying in Frankfort that their brother 
made the call on Frau von Goethe, thus comically described 
by the wild Bettina von Arnim. 

She writes to Goethe in her quaint English : 
" A few days ago I went in the evening, and the maid 
admitted me with the remark that she (Frau Goethe) was 
not at home, but must come directly. In the parlor it was 
dark. I seated myself at the window, and looked out 
over the square. It was as if something scratched. I 
listened, and believed I heard breathing ; I became uncom- 
fortable. I again heard something moving, and asked, 
'Jack, is that you ? ' 1 Quite unexpectedly, and very deject- 
ing for my courage, a sonorous bass voice answered out of 
the background, 'Jack it is not, but John,' and therewith 
the ' Ibique mains spiritus' cleared his throat. Full of 
reverence, I would not from the spot : the spirit, too, only 
gave proofs of its existence by breathing and once sneez- 
ing. Then I heard your mother ; she stepped forward, 
the scarcely burning, and not yet fully lighted taper behind, 
borne by Betty. 'Art thou there?' asked your mother, 
as she took off her cap to hang it on its nightly pedestal ; 
viz, a blue bottle. ' Yes,' we both called out ; and out of 
the darkness stepped a be-starred gentleman, and asked, 
' Frau Rath, shall I eat bacon-salad and omelet with you 
this evening ? ' From this I concluded, quite correctly, 
that_/i?/w was a prince of Mechlenbtirg ; for who has not 
heard the pretty story of your mother ; how, at the corona- 

1 Frau Goethe had a tame squirrel which she called Jack. 



72 LIFE OF CHRISTIAN DANIEL RAUCH 

tion of the emperor, the now queen of Prussia, then a 
young princess, and her brother, looked at Frau Rath as 
she was about to eat such a dish, and that it so excited 
their appetites that they together demolished it, without 
leaving her a leaf. Now the story was told with much 
enjoyment, and many another beside : how she procured 
the princesses the pleasure of pumping to satiety at the 
pump in the courtyard, keeping the governess, by all pos- 
sible arguments, from calling the princesses away ; and at 
last, because she would not listen to her, used force, and 
locked her up in a room. ' For,' said your mother, ' I 
would rather have drawn upon myself the worst conse- 
quences than that they should have been disturbed in 
their innocent pleasures, which were granted them nowhere 
except in my house ; they said to me too, as they took 
leave, that they should never forget how delighted and 
happy they had been with me.' I could fill several sheets 
more with all such sorts of recollections." 

Jean Paul Richter describes a visit to a hunting castle 
of the duke, and a charming wild country walk with the 
ladies and two bright children. Louise was at that time 
sixteen. She was like her sister Charlotte, and had the 
same loving blue eyes, but the expression changed more 
quickly with the feeling of the moment. Her soft brown 
hair still retained a gleam of the golden tints of childhood, 
and her fair transparent complexion was in the bloom of 
exquisite beauty. She was tall and slight, and graceful 
in all her movements. Jean Paul dedicated his Titan to 
" the four princesses of Mechlenburg." 

The young princesses remained a while with their grand- 
mother at Hildburghausen. The home, otherwise so 
happy, was, however, full of anxiety on account of the 
condition of the country ; for Dumouriez had repulsed the 
army of Brunswick, and the French emigrants and many 
of their own relations were in danger. 

A temporary cessation of hostilities encouraged the 



QUEEN LOUISE OF PRUSSIA 



33 



grandmother to return with her young charges to Darm- 
stadt, and she was invited to visit the Landgrave of Hesse, 
and present the young ladies to the King of Prussia and 
his sons. It proved a memorable day. The crown prince 
and his brother were captivated by the princesses of 
Mechlenburg, and the king invited the elder princess and 
her granddaughters to sup with him. 

The feeling aroused in the crown prince was as deep as 
it was sudden. After the queen's death, he said to Bishop 
Eylert, " I felt, when I first saw her, ' 'Tis she or none on 
earth.' That expression is somewhere in Schiller, I for- 
get where, but it exactly describes the emotions which 
sprang up in my heart at that moment." l 

Louise had seen a very attractive picture of the crown 
prince, and of course had heard much of him. He'was 
then in his twenty-third year. He was well-proportioned, 
tall and slight, and his bearing erect and soldier-like. In 
youth he showed a fine character, of a decided stamp, and 
Frederic the Great said of him, " // me recommencera." 
He was a favorite with his uncle, and the young man 
never forgot the parting interview in which the dying 
king foretold the troubles that were coming on his coun- 
try, and exhorted the young prince to stand fast by the 
" True and the Right." 

The attachment which had sprung up between the 
Crown Prince of Prussia and the Princess Louise, and 
between his brother and her hardly less beautiful sister, 
grew and ripened, and fortunately met with no opposition 
from the king. It was a case of true love running 
smooth, even rarer among crowned hearts than in humble 
life. 

The double betrothal was brilliantly celebrated April 

24, 1793- 

The princes returned at once to their military duties. 

1 " Und klar auf einmal fiihlt's ich in mir werden, 

Die ist es, oder keine sonst auf Erden." Brant von Messina. 



34 



LIFE OF CHRISTIAN DANIEL RAUCH 



The crown prince rejoined his regiment before Mayence, 
and, the Prussian headquarters being then at Bodenheim, 
the king invited the young brides to dine with him, and 
took them to visit the camp before Mayence. Darmstadt 
was within an easy ride of the camp, and the young sol- 
diers could often have a vacation, which was sometimes 
made delightful by a quiet picnic in the woods at Gross 
Gerau. Goethe, then in his forty-fifth year, was with the 
troops, and he wrote in his diary of May 29, 1793, 
" Towards evening a lovely spectacle was offered to me. 
The princesses of Mechlenburg had dined with His Maj- 
esty the King at headquarters in Bodenheim, and after- 
wards visited the camp. I fastened myself into my tent, 
and so could narrowly observe the noble company, who 
walked up and down at ease directly before it. And 
truly, amid this tumult of war, one could take those two 
young ladies for heavenly apparitions, whose impression 
upon me has never been effaced." 

On the eighth of November, 1793, the King of Prussia 
returned to Berlin, and a month later called his sons from 
the field, that they might prepare for their weddings. 
During the absence of the crown prince, his palace had 
been prepared for the reception of the bride. The Prince 
of Mecklenburg left Darmstadt with his daughters and 
their grandmother December 15. They were just a week 
on the journey to Potsdam, where great preparations had 
been made to receive them. 

Among the various decorations of welcome that greeted 
the bride, as she passed " imter den Linden " to her home, 
the most touching was that of the descendants of the 
French Protestant Emigres, who greeted her in their own 
language. One of the little girls came forward, and spoke 
and looked so prettily, that the princess, on the impulse of 
the moment, stooped and kissed her as she took the flow- 
ers from her hand. 

" Mein Gott ! " exclaimed the master of ceremonies, 
" what have you done ? " 



QUEEN LOUISE OF PRUSSIA 35 

" What ! " exclaimed the astonished princess, " is that 
wrong ? May I never do that again ? " 

This natural feeling won all hearts. " She will not only 
be our queen," said the people, " but our mother." 

A characteristic story is told of the old king. He was 
dissatisfied that the invitations to the festivities had been 
mostly given to the nobility, and he said that he wanted 
to see some burghers' wedding-suits. So the next day he 
ordered that no cards should be given out, but that every- 
body who had a whole coat should be admitted. Con- 
sequently, there was such a pressure that the somewhat 
corpulent king could not get through the crowd without 
turning sideways, which he did, calling out at the same 
time, " Never mind, my friends. To-day the wedding 
father is no bigger than the bridal couple." On this jour- 
ney, the grace with which Louise received all attentions, 
and the charm of her manners, laid the foundation of that 
love and respect which she never lost. 

The wedding took place on Christmas evening, 1793. 
About six o'clock the family assembled in the apartments 
of the queen, where the diamond crown of the Hohenzol- 
lerns was placed on the head of Louise. Never did it rest 
upon one more worthy ! 

The princely couple were wedded in the grand saloon, 
according to the ceremonies of the Lutheran Church. 
The people wished to illuminate the city, but the prince 
begged them instead to give the money to the widows and 
orphans of the soldiers. It is delightful to record the 
simple home-life of this happy pair, in striking contrast to 
the European courts of that period, and even to that of 
the reigning king, whose licentiousness was notorious. 
He was much pleased with his new daughter, and was 
uniformly kind to her. On her birthday he presented to 
her the palace of Oranienburg, which became one of her 
favorite residences, and then asked her if she had any 
wish ungratified. She replied that she was so happy her- 



36 LIFE OF CHRISTIAN DANIEL RAUCH 

self that she would like to make others so, and wished for 
a handful of' gold to give to the poor. " And how large a 
handful would the birthday child like to have ? " asked 
the king. " As large as the heart of the kindest of kings," 
answered Louise. 

Both the prince and princess disliked the formal eti- 
quette of the court to which they were obliged to sub- 
mit, and the prince used to say that when his wife laid 
aside her jewels she was a pearl restored to her pristine 
purity. One day, taking hold of both her hands, and 
looking into her blue eyes, he said, " Thank God you are 
my wife once more ! " " Am I not always your wife ? " 
she replied. " Alas ! no ; you must often be only the 
crown princess." They read and studied a great deal 
together ; and she delighted in the works of the great 
living authors, Schiller, Goethe, and Schlegel. 

Contrary to royal etiquette, they used the tender " Du " 
in addressing each other, which the prince justified by 
saying, " You know what you mean by ' Du,' but when 
you say 'Sie ' you have to think whether it is a big S or a 
little one." The good Voss, the well-beloved " Oberhof- 
meisterinn," was shocked at this familiarity, but the 
prince playfully thwarted the rules of the " Dame d' Eti- 
quette," as he nicknamed her. 

The crown princess lost her first child in consequence 
of a fright, but on October 15, 1795, she gave birth to a 
son, who was, with much ceremony and many sponsors, 
christened Friedrich Wilhelm. He became Friedrich 
Wilhelm IV. of Prussia, and reigned until 1861. 

Finding the palace of Oranienburg too stately and 
grand, the prince bought a very simple residence at 
Paretz, where Louise loved to live in quiet enjoyment with 
her family. She maintained the most affectionate inter- 
course with her sister. Schadow made a marble group of 
the two beautiful women, which is now in the Hohenzol- 
lern Museum. Louise happened to have a swelling in her 



QUEEN LOUISE OF PRUSSIA 37 

throat, and Schadow wound a scarf so gracefully around 
her head and throat to conceal it, that the ladies of Berlin 
adopted the fashion. Louise sympathized deeply with 
her sister on the death of her husband, Prince Louis, who 
was a great loss both to her and his brother. She took 
her widowed sister to her own home, and gave her every 
protection and comfort. 

The second son was born March 22. He became the 
King of Prussia and the Emperor of Germany, who was 
so well known to us by his long and prosperous reign. 

Soon after the queen-mother died, and the king fell into 
a miserable illness, which was a severe trial to his daugh- 
ter, on account of the wretched state of his mind. He 
had been very kind to her, and yet she could not be 
blind to his faults. He died November 16, 1797. His 
reign was neither honorable to himself nor fortunate for 
Prussia, although he had many popular qualities, which 
won affection from his subjects. 

Louise's husband, who was proclaimed as King Wil- 
liam III., succeeded to no throne of ease. The nation 
was demoralized by bad government, by war and defeat, 
and by licentiousness in the court. Frederic the Great 
had left a large sum in the treasury, all of which Friedrich 
Wilhelm II. had spent, and added a large debt, which 
rested heavily on the young king. The young couple at 
once recognized the duty of restoring the treasury of the 
kingdom, and resolved still to live on the revenues of the 
crown prince. 

It would lead me too far if I were to enter into the 
political difficulties that beset the king. According to the 
testimony of Von Stein, he was to be honored for his 
sincere moral and religious principles. He was devoted 
to his country, and he felt the responsibility of his posi- 
tion. His uprightness, warm affection, and benevolence, 
are shown in his relations with Rauch, as well as in his 



38 LIFE OF CHRISTIAN DANIEL RAUCH 

devotion to his wife ; but he did not possess the powers 
of mind and the firmness of will to guide Prussia steadily 
amid the perils of the time. Germany always blames him 
that he did not at once join her other princes in withstand- 
ing the encroachments of Napoleon, instead of trying to 
maintain a neutral ground. He did not love war, although 
his record as a soldier was honorable; and he desired to 
keep peace, in the hope of bringing back industrial 
prosperity. 

Louise willingly entered into all 'his plans of economy 
and reform, but her sympathies were with the patriotic 
party; and she rejoiced when at last her husband joined 
the league against Napoleon. The time was not well 
chosen, and, the king being ill represented by his ambas- 
sador, his conduct appeared vacillating and unworthy. 

The resolution of the king to live on the revenues of 
the crown prince until his predecessor's debts were paid, 
caused the royal couple to continue to live the simple life 
which both enjoyed. They entered into all the pleasures 
of the Christmas-tree, and often walked unattended " nntcr 
den Linden." Old men remembered the charm of voice 
and manner with which the queen had spoken to them as 
boys, when they ran carelessly against her in their boyish 
sports. The Berlin ladies wore miniatures of the king and 
queen as ornaments ; and every publisher wished to repro- 
duce their likenesses. 

Louise's first joy in becoming queen was that now she 
could dispense her benefits more freely ; but her charity 
brought her into pecuniary difficulties. Her allowance of 
a thousand ducats a month had not been increased when 
she became queen. She found it impossible to meet the 
many demands upon her, and she consulted the privy 
councillor, asking him to represent the matter to the king. 
When it was suggested that she would impoverish herself 
by her charities, she replied that with her best friend, the 
father of the land, she must be its mother also. " I must 



QUEEN LOUISE OF PRUSSIA 



39 



help wherever there is need." A few days after she found 
a drawer of her desk refilled with money, and she asked 
the king what angel had put it there ? " The angel is 
Legion," answered the king, smiling, "and I know only 
one; but you know the beautiful saying, "He gives to his 
friends while they sleep." 

When the king and queen made a tour through Prussia 
the next summer, Louise won all hearts by her constant 
consideration for others' feelings. To her surprise, the 
inhabitants of the lately conquered Warsaw hastened to 
testify their allegiance and express their affection. The 
amber workers of Dantzic presented the queen with a 
beautiful necklace, and she wore it all the time of her 
stay. 

When her carriage was overturned by the carelessness 
of a coachman, she softened the rebukes of her friends, 
saying, "The accident has frightened the people more 
than ourselves." 

The queen's love of simplicity was shown in her dress. 
She never appeared in splendid costume, except when the 
dignity of the state required it. A lady of the period 
writes, " I never saw her dressed otherwise than in light 
muslin, with her beautiful light curled hair simply adorned." 
When entering a town one day, nineteen children met her, 
strewing flowers. One of them carelessly said, "The 
twentieth was left behind, she was so ugly." The queen 
immediately begged that she be sent for, and allowed to 
join her companions. The miners at Waldenburg spoke 
of her twenty years afterwards with enthusiasm, and one 
steersman showed the two ducats she had given him, 
which his wife had set for a necklace. 

At Weimar she met Herder, whose poetry she admired. 
Her daughter, Frederika Louise Charlotte, was born July 
13, 1798. This princess married the late Emperor Nicho- 
las of Russia, and died in 1861. 

The royal pair enjoyed with their children the country 



4O LIFE OF CHRISTIAN DANIEL RAUCH 

life at Paretz, where they laid aside their grandeur and 
dined at harvest time with the farmers' sons and daughters. 
The queen gratified them by wearing her court dress, 
which they considered a mark of respect. She always 
sought out the neglected ones for her favors. Being 
asked if she did not find it dull at Paretz, she made the 
characteristic answer, " I find it very pleasant to be the 
Lady Bountiful at Paretz." Brought up in aristocratic 
circles, she did not question her position, but had learned 
from the new tendencies of the time, respect and sympathy 
for all classes. The king was silent and grave, the queen 
light-hearted and full of vivacity. She was more French 
than German, loyal as she was to her country and people. 
Her intellect was clear and well-trained, and she was far- 
sighted, and full of deep thought as well as generous 
feeling. 

She often gave way to an affectionate impulse, and 
would take an ornament from her own person and bestow 
it on one with whom she had had a pleasant conversation. 
Goethe's mother long kept a necklace which Louise had 
given her in remembrance of such an hour. It was said 
of her that she was as pleasing to her own sex as to the 
other. She was fond of dancing and social enjoyment, 
but, happy in her married life, does not seem to have 
had a trace of coquetry in her nature. She received 
many of the celebrated poets, and gave them discriminat- 
ing praise, and often a precious gift of remembrance. 
She was so thoughtful of others, even in trifles, that she 
bade the old councillor of war come to her in boots, and 
not appear in stockings, which she feels sure is not good 
for him. 

She carefully abstained from interfering with politics. 
The king was sensitive as to his prerogative, and if she 
was asked to prefer a request to him, she would answer, 
" There is no need to take indirect means with him to gain 
what is just and right." The centenary of the kingdom of 



QUEEN LOUISE OF PRUSSIA 4! 

Prussia was celebrated in 1801, and at this time Louise 
made the acquaintance of the Princess of Mechlenburo- 
Schwerin, by birth a Russian, which ripened into a warm 
friendship, and did much to promote good feeling between 
the royal families of Russia and Prussia. 

The queen took a deep interest in the education of her 
children, striving to put it on a more thorough basis than 
the fashionable habits of the time. Her religious feeling 
was simple and beautiful, and in her attendance at church 
she set aside as much as possible all distinctions of rank. 
She was very much grieved when the " Oberhofmeisterinn" 
once severely rebuked a respectable woman who by mis- 
take entered the royal pew. She always attended the old 
Lutheran Dom-kirche, which is remarkable for its plain- 
ness. Her son, the old emperor, would not allow it to be 
altered or removed, but the present emperor is about to 
erect a new and handsome edifice in its place. 

But while the domestic life of the royal pair was thus 
happy, and their relation to their subjects trustful and 
affectionate, the affairs of the kingdom were fast getting 
into a state of confusion and danger. Friedrich Wilhelm 
III. was one of those men unfortunately set in a place 
too large for him. He tried to maintain neutrality when 
all Europe was in collision, and safety lay only in a strong 
position strongly held. The queen is said to have sympa- 
thized heartily with the patriotic party, who urged him to 
draw the sword ; and undoubtedly Napoleon was correct 
in ascribing to her a great influence in the country. 
Finally, when the open violation of neutrality in the 
campaign of 1805 forced the king into more active meas- 
ures, to the delight of the queen, he joined hands with 
Alexander of Russia in a league against Napoleon. This 
league was pledged in a somewhat melodramatic manner. 
When the king and the czar visited the tomb of Frederic 
the Great at midnight, the czar kissed the coffin of the 



42 LIFE OF CHRISTIAN DANIEL RAUCH 

great Frederic, and struck hands with his successor 
across it. Napoleon laughed at this alliance a year later, 
but it bore fruit in the end. 

It is said that on her oldest son's birthday, in 1805, when 
he first received his hat and sword from his father's hand, 
and put on his uniform, the queen said, " I hope, my son, 
that on the day when you first put on this coat, your first 
thought will be to avenge your unfortunate brothers." 

The king had the great misfortune to have bad council- 
lors when he most needed brave ones, and " he trusted the 
cowardly Haugwitz with the important mission of convey- 
ing his decision of peace or war to Napoleon." This 
weak diplomatist put off the execution of his task until 
after the battle of Austerlitz, and then entered into 
negotiations with the conqueror, instead of making a 
declaration of war. No wonder that the proud emperor 
was not conciliated, but made new and humiliating demands 
upon Prussia ! When the king at last decided upon war, 
it was under the most unfavorable circumstances. Napo- 
leon longed to crush Prussia at a blow ; and the day of 
misfortunes, the double battle of Jena and Austerlitz, 
enabled him to enter Berlin as conqueror October 14, 
1806. 

At this time the queen's health was much broken by 
grief for the death of her youngest son, Prince Ferdinand, 
as well a;s by her terrible anxiety for the country. She 
was advised to go to the baths of Pyrmont, where she 
enjoyed the society of her father and brother, and the 
Princess Marie of Russia. Schadow made a statue of 
the little year-old prince, which is now at Charlottenburg. 
Although it is denied that the queen had any part in 
directly bringing on the war, she took a deep interest in 
it, and was officially recognized as belonging to the army. 
The " Anspach Baireuthschen Dragooner Regiment " re- 
ceived through a cabinet order the name of the " Dragoon 
Regiment of the Queen." She rode beside the king, wear- 



QUEEN LOUISE OF PRUSSIA 43 

ing a spencer of the regimental colors, which is still 
preserved as a relic by the troops. 

Napoleon is said to have allowed most bitter and 
scandalous things to be- said of her in the public prints, 
which only endeared her all the more to the people. The 
distinguished Viennese Ambassador, Gentz, expressed him- 
self as much astonished at the intelligence and strength 
of judgment which she showed in regard to the political 
situation, as well as at her courage in looking clearly at 
the dangers around them, and the deep feeling she showed 
for the Austrian family and all the victims of the war. 
She was actually travelling in full march towards the 
enemy, who could be distinctly seen, when the Duke of 
Brunswick insisted on her return to Weimar, and gave 
her a squadron to escort her. An attempt is said to have 
been made to capture her, at whose failure Napoleon 
expressed great regret. As the army cheered her on her 
departure, already the terrible cannon of Jena were sound- 
ing. She left Weimar on the thirteenth of October, and 
had a hard journey over mountain-passes, while her heart 
was racked with anxiety. They had no means of getting 
correct intelligence. " I journey on between the moun- 
tains of hope and the abysses of despair," she said. 

When she drove into Brunswick on the fifteenth, her 
nerves were so shattered that she could not give a clear 
description of what had occurred. On the fourth day, 
when she reached Brandenburg, she met a courier sent by 
General von Kleist, who gave her the full disastrous 
intelligence, " All is lost ! The French are rapidly ad- 
vancing ! You must flee with your children ; the whole 
kingdom is in danger." She reached Berlin that evening, 
and found that her children had already been sent to 
Schweldt on the Oder. 

Her physician, Hufeland, accompanied her to Schweldt, 
where she found her children safe and well ; but she was 
terribly moved on meeting them. She soon after joined 



44 i LIFE OF, CHRISTIAN DANIEL RAUCH 

the king at Custrin. He and his brothers were all 
wounded. The queen suffered many serious privations 
on this journey, but they were nothing in comparison 
with the anxiety she endured. In one of her own note- 
books she wrote Goethe's words, - 

" Wer nie sein Brot mit Thranen ass, 

Wer nie die kummervollen Nachte 
Auf seinem Bette weinend sass 
Der kennt euch nicht, ihr himmlische Machte! " 

She remained true to herself through all these troubles, 
and the sympathy of the people was ever dear to her. 
When she accompanied her husband on a tour of inspec- 
tion of the walls of Custrin, and the commandant watched 
her as with bowed head she walked on in deep and anx- 
ious conversation, he pledged his faith that he would 
defend the walls to the last extremity. 

The situation was indeed appalling. Magdeburg had 
surrendered to the enemy, and every Prussian fortress 
between the Weser and the Oder was in his power. The 
excitement caused by reports of slanders against her, 
said to have been 'purposely circulated by Napoleon, com- 
bined with the fatigue of her journey, and her distress of 
mind, brought on a nervous fever, from which she was in 
imminent danger for two weeks. Scarcely recovered, she 
continued her flight from the conquering army, even to 
Memel, on the eastern boundary of the kingdom. The 
low, flat isthmus on which Memel lies is most unattract- 
ive, according to her Hofmeisterin's description : " We 
spent three days and nights on the journey, our road 
partly covered by the stormy waves of the ocean, partly 
by the ice. The nights were passed in the most wretched 
quarters. The first night, without nourishing food, the 
queen lay in a room whose windows were broken, and 
where the snow blew upon her bed." 

In the New Museum at Berlin is a beautiful picture 
representing the arrival of the queen at Memel. The 



QUEEN LOUISE OF PRUSSIA 45 

young queen and her devoted attendant have left their 
poor carriage and are seeking refuge from the snow 
in the miserable house which could alone give them 
shelter. The beauty of the queen is somewhat concealed 
by the very unpicturesque bonnet which she wears, but 
the old Hofmeisterin is a very interesting figure. The 
features resemble closely the actual portraits of her, 
while the expression and action express courage and 
endurance and devoted attachment to her mistress in 
her fallen fortunes. 

The king soon joined the family at Memel, and the 
military situation became somewhat improved by the union 
of the Prussian and Russian armies, while the French 
experienced some severe reverses. Louise was cheered 
by accounts of the heroic deeds of Prussian officers; but 
the hopes thus raised were not soon realized. 

The greatest trial of the queen's fortitude came from 
the calumnies of her enemies. She severely scrutinized 
her conduct, to see if she had given any occasion for 
them, and even wondered if she had been wrongly con- 
tending against fate in opposing the French. The visit 
of the Emperor of Russia, and his promises of firm alli- 
ance, gave her much comfort. It is said that Prussia 
might have made favorable terms with Napoleon at this 
time, if the king would have given up the Russian 
alliance. 

From April 12 until the first of June, 1807, the queen 
remained at Konigsberg with her sister Frederika, the 
Princess of Solms. She lived a very quiet, earnest life 
here, with no entertainments, devoting herself to the 
comfort of those about her, and to earnest study and 
thought. During this residence she became intimately 
acquainted with the court preacher, Bishop Borowsky, and 
with Scheffner, and other disciples of Kant, and her mind 
was full of great questions. The old Scheffner writes, 
" I have seen in no woman's face a freer, purer look, a 



46 LIFE OF CHRISTIAN DANIEL RAUCH 

more joyful, almost childish frankness." Among the circle 
around her tea-table was often the celebrated General 
Bliicher, of whom Ranch made one of his greatest por- 
trait statues, the "Marshal Forwards," as he was popu- 
larly called. All the company engaged in pulling lint for 
the hospitals ; but the general tucked his bit of lint into 
the sheath of his sword, while he told stories of his 
battles, until the queen detected him, and laughingly 
reproved him, and at his request allowed him to take his 
stint home to be finished. 

She returned to Memel early in June,, where she was 
received by the people as a mother. 1 She soon after- 
wards learned of the battle of Friedland, and the establish- 
ment of the head-quarters of Napoleon at Tilsit. But the 
keenest blow of all was the intelligence that the Emperor 
Alexander had formed a separate truce with Napoleon, 
leaving Prussia and her king at his mercy. Yet in a 
noble letter to her father, written June 17, she shows the 
courage of her heart, and the religious foundation on which 
it is based. She is firm in her conviction that they have 
acted with honor. " Only wrong on our part would bring 
me to the grave. That will never take place, for we stand 
too high." 

The truce between Russia and France came tp an end 
June 21, 1807, that with Prussia four days later. Alexan- 
der met Napoleon at Tilsit, and the two emperors entered 
into alliance. The city was declared neutral, and each of 
the three monarchs rfed his own guards. 

And now we come to the most trying event in Louise's 
life, and the one by which she is most generally known, 
her interviews with Napoleon, and her effort to procure 
from him more favorable terms for Prussia, in the peace 
for which the Emperor Alexander was negotiating. Ap- 

1 A German friend has given me an interesting account of a family who received 
the queen into their home in Memel, when she was in the greatest distress. One of 
the sons of this family has lately come to Boston to pursue his art of designing in 
terra-cotta. He is now engaged on sculpture for the exposition at Chicago. 



QUEEN LOUISE OF PRUSSIA 



47 



patently much romance has gathered about these inter- 
views, and it is necessary to read the accounts with the 
remembrance of the characters of the actors, and the pre- 
judices of the narrators, to understand fully the spirit of 
all parties. 

It is said that Napoleon had treated the king, whose 
amiable but vacillating character did not command his 
respect, with studied indifference. When Louise's hus- 
band sent for her to come to Tilsit, to try with her wom- 
anly tact to obtain better terms from Bonaparte, she was 
almost beside herself with grief. In her diary she says, 
"God knows what a struggle it cost me; for although I do 
not hate the man, yet I look upon him as one who has 
made the king and his land wretched. I admire his talents, 
but I do not like his character, which is obviously treach- 
erous and false. It will be hard for me to be polite and 
courteous to him ; but just this hard thing is required of 
me. I am accustomed to make sacrifices." 

She took careful instructions in regard to the impend- 
ing questions from the minister Hardenberg, whose dis- 
missal Napoleon had just obtained. 

Under the escort of French dragoons, on the afternoon 
of the eighth of July, 1807, Louise reached the dwelling 
of the king at Tilsit. A quarter of an hour later Napoleon 
drove up to the house, where he was received by the 
Oberhofmeisterin von Voss and the Countess Tauentzein. 
He was very polite, talked a long time with the queen, 
and then drove away. At the dinner at eight o'clock, 
which early hour he had appointed out of consideration 
for the queen, he was in good humor, and talked much 
with her. She returned in good spirits, sanguinely believ- 
ing that she had attained her purpose, and would obtain 
favorable conditions of peace. 

One of the answers she is reported to have given was to 
his question, " But how could you ever begin war with 
me ? " " Sire, even if we had been imposed on in other 



48 LIFE OF CHRISTIAN DANIEL RAUCH 

respects, could the glory of Frederic the Great deceive us 
in regard to our powers ? " 

Another account says that " she made a most favorable 
impression upon Napoleon, and pleaded eloquently for 
Prussia and her husband, and finally, even with tears, for 
the restoration of Magdeburg. The emperor was moved, 
but unfortunately the king entered, and the charm was 
broken." 

Napoleon himself said, " She constantly led the conver- 
sation ; returned at pleasure to her subject, and directed 
it as she chose, but with so much skill and delicacy that 
it was impossible to take offence." He is also reported to 
have said, " She was the most admirable queen and most 
interesting woman he had ever met." 

Talleyrand is said to have reproached Napoleon, " Sire, 
shall posterity say that you have given up the fruits of 
your victories on account of a beautiful queen ? " 

Talleyrand gives his own version of this interview : 

"This failure," he says, "might be justly apprehended 
after the coarse question Napoleon asked the Queen of 
Prussia one day : ' How did you ever dare go to war, 
madame, with such feeble means as those you had ? ' - 
' Sire, I must confess it to your Majesty, the glory of 
Frederic II. had deluded us as to our own power,' was 
the queen's reply. 

" The word ' glory ' so happily placed, and in Napo- 
leon's drawing-room at Tilsit, too, struck me as superb. 
Afterward I so frequently referred to this noble reply, 
that the emperor said to me one day, ' I am at a loss to 
see what there is in that saying of the Queen of Prussia 
that you consider so fine. You may as well talk of some- 
thing else.' 

" I felt indignant at all I saw, all I heard ; but I was 
obliged to conceal my indignation. Hence I shall ever 
feel grateful to the Queen of Prussia, who was a queen of 
other days, for taking kindly notice of my sentiments. If, 



QUEEN LOUISE OF PRUSSIA 



49 



among the scenes of my past life that I conjure up, there 
are several which are necessarily painful, I at least recall 
with great gratification the words she vouchsafed" to ad- 
dress to me, spoken almost in confidence, on the last occa- 
sion that I had the honor of accompanying her to her 
carriage: ' Prince of Benevento,' said she, 'there are but 
two persons who regret that I should have come here ; 
and those two are you and I. You are not displeased, 
are you, that I carry that opinion away with me ? ' 

" The tears of emotion and pride which filled my eyes 
were my reply." * 

Walter Scott, in his "Life of Napoleon," represents the 
queen, of whom he speaks in the highest terms, as seek- 
ing the interview with Napoleon of her own accord, and 
as herself introducing the reference to Frederic the Great 
without question of the emperor. 

It is evident that Napoleon felt the charm of her pres- 
ence, and admired her character, treating her personally 
with great respect ; but he was not one to be turned from 
a settled purpose by a passing fascination. He declared 
that all was already arranged with the Emperor Alexander. 
At a subsequent dinner he appears to have been less 
gracious ; and, although he presented her with a rose, he 
was deaf to her suggestion, " With Magdeburg," as she 
accepted it. She appears to have expressed very frankly 
to the emperor her feeling that she had been deceived. 

A bitter thing it must have been to this high-spirited 
and noble-minded woman to sue, and sue in vain, to her 
husband's enemy ; and the temperance with which she 
speaks of him brings out her nobleness. Rebuking her 
ladies, she said, " We cannot lighten our sorrows by hat- 
ing the emperor, and malicious thoughts can only make 
us more unhappy." 

The terms of peace were concluded between the two em- 
perors and the king on the ninth and tenth of July. The 

1 From " Memoirs of Talleyrand " in Century of February, 1891. 



50 LIFE OF CHRISTIAN DANIEL RAUCH 

Elbe was established as the boundary of Prussia. While 
the queen felt the full bitterness of this impoverishment 
of the kingdom, she yet expressed her satisfaction that 
the king had acted with honor, and had yielded only to 
inevitable necessity ; and she felt that the result would be 
beneficial to Prussia. She said " Magdeburg would be 
found written on her heart, like Calais on Queen Mary's." 

The pecuniary burdens laid upon the towns were so 
onerous that it is said some of them have not been dis- 
charged to this day. Louise gave up her jewels and most 
cherished treasures, and the king parted with the heir- 
looms of his family, to make payment for his subjects. 
She also persuaded the women of the nation to give up 
their ornaments ; and every woman who gave up all re- 
ceived as a token an iron ring, which was worn as the 
proudest ornament. The iron cross was also used as a 
decoration of honor, for want of more costly material. 

The queen never appeared more gracious and lovely 
than in this time of humiliation. Her daughter was now 
old enough to assist her in the simple hospitalities of the 
home at Memel, and her domestic happiness was almost 
great enough to make up for her public trials. 

By her constant sympathy with the king, she now ap- 
pears to have taken a more decided part in public affairs ; 
and in influencing him to intrust the "restoration of the 
fallen state," as her biographer states, "first of all to 
Baron von Stein, the man whom posterity, as well as his 
own age, honors as the restorer of Germany," she cer- 
tainly did her country noble service. He had foreseen 
the evils which came to the state, and endeavored to warn 
the king ; but evil counsellors had procured his disgrace, 
and his services were lost to the country. Alike great by 
his ability and his character, he did not refuse the recall 
of the king in his distress ; and though hardly recovered 
from a severe fever, he hastened to Memel to do his 
utmost for the fallen state. Louise looked for his help 



QUEEN LOUISE OF PRUSSIA 51 

with the greatest eagerness. When, in September, it was 
reported that France threatened still severer measures, 
she broke forth in despair, " O my God, why hast thou 
forsaken me?" and immediately added, "Why does Stein 
tarry ? He is my last hope." In a later letter she says, 
" Stein is coming, and with him I begin to see light." 
Stein justified her confidence. His statesmanship was 
broad and liberal, and he began such far-reaching reforms 
as the emancipation of the peasants, municipal regula- 
tions, etc., which gave confidence to the people of Prussia, 
and led to that united effort in which alone their strength 
lay. Louise was an efficient co-worker with the reformers. 
Her German biographer says, " It was she who smoothed 
the ways at court, and helped to overcome the difficulties, 
obstacles, and prejudices with which they had to contend." 
" I implore you," she wrote to Von Stein, " have patience 
during the first months ; the king will certainly keep his 
word. I implore you, for the sake of myself, my children, 
my country, have patience." 

A remarkable trait in Louise's character is the illumina- 
tion which her mind gained from her affections. Her 
trustful love for her husband brought out the best in him, 
and enabled her to sustain him with her own higher cour- 
age. She confirmed him in his liberal sentiments, while 
she tempered the fiery zeal of Von Stein, whom Scharn- 
horst compared to Bliicher, as being " wholly without the 
fear of man," and who frequently offended personal feel- 
ings and disregarded the usages of the court. Through 
the terrible days that followed, when the French stripped 
the capital of everything, even of its cherished works of 
art, Louise relied upon the great councillor, and would not 
despair. When again, with the support of Russia, it was 
thought advisable to try to influence Napoleon, the queen 
set aside all thought of self, and wrote him a letter ; but 
it had no effect. At last Napoleon ordered the evacuation 
of East Prussia, and she was able to escape from Memel, 



J2 LIFE OF CHRISTIAN DANIEL RAUCH 

whose humid climate was wrecking her health, and go 
to Konigsberg in 1808. The royal pair did not leave 
Memel without expressing their gratitude for the affec- 
tion shown them there, and they were received with fes- 
tive joy at Konigsberg. The queen's youngest daughter, 
Frederika, was born February I, and the "Estates of 
Prussia" became her god-parents, a touching expression 
of the affectionate tie between the down-fallen king and 
his afflicted people. 

For a time, apparently exhausted by the long struggle, 
Louise lived mainly, and very quietly, at Konigsberg. She 
was very much interested in the historical lectures of 
Professor Siivern, of which she asked the manuscript for 
private reading. She asks her old friend Scheffner for 
explanations with the simplicity of a girl. " Will you tell 
me just what hierarchy means ? I have no clear idea of 
it. If I understand right," she says, " the German age 
(Zeitalter) was broken up because men followed their feel- 
ings and fancy more than they obeyed reason, which, as 
one says, judges more correctly." She also asks him to 
put the dates at the beginning of the periods of which the 
lectures treat. 

She wrote, " I have good books, a good conscience, a 
good pianoforte ; and thns one can live more quietly amid 
the storms of the world than those who stir them up." 

But the rapid march of events soon broke up this 
peace, and brought conflict not only into the country, but 
into the band of patriots with whom the queen sympa- 
thized. The overthrow of the Bourbons in Spain made 
every court in Europe tremble. Such statesmen as Stein, 
Scharnhorst, and Gneisenau favored a bold policy of close 
alliance with Austria, and a determined resistance to the 
French emperor ; but the king, under the influence of 
Russia, and without consulting Stein, ratified the disas- 
trous treaty of Paris, and bound Prussia to take the posi- 
tion of an auxiliary power in the wars of France. Stein 



QUEEN LOUISE OF PRUSSIA 53 

asked and received his dismissal. Napoleon hurled at 
him a sentence of outlawry, which drove him first to Aus- 
tria, and then to Russia, where he was able later to do his 
part in the deliverance of Germany and Europe. 

It was a relief to the queen when the French evacuated 
Berlin, although they still retained the strongholds that 
commanded it, and many suspected a plot to get the royal 
family completely in Napoleon's power. He wrote courte- 
ous but formal letters to the queen, giving her permission 
to live where she pleased, and congratulating her on her 
return to Berlin. She has been blamed for not taking the 
part of Stein more thoroughly in these difficulties, and for 
accepting the invitation of Alexander to visit Petersburg 
against his advice. But we must remember that she was 
not an independent sovereign, able to act in her own right, 
nor had she the freedom of a private citizen; she was 
bound to support the king's policy when she could not 
change it, and she saw in Russia the last support of his 
crown. 

The king and queen were welcomed to Russia with 
every attention. Thirty-two thousand soldiers lined the 
way to the winter palace. The king rode with the em- 
peror; the queen followed in a state carriage drawn by 
eirht horses. She wore a sable fur robe over white satin. 

O 

Her old Oberhofmeisterin Voss and the Countess von 
Moltke accompanied her. The visit to Petersburg was 
full of gayety, and she received the most flattering atten- 
tions from the imperial family, but they could not dispel 
her melancholy. " I have returned as I went," she wrote. 
"Nothing will blind me any more, and I say again, 'My 
kingdom is not of this world.' " 

One thing that did please her was a visit to a school 
for young girls, founded by the empress, which she 
hoped one day to copy in Berlin. She did not live to 
carry out her plans ; but on the anniversary of her death 
the "Luisenstiftung" was dedicated, and her oldest 



54 LIFE OF CHRISTIAN DANIEL RAUCH 

daughter appointed patroness of the school, in memory of 
her mother. 

She was much interested in Pestalozzi, and said " if she 
were her own mistress she would get into a carriage and 
roll away to him in Switzerland, in order to thank him 
with a pressure of the hand and tears in her eyes." She 
also took a great interest in the popular movements in 
the Tyrol, and speaks with warm admiration of Andreas 
Hofer. She delighted, too, in Schiller's "William Tell," 
and was full of zeal in the cause of freedom. 

Her religious feelings were very strong, and she looked 
with hope to a reawakening of religious life among the 
people. On the twenty-ninth of September she gave 
birth to a son, who was baptized by the name of the 
Markgraf Albrecht. 

Eagerly as the queen had longed for a return to Berlin, 
now that it was near, and she was coming with shattered 
health and sorrowful memories of the terrible changes 
that had taken place, her soul seemed sick even unto 
death, and sad presentiments oppressed her. The royal 
couple started on the fifteenth of September, and on the 
twenty-third were met at Waisensee, the next village to 
Berlin, by a deputation from the city. Young maidens 
strewed flowers before the richly decorated house pre- 
pared for their early meal. The Berlin people sent her a 
handsome new carriage lined with her favorite color, lilac. 
She expressed her pleasure that the first use she should 
make of it was to re-enter the capital. Her sons with 
their regiments formed her guard. On the twenty-fifth 
the king and queen appeared at the opera, and were 
greeted by a thousand voices singing Werner's " People's 
Hymn," which closes, 

" Troste die Kbnigin, 
Rein ist und schon ihr Sinn, 
Lass ihr aus Thranensaat 
Frieden erbliihn." 



QUEEN LOUISE OF PRUSSIA 



55 



The following spring the queen suffered much from a 
wasting fever, and from the dangerous sickness of her 
daughter, as well as from anxiety about the threatening 
condition of public affairs. 

For years Louise had desired to pay a visit to her 
father in Strelitz. She now decided to go thither on the 
twenty-fifth of June, to stay about eight days, the king 
having promised to follow her on the twenty-eighth. 
Her companion tells us, "The queen was very cheerful 
on the journey ; but when we approached the frontier of 
Prussia Mechlenburg, a mysterious melancholy came over 
her, but she quickly composed herself, and it passed off." 
She was warmly welcomed by all her family, even by her 
venerable grandmother ; and when her husband reached 
her, June 28, she wrote, and they were her last written 
words, " I am very happy to-day, dear father, as your 
daughter, and the wife of the best of men." 

The queen was taken sick the same evening, but the 
physicians did not apprehend immediate danger, and, sum- 
moned by urgent business of the state, the king left her, 
July 3 ; and, being himself taken ill at Charlottenburg, he 
saw the queen again only in the last struggle with death. 
She felt this absence deeply, and held a letter from the 
king close pressed to her heart. She suffered keenly, 
especially from difficulty of breathing, often calling for 
air. She was still patient and affectionate, and tenderly 
recognized her husband and children when they came to 
her. I will not dwell longer on the sad scene. About 
nine o'clock she raised her eyes to heaven, and said, " I 
am dying. O Jesus, make it easy ! " and passed to sleep. 

At the dark pine forest on the frontier, a Prussian 
escort received the remains of the beloved queen. As 
the melancholy procession passed through Berlin, the 
lamentation was universal. The funeral services took 
place on the thirtieth, in the cathedral. 

In the plantation behind the castle at Charlottenburg 



56 LIFE OF CHRISTIAN DANIEL RAUCH 

was a summer-house in the form of a Greek temple. The 
queen loved the spot, and the king now deemed it sacred to 
her. Her remains were placed here December 23, just one 
year after her return to Berlin, and seventeen years since 
she came thither as a bride. Only thirty-four years of 
age, this lovely woman might seem to have hardly passed 
her youth, but most truly could she say with Thekla, 

" Ich habe genossen das irdische Gliick, 
Ich habe gelebt und geliebet." 

The following remarkable letter to her father gives us 
a clear insight into her thoughts and her family relations. 
It is also very interesting to note the breadth of her politi- 
cal views, and how fairly she weighed the character of her 
great opponent. 

" With us it is all over for the present, if not forever. I look for noth- 
ing more during my life. I have resigned myself; and in this resignation, 
this submission to the will of God, I am now tranquil and at peace ; if I do 
not possess earthly happiness, I have what means more, spiritual blessed- 
ness. It becomes more and more clear to me that everything had to come 
as it has. Divine Providence is unmistakably introducing a new order of 
things into the world ; there will be a different arrangement, since the old 
order has outlived itself and is falling to pieces. 

" We have fallen asleep on the laurels of Frederic the Great, who, as the 
master of his century, created a new epoch. We have not kept pace with 
the age, therefore it has left us behind. No one is better aware of this than 
the king. I have just had a conversation with him, in which he repeatedly 
said, as if speaking to himself, 'This also must be changed among us. 
Even the best and most maturely considered plans fail, and the French 
Emperor is at least more cunning and astute than we are. If the Russians 
and Prussians had fought as bravely as lions, even if unconquered, we should 
nevertheless have been obliged to quit the field ; the enemy would have had 
the advantage. We may learn much from Napoleon, and what he has 
achieved will not be lost upon us. It would be blasphemy to say that 
God is with him ; but evidently he is an instrument in the hands of the 
Almighty to bury the old era, which no longer has any life, and which is 
almost overgrown with excrescences. 

" Better times will certainly come. Faith in the most perfect being is a 
guaranty of this. But only through goodness can the world become better. 
Therefore, I do not believe that the Emperor Napoleon Bonaparte is safe 
upon his throne. Only truth and justice are strong and secure. He is only 
politic (that means worldly wise), and he does not conform to eternal laws, 



QUEEN LOUISE OF PRUSSIA 57 

but to circumstances, as they happen to be. With such a policy he stains 
his government with many deeds of injustice. His intentions are not good, 
even if his cause is good. In his boundless ambition he thinks only of him- 
self and his personal interest. 'We must admire him, but we cannot love 
him. He is dazzled by his success, and he fancies himself able to accomplish 
everything. Moreover, he has no moderation, and he who cannot preserve 
moderation, loses his balance and falls. I have a strong faith in God, and 
also in his moral government of the world. This I do not see in the rule of 
might; therefore, I have the hope this present age will be succeeded by a 
better one. All good men hope for this and await it, and one must not be 
misled by the panegyrists of present heroes, whom they esteem great. What 
has taken place is unmistakably neither final nor abiding, but only the open- 
ing of a path to a better end. This end appears to be at a great distance; 
we probably shall not see it, and shall die before it is reached. As God 
wills; all as he wills: I find comfort, strength, courage, and serenity in this 
hope which lies deep in my soul. Life is but a passage, yet we must go 
through it. Let us care only for this, to become each day riper and better. 

" Here, dear father, you have my political creed as well as a woman can 
construct one. It may have gaps, but I shall not suffer by that. But pardon 
me for annoying you with this; from it you can at least see that you have a 
pious and attached daughter, and that the principles of Christian piety, which 
I owe to your teachings and your godly example, have borne their fruits, 
and will bear them as long as I live." 

The sentiments of hope and forbearance in this letter 
may not seem so remarkable to us, who have seen her 
hopes realized ; but when we remember that it was written 
in a season of the greatest national humiliation, as well as 
personal loss and suffering, and that she is speaking of 
the great conqueror, through whom these tremendous 
evils came, we cannot but admire alike the sagacious fore- 
sight, the wise liberality, and the temperance with which 
she spoke to one to whom she could pour out her full 
heart. 

As Louise is not less interesting to us as a wife and 
mother than as a queen, I will give the conclusion of this 
letter, in which she so naturally tells her father of her 
home and husband and children : 

"Gladly will you hear, dear father, that the calamities that have befallen 
us have not forced their way into our wedded and home life; they have rather 



58 LIFE OF CHRISTIAN DANIEL RAUCH 

strengthened it, and made it even more precious to us. The king, the best 
of beings, is kinder and more loving than ever. Often I think I see in him 
the lover and bridegroom, always showing more by his actions than his 
words; I see the watchfulness that he has for me in all points. Only yester- 
day he said to me in his plain and simple way, looking at me with his true 
eyes, ' Thou dear Louise ! Thou hast become to me in misfortune still more 
precious and beloved. Now I know from experience what I have in thee. 
It may storm without, if only it remains fair weather in our wedded life. 
Because I love thee so, I have called our latest born little daughter Louise. 
May she become a Louise ! ' This goodness moved me to tears. It is my 
pride, my joy, and my happiness to possess the love and approval of this best 
of men; and because I heartily love him in return, and we are so united that 
the will of one is also the will of the other, it becomes easy for me to pre- 
serve this happy union of sentiments, which has become closer with years. 
In a word, he pleases me in all points, and I please him, and we are happiest 
when we are together. Pardon me, dear father, that I tell this with a certain 
boastfulness. There lies in it the artless expression of my happiness, which 
interests no one in the world more deeply than you, dear, fond father ! How 
to treat others; that, too, I have learned from the king. I cannot talk on 
this subject; it is enough that we understand each other. Our children are 
our treasures, and our eyes rest upon them with satisfaction and hope. The 
crown prince is full of life and spirit. He has superior talents, which are 
happily developed and cultivated. He is true in all his sentiments and words, 
and his vivacity makes dissimulation impossible. He learns history with 
especial success, and the great and the good attract to them his imaginative 
mind. He has a keen appreciation of what is humorous, and his comical 
and startling ideas entertain us agreeably. He is especially attached to his 
mother, and he cannot be purer than he is. He is very dear to me, and I 
often talk with him of how it will be at some future time when he is king." 

This son became the brilliant Frederic William IV., 
who said, "The unity of Germany concerns me deeply ; it 
is an inheritance from my mother." But he did not live 
to see it accomplished, and it is the second son of Louise, 
therefore, the Emperor William, with whom we almost feel 
a personal acquaintance, who interests us most deeply. 
The mother goes on to say of him, 

" Our son William will be, if everything does uot deceive me, like his 
father, simple, upright, and wise. Also, in his outward appearance, he 
bears the greatest resemblance to him, only he is, I think, not so good look- 
ing. You see, dear father, I am still in love with my husband." 



QUEEN LOUISE OF PRUSSIA 59 

The prince was then eleven years old. What a reward 
it would have been to his mother for all her sufferings, 
if she could have foreseen the long life of this son, the 
unity of Germany accomplished under his reign, and, above 
all, the love and confidence with which he was regarded by 
the people! 

The queen goes on to speak of her other children, and 
of how well it is for them to have seen thus early the 
serious side of life. " It is especially salutary," she says, 
"for the crown prince that he became acquainted with 
misfortune while crown prince." 

And later she writes, 

" Even if posterity does not mention my name among illustrious women, 
yet, when it learns the sorrows of the time, it will know what I have suffered 
through them, and will say, ' She endured much, and she remained patient 
in the midst of suffering. ' Then I could wish that at the same time they 
might say, ' She gave birth to children who were worthy of better times; 
she endeavored to lead them onwards, and at last her care has borne rich 
fruit.'" 

Her prayer was not " dispersed in empty air." 
The character of Queen Louise of Prussia was clear, 
simple, strong, harmonious, and tender. She had an 
exquisite regard for the feelings of others, in every situa- 
tion of life, which made the peer and the peasant alike 
revere her as a superior, and love and trust her as an 
equal. The severe influences of a Lutheran training, the 
intellectual depths of a German brain, and, above all, the 
rich experiences of her short life, passed in a period wheii 
great ideas were everywhere struggling into action, and 
her full range from the queen's throne to the dependence 
of a wandering fugitive, gave her a firmness of purpose, a 
vigor of action, and an insight into the meaning of events, 
which surprised those who had first been charmed by her 
winning feminine grace and courtesy. 

She had the rare good fortune not to lose the blessings 
of private life in attaining her exalted station, and that 



6O LIFE OF CHRISTIAN DANIEL RAUCH 

happiness kept her brave and sweet in all trials. Her 
influence upon her husband's career was always helpful ; 
and although her own sense of the proprieties of her posi- 
tion, drawn from the teachings of her youth, prevented 
her from influencing the king as strongly as she might 
have done, and urging him to a course which might have 
saved much humiliation and sorrow, she yet did much to 
preserve for him the respect and affection of his people, 
and to make united action possible when the hour struck. 
Napoleon, whose sagacity was not often deceived, felt her 
power, and knew that her voice against him was worth "a 
thousand armed men. " 

Many portraits of Queen Louise are preserved in the 
Hohenzollern museum at Berlin. They differ very much 
in position, dress, and even expression ; but they all repre- 
sent the same delicately rounded outline, full blue eyes, 
small nose, and finely rounded chin, and soft fair hair, and 
all confirm the accounts of the fine intelligence and grace 
of her expression. Domestic relics, among which are the 
cradle of her children, her Bible, and specimens of her 
childish work, show the simplicity of her life. Elsewhere 
will be found a history of the beautiful statue of Rauch, 
which has done so much to preserve her memory. 

"After death comes the resurrection." Louise is bet- 
ter known and more beloved to-day than even in her life- 
time. Then she was the Queen of Prussia, now she is 
the mother of a line of German emperors who have estab- 
lished the unity of Germany, and made the country for 
whose humiliation she wept a power and an honor among 
nations. All Germany claims her now as its mother, 
and is true to its claim in giving her honor and loving 
reverence. 

How gladly would she have accepted such testimony 
as this from the biographer of her great-grandson, the 
present emperor : " It was Louise who ingrafted a 
humane spirit upon the rough drill-sergeant body of 



QUEEN LOUISE OF PRUSSIA 6l 

Hohenzollern education. She made her sons love her ; 
and it seems but yesterday since the last of these sons, a 
tottering old man of ninety, used to go to the Charlotten- 
burg mausoleum on the anniversary of her death, and pray 
and weep in solitude beside the recumbent marble effigy 
of his mother, who died in 1810. The introduction of 
filial affection between parents and children dates from 
this Queen Louise, and belongs to this century. Before 
this, it was the rule of the heirs of Prussia to detest their 
immediate progenitors." 1 

In 1880 the statue of Queen Louise by Encke was 
erected in the little island of the Thiergarten, sacred to 
her memory. I was told by a well-known connoisseur 
that this statue is the most faithful likeness of Queen 
Louise, the one by Rauch being much idealized, and that 
when it was dedicated he stood near the old emperor, who 
was heard to say with emphasis, " This is my mother ! " 
He could truly say, " I respect the Unity of Germany ; it 
is a legacy from my mother." 

l " The young Emperor William II. of Germany ; a study in character develop- 
ment on a throne," by Harold Frederic. London, 1891. 



62 LIFE OF CHRISTIAN DANIEL RAUCH 



CHAPTER IV 

STATUES OF QUEEN LOUISE 
1810-1827 

IT intensified the suffering of Rauch in his want of 
sympathy with the friends of Napoleon in Rome, that he 
looked upon the emperor as the personal foe of his be- 
loved queen ; and this, with every other feeling, united to 
inspire him with interest in the work of making a fitting 
monument of her. The bereaved husband had been his 
early and steady friend, and if the artist could now repay 
his kindness it would be by means of his own well-beloved 
art. 

It was in Rome, July, 1810, that the intelligence of 
the death of the queen reached him. He had already 
modelled a bust of her as an expression of gratitude, and 
he finished it, and in September sent it to the king. It 
was placed in her empty room in Charlottenburg. 

The king was fired with the idea of building a fitting 
mausoleum for the queen, and was so pleased with the 
bust that he wished to give the commission to Rauch. 

He wrote to Von Humboldt to obtain sketches from 
Canova and Thorwaldsen and Rauch for a full-length 
figure of the queen, to be placed on a sarcophagus. 

Rauch was overwhelmed at the idea of the king's pro- 
posing to him a competition with these two artists, so 
much his seniors in age and reputation ; but he felt bound 
to obey, and he prepared his sketch, which he sent to the 
king in November. "I cannot understand," he says, 
" why the king should pass by Schadow, and send to 



STATUES OF QUEEN LOUISE 63 

Rome." Thorwaldsen became so much interested in 
Ranch's work that he wished him to make a bust of him- 
self, and he resigned all claim to make the statue of the 
queen, saying that it belonged to Rauch to do it. Canova 
took the same position. Humboldt's letter to Rauch is 
full of interest, and enters into minute details in regard to 
the position of the sarcophagus in the Greek temple. He 
says, " Finally the king has come to the much happier 
conclusion to have the figure of the queen herself, of life- 
size, in a quiet position, draped, but with cloth of so soft a 
texture that the form of the body will appear through it." 

Rauch was deeply affected by the trust reposed in him, 
and the generosity of the two great sculptors, who resigned 
their interests and recognized the propriety of his doing 
the work from his love and veneration for the queen. 

Never did sculptor have a more stimulating task. He 
was not only inspired by his own tenderness, respect, and 
gratitude for the beautiful woman, but he found in her 
the ideal of his country, the German-hearted queen, who, 
in the midst of all the distress and excitement of the 
time, never despaired, but held up the fainting hearts of 
prince and peasant in the hour of humiliation. 

And yet Rauch had some misgivings in turning to this 
work ; for he was at that time so wholly wrapped up in 
classic art that a portrait statue, prescribed to order as to 
its treatment, seemed like a fetter to his genius. Yet he 
was to learn from it the truest lesson that Greek art has 
for us, how to make limitations a new source of success. 
Had he yielded to this, I had almost said boyish feeling, 
and remained in Rome, working under the influence of 
Canova and Thorwaldsen, and studying Greek art instead 
of universal nature, what a loss to himself, to German 
art, to the world ! For in this statue he found the secret 
of the union of the Real and the Ideal, the Individual, the 
Characteristic, and the Universal. So beautifully, so 
nobly, does it portray the ideal womanhood, that every 



64 LIFE OF CHRISTIAN DANIEL RAUCH 

heart melts at its tender beauty, though the life of the 
heroic queen be wholly unknown to them ; and not less 
the husband, whose very heart was bound up in her, so 
cherished it as bringing her back to him, even "in the 
very habit as she lived," that when Rauch made a second 
statue, improving upon some artistic points, the king was 
loath to look upon it, feeling it must be another, and not 
herself. 

The king wished to have this work done under his own 
eyes at Berlin, but he forbore to press the point. Von 
Humboldt did not hesitate to urge it, however, and offered 
to Rauch every inducement and assistance in making the 
journey to Berlin. It was a hard struggle to leave Rome, 
and his work and his friends there ; but he did not hesi- 
tate to do so, and on the second of February he travelled, 
as he says, " through a purgatory of ice " to Vienna, where 
he spent a week of paradise with the Humboldts, and 
went from there as a courier by Dresden to Berlin, where 
he arrived on the fifth of March, 1811. 

He was warmly welcomed, not only by the king, but, 
which he felt more deeply at the moment, by his old mas- 
ter, Schadow, who felt no jealousy at the commission 
given him, but rejoiced at his success. 

Rauch first made a sketch according to the wishes of 
the king, who desired the most simple treatment of the 
woman he loved. But Rauch, with his fine artistic sense, 
saw all the capabilities of the subject, and made another 
drawing of the queen in her majesty. This delighted the 
king, for it was a vain effort to restore to him the wife he 
had loved, but possible to preserve to him and to the 
world the lofty ideal of her character. The king called 
all his family together to see the sketches presented, but 
all, like the king, unhesitatingly preferred that of Rauch. 
Rauch himself was troubled lest Schadow should feel 
wronged ; but he consoled himself with the thought that 
he had made no effort to obtain the commission, but had 



STATUES OF QUEEN LOUISE 65 

only obeyed the king. Humboldt reassured him on this 
point. Canova wrote to the king, saying that he had sent 
a sketch merely to comply with his wish, and that he con- 
sidered the king's choice in every way the best. 

Rauch made a small model in clay, half-size, which at 
first delighted the king ; but when at evening he returned 
to study it alone, he objected to some classical figures of 
genii which Rauch had introduced into the bass-reliefs of 
the sarcophagus. He thought only Christian subjects 
suited the lofty character of the queen and the afflicted 
state of the country. Rauch accordingly modelled sub- 
jects from the New Testament, and Thorwaldsen asked 
that, out of special respect to the king and the blessed 
queen, he might be allowed to model one of the figures. 
The king was surprised and touched, and said that the 
work of so great an artist would add to the value of the 
monument and please him much, but owing to a change 
of plan the bass-reliefs were given up entirely, and this 
offer was not carried out. 

Rauch had modelled the statue larger than life, but the 
king wished it of the exact size. He yielded gracefully, 
however, to his relations and friends, saying, " One must 
not dispute with artists and their followers ; laymen like 
me always come off second best." The poor king almost 
lived in this work, and it was hard for him to consent to 
its being taken to Rome to be put into marble. But 
Rauch felt that he could execute his task better in Italy, 
and had already given orders to have suitable marble 
selected for it. The king had a cast made from the 
model, and also from the bust, which he gave to dear 
friends. This work had been done in Charlottenburg, 
whither the king often came to see it. 

Rauch left Berlin January 4, 1812, in company with 
Rudolf Schadow, and they spent two happy weeks to- 
gether with the Von Humboldts at Vienna, and then, by 
invitation of the crown prince, went on to Munich. 



66 LIFE OF CHRISTIAN DANIEL RAUCH 

Rauch remained a while at Florence, and then went to 
Carrara to examine the marble for the sarcophagus. 
Quite delighted with the result of his researches, he went 
on the ninth of March back to Florence to Salvetti & Co., 
to receive his packages. 

Here he received a letter from the forwarding agents at 
Bologna, saying that, on opening the packages at the 
Dogana, at Bologna, they had found, not the plaster mod- 
els in the chest, but only bits of plaster, and all in a thou- 
sand pieces, on account of bad packing. Rauch had 
already engaged a courier for the evening to go to Rome, 
but he borrowed twelve piastres, and mounts, without 
dinner, but with a heavy headache, into the courier wagon 
for Bologna. Arrived at Bologna, he hastened to the 
office of the agent, Benassi, and, on opening the chests, 
was relieved to find the damage not so great as he feared. 
The upper half of the statue was indeed broken into sixty 
pieces, but not so badly but that it could be restored to 
serve for a model. The joints were sharp, and the surface 
had not suffered. A professor of the academy offered 
him a room in which to do the work of restoration ; and 
he was enabled on the eighteenth to return to Florence 
and start from there on his way to Rome. 

At Carrara, Rauch was engaged in many other works 
besides the statue of the queen ; but he gave his most 
devoted attention to that, feeling as if he could not find 
marble pure and white enough for it, and rejoicing that 
he had already learned so much about working in marble. 
Tieck was of the greatest assistance to him, as he also 
had charge of the candelabra to be made after Schinkel's 
drawings. While the workmen were engaged on the first 
rough cutting of the marble, Rauch made a flying visit to 
Florence to make studies for the details of the sarcopha- 
gus from the antique. He then made a wholly nude 
model of the statue of the queen before clothing it with 
the soft drapery which modestly veils without concealing 



STATUES OF QUEEN LOUISE 6/ 

the graceful form beneath. He says, " It is a true char- 
acter statue of her, and not an Adonis or generalized form 
of beauty." He watches with great interest all the me- 
chanical processes, and takes great pains in the execution 
of the candelabra. His own intention was to finish the 
whole work at Carrara ; but he yielded to the wish of the 
king that he should finish it at Rome, where he could have 
the advantage of the criticism and sympathy of other 
artists. 

On the twenty-first of June the statue was unpacked in 
Rome, and Thorwaldsen saw it. He was extremely well 
pleased with the idea, as well as with the execution in 
marble. Rudolf Schadow expressed a surprise and admi- 
ration of the work that made Rauch feel that what he had 
heard before had not been favorable. " It is quite dif- 
ferent in marble," he said. Rauch felt that he had gained 
a great deal from his work in Carrara, having learned the 
nature of marble and how to work it. 

The artist finds consolation in his work for all that 
troubles him in politics, and his thoughts are constantly 
in Carjara, directing every part of the work on the sar- 
cophagus, asking to which workman the buffalo-heads or 
other parts of the work are given. He has all so clearly 
in his mind that he can make minute changes without 
seeing it. Although he mixes up politics and sculpture in 
his letters to Tieck in a way which shows the disturbed 
state of his mind, as, " Do you believe in peace ? " imme- 
diately following a question about the quality of the marble, 
yet he is thoroughly careful and exact in all his accounts 
with the workmen and with everybody. 

At the close of the year 1813 he went to Carrara to see 
that all was right, but wished to keep his thirty-eighth 
birthday, January 2, in Rome. He changed his plans 
about the ornaments of the candelabra, and began to 
model the three Fates. On the eighth of January he 
exhibited the finished statue, which brought a crowd of 



68 LIFE OF CHRISTIAN DANIEL RAUCH 

visitors, and hindered his work. He was most anxious for 
the judgment of Thorwaldsen and Canova. Both showed 
themselves well satisfied, and Canova marked his appre- 
ciation by proposing the sculptor as a member of the 
senate of the Academy of St. Luke. His heart was 
divided between his work in Carrara, his interests in 
Rome, and his desire to see the statue well placed in 
Berlin. 

On the nineteenth of July, the anniversary of the 
queen's death, the last stroke was made on the sarcopha- 
gus in Carrara ; and chance willed that on the same day 
the statue in Rome was packed up to go to Guebhardt & 
Co. in Leghorn, who were to care for the shipment to 
Hamburg, and thence by land to Charlottenburg, as had 
been prescribed by a cabinet order. On the fourth of 
August the atelier at Carrara was deserted, and Rauch 
hastened to Leghorn to oversee the departure for Ham- 
burg. An English brigantine was selected, carrying 
three hundred tons, and bound direct for Hamburg. 
Rauch was afraid of the equinoctial storms, and also of 
the American privateers, it was during our second war 
with England, and he had the whole lading insured for 
five thousand Roman scudi. He decided to go to Berlin 
to receive and place the monument. 

He stopped on his way at Vienna and Munich, and in 
the latter place on Christmas Eve he read in the Allgemei- 
nen Zeitung that the ship that carried the queen had 
been seized by an American privateer in going out of the 
harbor of Lorient. 

Rauch felt as if his forebodings of evil were fulfilled ; 
but then came a strife of feeling, for already he had 
become so conscious of greater artistic possibilities in his 
subject that he felt as if he would gladly begin it all anew, 
while he felt all the grief that the loss would cause the 
king. With these conflicting feelings he travelled all 
Christmas week, and finally reached Berlin on Sylvester 




jf. 



STATUES OF QUEEN LOUISE 69 

Day, at four o'clock. He was warmly welcomed at Ber. 
lin, and great was the excitement about the captured 
monument ; but on the seventh of January came the 
news that the English privateer Eliza had taken the 
American ship, that the monument had arrived unharmed 
at Cherbourg, and from thence had been carried to Jer- 
sey. It arrived in Berlin May 22 ; and, although water had 
penetrated the folds on the bosom, it was but little injured, 
and was taken to Charlottenburg and cleaned. On the 
thirtieth of May the scaffolding was knocked away, and 
almost at the same moment, when, after its troubled 
voyage, the beautiful statue of the queen rested in the 
place she loved so well, the king returned from the Con- 
gress of Vienna. 

That very evening, as he was busy with the last touches, 
Rauch was startled by the word that the king was coming 
with his family to see the statue. He drew back, not to 
disturb him in his first emotions. 

Charlottenburg, built by Schliiuter under Friedrich I., 
enlarged by Knobelsdorf for Frederic the Great, has a 
large garden extending down to the river Spree. Trees 
a century old throw their shadows over the broad green 
meadows, where the king liked to pitch his tent, and 
where the queen had so loved to live that she hoped it 
would be her last resting-place. An avenue of dark green 
firs leads down to this favorite place, and at the end of 
this walk the mausoleum is placed. It is a simple Doric 
structure of dark-colored granite, on the steps of which 
are vases of red Hortensia, the queen's favorite flower. 

This monument was not to minister to the vanity, but 
to satisfy the heart-longing, of the king, and hence the 
simple form he had chosen. 

On a stand lies the couch, and on this the form of the 
queen. She does not lie stretched out as in death, but 
as if slumbering, with one foot softly lying over the other, 
her arms crossed on her bosom, and her head gently 



7O LIFE OF CHRISTIAN DANIEL RAUCH 

turned to one side. Only the diadem in her hair marks 
the queen, while the glory just perceptible on the bier- 
cloth shows that they would willingly canonize her as a 
saint. 

No royal robes, but a softly flowing grass-cloth lightly 
clothes the beautiful limbs down to the feet. In this 
very simplicity the artist has expressed the nobility and 
grace which filled her life. How truly he has preserved 
her character is shown by the deep interest which the 
countenance calls forth in the observer, though entirely a 
stranger to her, and in the satisfaction it gave to the one 
who knew her best and loved her so dearly. 

The bier-cloth is ornamented with a border of eagles 
and crowns, with German letters forming the inscription, 
" Louise Konigin von Preussen." 

The long sides have a field of arms, of which one shows 
the*Mecklenburg buffalo, the other the Prussian eagle. 
The same armorial subject is repeated in the candelabra. 
Both are alike in this, but the one finished by Tieck shows 
the three Hours in relief, symbolizing life, while the other, 
by Rauch, has the three Fates, indicating death. 

The king visited the mausoleum again the next day ; but 
Rauch, having a sick headache, waited in the city, and the 
king would not excite him until he was better. June 9 
he invited him to Charlottenburg, and gave him the most 
complete and minute expression of his satisfaction, both 
in the general result, and in every detail of the improve- 
ments he had made. 

The crown prince was equally satisfied. Schinkel gave 
his unqualified approval ; and the general public, while 
their eyes filled with tears at the moving beauty of expres- 
sion, " did not fail to wonder at the perfection of every 
feather in the eagle's wings." 

Although others were entirely delighted with the mon- 
ument of the queen, Rauch, who held to an ideal with 
extreme tenacity, was never wholly satisfied. Even when 



STATUES OF QUEEN LOUISE /I 

working on the first statue, he had a longing to change 
the model, but did not feel at liberty to do so, and the 
thought constantly pursued him. In 1818 he had sought 
to gratify this artistic feeling ; and after his work on the 
great military statues was finished, he felt impelled to 
take up anew the statue of the queen, who might rightly 
be regarded as the soul and inspiration of the War of 
Freedom. 

He attempted to keep this work secret for some time, 
fearing that it would not please the king, but visitors to 
his atelier saw it, and he found that it had been spoken 
of in Berlin. He therefore confided its motive and his- 
tory to Hofmarschall von Malzahn, who might explain it, 
if the king should hear of it. 

His reason for secrecy was that he wished to work out 
this statue in artistic independence, unrestrained even by 
the veto of one who had commissioned it. He could not 
bear to give up this subject which so filled his heart and 
mind, and whose beauty was more perfect than he could 
hope to find in any model. So strong was Rauch's feel- 
ing for the beauty of the human form, that he never for- 
got one that had impressed his imagination. He writes to 
Tieck once of having seen at the theatre a child, perhaps 
ten years old, of such exquisite grace and beauty that 
he sits in his room lost in wonder and admiration 
while thinking of her. " Never in my life have I passed 
such an evening," he says; "nothing so beautiful ever 
affected me like this head, now and then looking up and 
down in changing movement, with the accompaniment of 
the little hands and waving locks." "Years afterwards," 
says Eggers, " we perchance meet these waving locks in 
the master's works." 

The thought of the queen's statue was ever with him, 
even when he could not work on the marble itself. He 
writes from Berlin to Carrara, " Is there not marble 
enough on the deltoid of the queen's statue to put in a 



72 LIFE OF CHRISTIAN DANIEL RAUCH 

fine chemise in free folds ? The naked shoulders trouble 
me." In his sense of full freedom, he calls this the first 
of his works that has satisfied him. But in the midst of his 
other work it went on very slowly. In March, 1820, the 
marble sketch was taken to Berlin with the granite bagna- 
role bought in Rome, but not until four years after was 
Rauch able to put his hand to the marble. In December 
of that year he writes, " In eight days finished the head 
and throat in marble." Then the work rests again for 
more than two years. 

Then an event which overwhelmed him with sorrow 
drove him to his chisel for consolation. 1 He had rejoiced 
in the hope that his daughter Agnes was about to have a 
happy home of her own. Unexpectedly came the dis- 
covery that father and daughter were deceived by a villain, 
and all her hopes were blighted. Rauch found comfort 
only in the work that could fill his whole soul. While his 
assistants worked on the monuments, he shut himself up 
in his own atelier, and labored through August uninter- 
ruptedly in the completion of the statue. Gradually he 
returned to other things, without giving this up, and at 
the end of November he could note " the entire comple- 
tion of this very detailed marble work." 

Dec. I, 1827, he wrote a long letter to the king, telling 
him of the origin of his work on the statue, and the spirit 
in which he had carried out his idea. He points out that 
the position is more restful, the hands more natural, and 
that the diligent study he gave to the first model has 
enabled him to make the drapery of this one richer. 

Rauch was not confident of the effect of his letter. 
He asked the " Hofmarschall von Malzahn " to transmit 
it to the king. The Marschall wrote him that he had 
acquitted himself of his commission to the best of his 
ability. "The king," he said, "was at first taken aback, 
then he went over everything at great length, and finally 

See Rauch and Goethe. 



STATUES OF QUEEN LOUISE 73 

said, ' I might say to you that he would come to see the 
work, but he could not deny that the matter surprised 
him ; and it was astonishing to him that you had already 
prepared the statue the size of life.' ' 

We cannot wonder at the momentary reluctance of the 
king to accept a new work. The first statue was made 
under his supervision, almost with his help. It delighted 
him and satisfied the artists of his court. What was the 
criticism that proposed changes in it ? It seemed to ques- 
tion his judgment. Moreover, having been made, it must 
belong to him and to no one else, and yet he had not 
asked or wished for it. 

Until the close of the year the king delayed to see it. 
Only the queen's son and brother of the royal family, 
and Schadow and Wichmann among the artists, had a 
private view of it. Rauch was in a painful situation, 
because the secret had leaked out in social circles, so that 
William von Humboldt advised him to share it with his 
brother Alexander. 

But when the king at last, January 21, came to the 
atelier, the work itself pleaded for the artist. The king 
expressed his satisfaction, and Rauch had the opportunity 
of explaining his criticism of the Charlottenburg statue. 
The king gave him a gracious permission to make a need- 
ful journey to Nuremberg, and so the dreaded interview 
passed off smoothly. 

On his return from Nuremberg, the placing of the 
statue was arranged for, by a royal cabinet order, in the 
" Antique Cabinet " temple in the new palace at Potsdam, 
whose former contents, collected by Frederic the Great, 
had been sent to the museum just finished. Rauch was 
ill-pleased with the place, and tried, through the influence 
of Prince George of Mechlenburg-Strelitz, to have the 
statue placed in the square building which the great king 
had built for a cabinet of coins for his own private use. 
This request was granted ; but he was not allowed to open 



74 LIFE OF CHRISTIAN DANIEL RAUCH 

new windows, only to darken disturbing lights. The 
monument stands now in a simple mausoleum, an octag- 
onal building whose lower roof rests on a raised platform 
under the beautiful trees of the castle garden, visible even 
to those without through the uncurtained glass doors. 
The interior room is simply draped with dark red velvet, 
and the whole lighted by a window opposite the door. 

In comparing the two statues, Rauch himself claims 
more grace, dignity, and beauty for the second one, so that 
others, as well as connoisseurs, would at once recognize 
the first as a sketch, and the second as a. solution of the 
problem. This effect is reached partly by richer drapery, 
and partly by the more perfect action of the form. The 
drapery is in freer and fuller folds, falling even to the tips 
of the feet. But " the deeper distinction between the 
two statues lies in the inward movement of the figure." 
This is seen even in the quiet, death-like slumber. The 
general attitude of the statues is the same. The upper 
part of the body is slightly raised by pillows, the head is 
inclined to the right, the hands rest one upon another on 
the breast, and the right leg is thrown over the left. 
Both forms appear to be in sweet slumber, and yet the 
artist makes it very clear that it is the sleep of death. 
"This," says Dr. Eggers, "is only possible when the per- 
fect cessation of all muscular activity, which cannot 
appear anywhere in a living organism, is visible every- 
where in a sleeping form. In the two works of Rauch 
this condition exists in the slight stiffness of the position 
of the upper portion of the body, of the throat and hands. 
In the second statue the head bends a little more to the 
right, the left hand leans less far and with slighter motion 
over the other, and the right foot is less stiffly crossed, so 
that the tip stands higher, by these slight touches bring- 
ing the queen a little nearer to life, and to our sympathetic 
feelings, without freeing her from the slumber of death, 
but suggesting the possible awakening." 



STATUES OF QUEEN LOUISE 75 

Efforts were made both with King Friedrich Wilhelm 
at this time, and with his successor in 1846, to have an 
antique temple built to contain this precious memorial, 
but the stirring political events of the time prevented 
the design from being carried into execution. 

In 1853 Ranch was modelling an eagle for it, and later, 
in 1856, Stiitzel was commissioned to prepare a sarcopha- 
gus ; but Rauch's own death, as well as political disturb- 
ances, prevented the execution of the design. 

Besides these full-length statues, Rauch repeatedly 
modelled the bust of Queen Louise with a veil or garland, 
of which copies were distributed to many of the princes 
and noblemen of Europe. 

Some persons still prefer the first statue at Charlotten- 
burg. It is more accessible to people from Berlin, and 
their familiarity with it endears it to their hearts. 

The delight of the people in this statue was universal. 
Goethe wrote to the artist, " The second statue of the 
immortalized queen is received with the greatest sympa- 
thy, and the undertaking, memorable in many aspects, is 
crowned with universal applause, of which I wish you joy 
from my heart ; for the first had won so much attachment, 
and so many remembrances clung about it, that it is say- 
ing much if the new statue keeps its place beside it, to 
say nothing of its being preferred to it." 

It always remained the master's darling work, which he 
thought of again and again with new interest. The king 
gave him a gratuity of six thousand thalers gold out of 
his private purse. 

In fact, this beautiful model of the queen, to whom he 
first owed his artistic success, occupied his heart and 
mind through the whole course of his life, from the time 
of making the first bust in 1815 until his last year of life, 
when he was again occupied in designing for it a suitable 
pedestal and surroundings, which we hope a happy future 
will not refuse to the ancestress of the German Empire. 



76 LIFE OF CHRISTIAN DANIEL RAUCH 

Criticism of this beautiful work is needless. It is the 
meeting-point of the real and the ideal. It has won its 
way to the heart of the world. Republican America feels 
its charm, as well as United Germany. " The earth waits 
for its queen," said Margaret Fuller. She may find the 
prophecy of her in this woman, sovereign by purity, intel- 
ligence, and truth. 

The artist worked not with his brain alone, but with the 
full glow of his warm and grateful heart ; and he worked 
for a king who forgot his state in the devoted affection of 
a husband. Nothing is more touching than the tenderness 
with which he hung upon the marble image of his lost 
love, to which he turned for consolation amid the wreck of 
his fortunes ; and his faults as a king are forgotten by us 
when we think of him as the beloved companion of this 
cherished and beautiful woman. 



BERLIN AND LAGERHAUS 77 



CHAPTER V 

BERLIN AND LAGERHAUS 
1815-1816 

BERLIN at this time was full of joyous activity. Rauch 
was warmly welcomed, not only by the royal family, but 
by all artists and friends. Political hopes were at their 
height, and men's minds were active in science, litera- 
ture, and architecture. Rauch led a merry, social life with 
the congenial companions he found in Berlin. He dined 
weekly with the crown prince, meeting the most distin- 
guished military men, as well as scholars and architects. 
He dined with Schadow every Tuesday ; and he never 
failed at the select circle at Burgsdorf, where after politics 
were settled they made themselves merry with gossip 
till late into the night. He supplied the print-shops with 
trie-colored caricatures then in vogue, in which Napoleon 
came in for a large share of ridicule. 

He was busy with many plans of work, when every- 
body was startled by the news of the escape of Napoleon 
from Elba and his return to the Tuilleries. When Rauch 
entered the rooms of Bliicher, in order to model his bust, 
he found that no peaceful work was to be thought of. 
The rooms were already the headquarters of the Prussian 
army, and the hero would give only a few minutes to the 
work of the sculptor. When Rauch was invited to dine 
with him, he first took his dinner at an eating-house, and 
employed all the time of the meal in work on the bust, 
placing himself near the general while he ate. He fin- 
ished the likeness, and at the quiet hour of coffee went 



78 LIFE OF CHRISTIAN DANIEL RAUCH. 

over it again. The same evening came the order for 
Blticher to .go to the army. On the tenth of April the 
bust was finished. Berlin was half emptied by the rush 
of men to the army, and Rauch would have gone with 
them if the monument of the queen had been placed in 
safety. 

He followed the whole course of the campaign of the 
summer of 1815 with the most strained interest, seeing 
the enlisted men and volunteers troop through his city, 
where the crown prince held a perpetual review of gleam- 
ing bayonets, until, on St. John's Day, when twenty-four 
postilions brought the news from -Waterloo in by the 
Brandenburg gate ; and the next day all Berlin joined in 
the "Nun danket alle Gott" that sounded through the 
cathedral. Although the king was hurrying off to the 
army, he gave Rauch one or two sittings for his bust, still 
v objecting to the colossal size. 

Although the king's generosity opened the way for his 
return to Italy, it was a long time before Rauch went 
thither ; for he became deeply interested not only in many 
projects of his own, but in plans for the general further- 
ance of art in his own country. Sometimes he wished 
to give up Carrara altogether, and have Tieck with him 
in Berlin. Then he planned for a " permanent great ate- 
lier, even if the water of Carrara did not run under its. 
windows." 

The boldness of Napoleon I. in coolly appropriating 
the works of art of all European nations, to bring them 
together in Paris, had some excellent results. As soon as 
peace was declared, artists and connoisseurs flocked to the 
French capital to see such an array of treasures of paint- 
ing and sculpture as Europe had not seen before ; and 
treasures, before known to but few, were brought to the 
light of day. Napoleon's generals certainly showed ex- 
cellent taste in their selection. In 1815 Berlin had an 
exhibition of the restored works of art, and the result of 



BERLIN AND LAGERHAUS 79 

it was the recognition of the need of a museum, in which 
not only to preserve valuable works already existing, but 
to stimulate the art of the present day. 

Ranch was intensely interested in the project, and took 
great delight in the acquisition of paintings, as well as 
statues. The ministers consulted with him in regard to 
the plans for the foundation and support of the museum, 
asking him on his return to Rome to point out the statues 
and reliefs of which casts could be obtained, with infor- 
mation as to their cost. I will not here follow out the his- 
tory of all the plans which were proposed at this busy and 
exciting time ; but it is of great interest to see how the re- 
newed life and hope of the nation longed to express itself 
in art, even while the necessity pressed so heavily upon it 
to repair the damages of war. Rauch saw his future be- 
fore him as master of a large atelier with workmen and 
scholars, and he longed to return to Carrara and go on 
with the work which was to prepare the way for it. He 
was delayed in fulfilling this desire by the great number 
of busts that were demanded of him. These included 
generals, physicians, and beautiful women, whose friends 
longed to have their features perpetuated by the same 
hand which had so delicately moulded those of the be- 
loved queen. The bust of Bliicher became so popular 
that forty casts were made of it, and, the mould being al- 
most worn out, Rauch asked permission to have it cast in 
bronze at the Royal Foundery. 

Another popular hero now came upon the scene. 
Rauch writes to Tieck an eloquent account of the entry 
into Berlin of Alexander of Russia, and refers back to the 
early time when he accompanied the emperor by the 
king's command from Memel to the boundary, and saw 
his first meeting with the king. He then thought the 
Emperor looked like a beautiful brother of the antique 
disk-thrower, but now he thinks the king more blooming 
even than he. A few days after his entry, General Oster- 



8O LIFE OF CHRISTIAN DANIEL RAUCH 

mann wrote him from Leipzig that he must move every 
stone to make a bust of the emperor for him. He must 
follow the emperor to Warsaw, even to the bounds of 
Russia if necessary. Rauch tried to enlist the king's as- 
sistance, but he flatly refused to urge his imperial guest. 
He even said to Alexander, " Look out for him ; he makes 
everybody colossal." The sight of the queen's monu- 
ment at Charlottenburg first gave the emperor the idea 
that his former attendant at Tilsit amounted to some- 
thing ; and he consented to give him a sitting of an hour 
and a half, during which the emperor wrote despatches. 
The emperor was very gracious to the artist, and the like- 
ness was pronounced satisfactory. 

This close study of life in portraiture was very interest- 
ing to Rauch ; but in the presence of life he felt the short- 
comings of his art, and he longed for a renewed sight of 
the antique. He found help in the beautiful statue of 
Hygaeia in Charlottenburg, which he modelled in clay 
after his day's work was over. 

It was this conviction that he had something to learn 
which would complete his preparation for his life-work in 
art, that drew him back to Italy, in spite of the charms of 
his life at Berlin, where he had all the delights of friend- 
ship and society and abundant employment. 

One of the busts that troubled him most was that of 
the Frau Hofmarschall von Maltzahn, a face of pure life 
and friendliness, " and one cannot make laughing busts," 
he said. 

The rush for busts continued ; he had a dozen models 
to take to Carrara with him. Meantime, Tieck, busy in 
carrying on the work at Carrara, was seized with despair 
at his own bungling work, as he expresses it, in compari- 
son with that of Rauch. He lays down the chisel with 
which he was making a repetition of the eagle for the 
sarcophagus of the queen, and declares that he must wait 
until Rauch comes ; while Rauch confesses that he is 



BERLIN AND LAGERHAUS 8 I 

always plaguing himself to reach the grace and ideality 
which Tieck gave to his work. 

Rauch was at last allowed to depart on the seventh of 
July, 1816. The journey was delightful, although solitary. 
Free from pressing cares, yet with his mind full of great 
plans for the future, both for himself and for art, he could 
give himself to the enjoyment of nature, even while he 
looked forward to a life of earnest and honorable activity. 
He always looked back to this journey as a sunny spot in 
his life. 

Rauch found on his return to Italy that the revisiting 
of great works of art is a means of measuring one's own 
artistic progress. He is full of enthusiasm, and declares 
himself " mad with delight " over the Vatican Museum. 
He writes to Tieck, " Heaven can hardly grant to the 
blessed greater joys than are given by such works as the 
Torso, the Apollo, the Laocoon, and the Mercury, and 
still more the Venus of the Tribune, which are my newest 
experiences. I saw to-day for the first time the Trans- 
figuration and the Madonna del Foligno. But why do I 
speak to you of them ? How grieved I am that you are 
deprived of them, and I of you with them." He goes 
everywhere, and revisits the old places, and remarks that 
he has taken the minimum size, which the ancients ever 
employed on monuments, for the Berlin statues. 

He finds Thorwaldsen busy with his Adonis ; and he 
remarks upon it how little the workman has to do with 
the statue, and how the artist's own hand must be every- 
where. 

He has an interesting correspondence with Schinkel in 
regard to the desired purchase of the Boisseree collection ; 
but I must pass over much which does not relate to his 
personal life. 

In July he was again at work at Carrara. Everything 
speaks for the unusual regard in which he was held both 
at home and abroad. 



$2 LIFE OF CHRISTIAN DANIEL RAUCH 

On his return to Berlin, Rauch accomplished the reali- 
zation of his long-cherished plan of a great royal atelier 
for sculpture, which should not only facilitate his own 
work, but become a permanent institution of the country. 
Schinkel had prepared a grand plan for such a building, 
which perhaps delayed its accomplishment. Rauch hoped 
it would be built during his two years' stay in Rome, but 
it was not, and Humboldt advised him not to return to 
Berlin until the atelier was ready for him. But in the 
spring of 1818 State Councillor Schutz wrote to him that 
he 'thought that his presence was necessary to advance 
the work. Since the Schinkel plan was not carried out 
they must find another place ; and in May, Bussler an- 
nounces that this was found in the Klosterstrasse, in a 
former storehouse. 

This Lagerhaus, still standing, and still so called, is a 
solid, plain building erected in the fourteenth century to 
serve as a fortress for the elector. When the Elector 
Frederic II. built himself a castle at Cologne, the then 
so-called " high-house " was given as a fortress to knights 
of prominent families. Under the Great Elector it was 
the residence of the governor. Frederic established an 
academy for knights there, which was given up in 1712. 
Since 1713 the house has borne its present name, because 
in it the Privy Councillor Kraut established a depot for 
wool, which was given out to cloth manufacturers, who 
returned it in cloths. Later, a very considerable manu- 
facture of fine and regimental cloths was there carried on, 
with a dye-house, and residences for the overseers and 
master-workmen. 

Rauch was rather discouraged when he saw this old 
building, and found how much was to be done to put it in 
order, and to get a proper light. He thought of it as only 
temporary, and laid before the king a plan for a new build- 
ing on the Wilhelmsstrasse. He got no encouragement, 
however, and could not send for his Italian workmen 
before the spring. 



BERLIN AND LAGERHAUS 83 

Meantime, Tieck writes him how impatient they all are 
to set out for Berlin, and how Gaetano and Giuseppe are 
studying the language with grammar and dictionary to be 
ready for the journey. 

His artist friends were longing to join him ; he was 
eager to go to work, and yet he had no place to begin. 
Even the friendly welcome he received increased his 
unrest, for he felt that he was doing nothing to justify it. 
Great works are planned for the new square of the Opera 
House. Where are his Billow and Scharnhorst, which 
were from the beginning destined for it ? 

He misses Tieck, the careful, orderly friend, who 
smoothes every difficulty ; and Tieck misses him when 
he wants the quick, resolute blow of the chisel to finish 
the work. " Work goes on quickly where Rauch is ; the 
farther off he is, the more it lags." Tieck longed to be 
in Berlin, Rauch pined for the quiet work of Carrara : 
they needed to be together and to help each other. 

Dannecker asks him to procure marble for some of his 
works. Rauch took great pains to fulfil the commission ; 
and Dannecker "jumps with joy, like a boy," over his 
letter. He makes the acquaintance of the French 
painter, Wach, who was thoroughly instructed in the 
French methods, of which Rauch says, " It is not easy 
to see so excellent studies anywhere else." Even the 
French painters in Rome spoke with high respect of 
Rauch, and pitied him " that he had the misfortune to be 
a German." Rauch had refused to let his home and 
atelier to any one else, but he now allowed Wach to have 
the dwelling-house. Tieck and Rauch went to meet him 
and Humboldt at Florence, but unfortunately arrived too 
late. They consoled themselves, however, in the closer 
studies of the pictures, statues, and churches in Florence 
and Lucca. Eight times Rauch made little trips to Flor- 
ence, Rome, and Pisa to keep himself acquainted with all 
that was being done in art. 



84 LIFE OF CHRISTIAN DANIEL RAUCH 

The early part of this century saw that battle between 
the classic and the romantic, one phase of the eternal 
balancing of the old and the new, the spiritual and the 
natural, which ran into every department of thought, lit- 
erature, and art. While Rauch never was an extreme 
partisan of either school, he was yet deeply interested in 
every phase of this question ; and his admirable grasp of 
the spirit of classic studies, with his vivid interest in the 
political struggles and intellectual life of his own day, 
gave him that true sense of historic art which comes 
from not confining interest to any one nation, but which 
makes itself felt by all who understand the expression of 
human passions and actions. 

Koch and Thorwaldsen stood on the side of classic art ; 
and the figure of Hope which the latter modelled, after 
his studies in restoring the ^Eginetan marbles, is in strong 
archaic style. 

The painters who went back to Fra Fiesole formed a 
colony in the cloister of San Isidore, and Overbeck was 
the leader of this movement. Rauch gives generous and 
discriminating praise to both Cornelius and Overbeck. 

A separation between the Catholic and Protestant influ- 
ences had already become inevitable, and now the division 
was between Nazareth and Paganism. In the spring of 
1817 the Nazarenes kept the birthday of Albert Diirer. 
Diirer was honored as Christ, Raphael as Madonna. Wach 
expresses himself freely over this "profanation," as Rauch 
calls it. He writes, " Thou great worthy soul of the im- 
mortal Albert Durer, one shall not so mock thee ; thou 
sawest so far about thee as thy clear eye permitted ; thou 
knewest nothing of such wilful narrowness. With discre- 
tion and true modesty wouldst thou consider what the art 
of the time produced, prove all, and keep what is good, 
and always turn again with reverence to the inexhaustible 
and ever new nature, and alone in her seek to divine the 
great wo'rld-soul. This monkish intolerance goes mortally 



BERLIN AND LAGERHAUS 8$ 

against me, as this wholesale contempt of all which does 
not resemble their imaginary fixed idea. What woful 
poverty ! What blindness for the great miracles of the 
world of nature ! What narrowness where all should 
strive after the highest and noblest freedom ! Can the 
German never be original ? Shall the yoke of imitation 
always oppress them, even in the time of their greatest 
and most significant national uprising ? " 

The tendency of the painters, poets, and even archi- 
tects, to go over to the Roman Church was very marked. 
From this faith they gained the charm of mysticism, the 
rich storehouse of legendary art, and the noble style of 
church architecture. Greek art had exalted the human 
body as capable of expressing all that is divine in gods 
and men. But Christianity prefers painting, which lends 
itself more freely to ecstasy and sentiment. So the sculp- 
tors did not readily yield to the tendency towards the 
Romish Church. A zealous friend wrote to Rauch, and 
sent him books assuring him that his salvation was in 
danger. Rauch put the letter among his papers and 
scarcely spoke of it to any one. 

While Rome was full of good painters whose names are 
still dear to us, as Cornelius and Overbeck, Schnorr; von 
Carolsfeld, Philipp Veit, Karl Eggers, and others, the only 
Italian painter of that time to be named was Camuccini, 
whom Dr. Eggers calls "the last Italian painter." The 
new school belonged to the Germans. 

These artists were deeply impressed with the impor- 
tance of the mission of Germany, which was to conquer 
Rome in art, as her hordes had anciently overcome it in 
war ; and no wonder that the coming of the young prince, 
whose whole soul was devoted to the fostering of art, 
seemed to them a presage of success. Rauch came to 
Rome, April 30, 1818, just in time to take part in the 
celebration of the birthday of the Crown Prince of Bavaria. 
Excepting ladies, the guests were exclusively artists, 



86 LIFE OF CHRISTIAN DANIEL RAUCH 

ninety-seven in number, and all Germans. For the mo- 
ment all jealousies were forgotten. Though the time for 
preparation had been short, astonishing results were pre- 
sented in allegorical representations, and all felt that the 
triumphs of Germany thus portrayed were really to be 
carried out on the grand stage of her art. The prince 
seemed the happiest of the guests. As he took leave of 
them, he gave the last pressure of his hand to Karl Fohr. 
"We shall see each other again," he cried; "we belong to 
each other." Two months later the body of the unfortu- 
nate young artist was drawn out of the Tiber. Rauch was 
exerting himself to introduce the talented young man to 
Humboldt, and his letters echo the thrill of sorrow that 
ran through the whole artistic world. 

In Thorwaldsen's studio Rauch thought his last work, 
"Mercury killing Argus," the boldest and most beautiful 
of his designs, the purest flower of his genius. He was 
delighted with the triumphs of his contemporaries, but 
he turned again to the antique with fresh enthusiasm. 

He went to Naples, Padua, and Venice, and was deeply 
interested in the art of Mantegna and other Italians ; but 
he did not keep so full a note-book as formerly, and his 
journey was a very hurried one. He returned well and 
happy to Berlin, July 28. 

Among the works which had occupied Rauch during 
the time of his absence from Berlin, were the candelabra 
which a French gentleman had commissioned him to make 
in commemoration of the rising in La Vendee. Schinkel 
assisted him in making the designs, and they were very 
elaborate. The base was to be formed of lion-skins, and 
the shields of those honored in the war. He left the exe- 
cution of them very much to Tieck. 

One of the light-bearers represents mourning, the other 
the joy of victory, and half-concealed female figures bear 
urns in their hands inscribed with the names of those who 
had taken part in the struggle. They were to be eight 
feet high. 



BERLIN AND LAGERHAUS 8/ 

Rauch does not quite like to have these candelabra go- 
to France, and wishes he might repeat them for Berlin, 
only he would make them three times as high ! This boy- 
ish ebullition of patriotism is indicative of the state of 
feeling in Prussia. He closes to Schinkel, " Don't laugh 
over my marble projects, and let us cherish the pride of 
believing that these carved stones will point out in the 
future where men lived and fashioned the true and the 
beautiful." The life of Rauch's art is in that sentence. 

After more than a year's work the candelabra finally 
went to Hamburg in twenty-four chests, and from thence 
were shipped to Paris. Here they found recognition and 
applause in the art exhibition of 1824. But owing to the 
various changes and revolutions in France, these monu- 
ments never found their place, and it is not known where 
the chests containing them are hidden. All that we have 
is a drawing of Schinkel's sketches, and a plaster cast in 
the Rauch Museum representing the forms of women in 
triumph. 

Another plan which occupied Rauch's mind was a full- 
length statue of the king. In regard to this, the question 
of modern costume arose which became so important. 
A bust of the Princess Charlotte, afterwards Empress of 
Russia, is mentioned for the peculiar turn of the head, 
bringing almost a three-quarters' view when seen in front, 
which characterizes the early bust work of the master. 
He also put the bust of Thorwaldsen in marble. It has 
no drapery but the beautiful flowing .hair, which is han- 
dled with great skill. "The charm of Thorwaldsen's face," 
says Dr. Eggers, "was the blue eye and the childlike, 
friendly look, which gave something divinely inspired ta 
the whole expression. Rietschel had something of its in- 
ward friendliness." To express this, Rauch for the first 
time opened the eye, indicating the pupil, as he frequently 
did afterwards. As a change from the realism of por- 
traiture, Rauch took up again the bass-relief of "Jason going 



88 LIFE OF CHRISTIAN DANIEL RAUCH 

in search of the Golden Fleece," and, after making some 
changes, cast it in plaster. It is in the Rauch Museum. 
The busts of Scharnhorst and Prince Blucher were made 
for the Walhalla. Marble busts of the three allied mon- 
archs, King Frederic William III., and the Emperors 
Francis Joseph and Alexander of Russia, were finished 
in May, 1818, for the Minister von Stein. Besides many 
other busts, the models of the statues of Von Biilow and 
Scharnhorst were made in Carrara in 1818. The head of 
Scharnhorst was modelled after a picture by a painter, 
and a little profile drawing by an amateur. There was not 
even a death-mask. 

While this work was going on, Rauch had turned his 
thoughts to the statue of Blucher. Silesia had already 
made a movement to secure this statue ; and Rauch, on 
hearing of it, had written to the Countess Brandenberg 
to secure it for Tieck. She herself, however, was fully 
decided that Rauch should make the statue, while other 
influential persons wished to give the commission to 
Rudolf Schadow. The princess proposed a concurrence, 
which she thought would stimulate artistic production, 
and even Thorwaldsen was applied to for a sketch. On 
the twentieth of March, 1818, Rauch sent sketches for the 
statue to Breslau. The great warrior is conceived as 
" Marshal Forwards." But it is with a noble, firm step 
that he is represented as moving onwards. " It is almost 
possible," says Dr. Eggers, "to prefer this sketch to the 
one finally executed at Breslau." 

A glance into Rauch's workshop at Carrara would show 
how closely Sculpture, on its material side, is allied to 
Architecture, Mechanics, and Business, and how neces- 
sary practical sagacity and sound judgment are to the 
success of the artist who undertakes great monumental 
works. Besides the thorough acquaintance with the 
materials of clay, stone, marble, bronze, etc., which are 
indispensable to the sculptor, and the direction and 



BERLIN AND LAGERHAUS 89 

control of numerous workmen, the mere keeping of 
accounts, and making contracts on a large scale, is a 
work of no little responsibility. 

Rauch writes to Lund, " I assure you that I seldom- 
pass an evening without being busied at least two hours, 
or often the whole time, with accounts and correspond- 
ence." A busy scene was the workshop under the man- 
agement of Tieck, who was eminently fitted for the 
position. Here Rauch found many of the workmen who 
were afterwards his helpers in his atelier. " Giuseppe, 
the son of Lazzarini, must hew out of the rough, and 
sketch ; Ceccardo goes from bust to bust and points ; now 
steps Lazzarini in with the file; here helps Tieck, who him- 
self makes the eyes, or goes over what Lazzarini has not 
brought out delicately enough : the borer is Solari, and 
he also must make the hair ; Tevi must polish bust after 
bust ; Gaetano belongs to the finishers ; Baba is the 
plinth-maker; but the young Cechino writes the names 
thereon. He has a specially fine hand for the ornamen- 
tal, and must make the stars on the breast, the oak-leaf 
embroidery on the collar, the eagle on the mantle of 
Alexander, even the little tassels, when the others have 
cut them out too stiffly. Gaetano's son, the young and 
bright Franceschino, travels with the master, and wins 
great praise from him, so that he takes him to Berlin." 

The relation to Tieck, which has sometimes been made 
a reproach to Rauch, was a union between two different 
natures, which, working in harmony, admirably completed 
each other ; but Rauch was inevitably the bold, vigorous 
leader, while the other was the careful, painstaking execu- 
tor of the work. At times Tieck longed for a more inde- 
pendent position, but he had not the courage to seize upon 
it when it was offered. Rauch used every effort to per- 
suade him to accept the professorship at Diisseldorf, 
which would have been an advantageous position, as lead- 
ing to still higher employment, and also very beneficial 



QO LIFE OF CHRISTIAN DANIEL RAUCH 

to German education in art ; but Tieck shrank from the 
difficulties of the position and the exertion necessary to 
secure it. Rauch was delighted to retain him as his 
co-worker at Carrara, Berlin, and Rome ; and when he 
let his workshop to Rudolf Schadow, he made the express 
condition that Tieck should have a room in it. Tender 
and sympathetic in his nature, he entered into all the 
interests and pleasures of the workmen, and kept the 
inner life of the atelier harmonious, while Rauch arranged 
the outer and larger part of the work. Dr. Eggers com- 
pares them to a married couple, Tieck being the good 
housewife, who cares for all the economies of the common 
welfare, engages the servants, and makes all around her 
pleasant and happy, living with the more active master 
in perfect concord and understanding. 

Rauch evidently suffered from depression at this time. 
It was probably the reaction from his crowded and excit- 
ing life of work. Tieck writes him consolingly, " Who is 
there in Germany who does not speak your name with a 
kind of reverence, and rejoice in your personal acquaint- 
ance ? " He had great delight in his little daughter, 
enjoying her sports and caresses ; but how much his 
heart, so open to the charms of domestic life as he had 
seen it in his friend Humboldt's family, must have felt 
the want of a true, well-ordered home with an honored 
and beloved wife, which the artist above all men needs, to 
balance the excitement of his work ! This anxiety and 
restlessness at last laid him, in November, on a sick-bed, 
ill with nervous fever. 

He was sleepless from restlessness and impatience. 
Kohlrausch and Hufeland attended him ; and Frances- 
chino, with the peculiar gift of Italians for personal ser- 
vice, made an excellent nurse. 

Tieck's weekly letter from the workshop, bringing 
violets which Teresina had plucked, lay unread. Finally, 
on the twelfth of December, he wrote to Tieck from his 



BERLIN AND LAGERHAUS 91 

bed that they were working day and night on the Lager- 
haus, to get ready the two large ateliers and the small 
one, a dwelling for himself and his people, and a lodging- 
house for Tieck. A relapse followed, and he was not able 
to write again until Christmas. He was much emaciated, 
and the sense of want of vigor in his formerly stately 
form brings out tears of pain. 

Tieck wrote every Sunday ; but as his letters were 
fifteen days on the way, it was long before the echo of 
Rauch's sickness came back. Then he cries, " For God's 
sake calm your mind ; it is worrying that has brought you 
low." He writes of affairs, and says he will be very 
careful, and buy no clothes, and will not go to Leghorn 
and Pisa. He reminds him how much money will be coming 
in in the summer for busts, and closes with, "Would to 
God that I were with you. If I had the means I would 
leave everything and set off this night and travel night 
and day until I reached you." 

But now happiness and enjoyment began to return. 
When the crown prince heard of the sickness of the 
master, he ordered that everything should be sent him 
from his table ; and now when Rauch could again sleep 
and eat, he could choose among the freshest and sweetest 
viands. Strengthening baths were taken, and he looked 
forward to a ride on the ninth of January. 

As soon as he counted himself well, he turned vigor- 
ously to the establishment of his finances, sending urgent 
letters to the princely patrons for whom he had made 
busts, and resolving that he would never take a commis- 
sion for a bust again, except on condition of prepayment 
of one-half the price ; for he holds it unjust to keep an 
artist waiting three years for an outlay of three hundred 
thalers, "to produce sharp noses." He orders the com- 
pletion of his statue of yEsculapius at Carrara, as an 
honorarium to his physician Kohlrausch. He is full of 
delight over an Arab horse lately brought from Con- 



92 LIFE OF CHRISTIAN DANIEL RAUCH 

stantinople, having in mind Apollo with his chariot for 
Schinkel's theatre. Finding that not a stone is touched 
for the atelier, he begins a series of strong, business-like 
letters to the Oberfinanzrath Rothe, who begs him to be 
patient four or five days longer, and to leave all to him. 

Some relief from this wearisome condition was found 
in a journey to Breslau. He was invited thither to a 
conference of the Monument Commission on the sixth 
of October, when many noblemen and landed proprietors 
would assemble there. He went somewhat earlier, partly 
to work on the bass-reliefs, and also to visit the Prieborne 
marble quarries, which had begun to attract attention. 

Rauch at this time felt a little anxious about his own 
finances, and his journey, which required a new travelling- 
carriage costing two hundred and twenty-three thalers, did 
not seem likely to improve them. But he put care behind 
him as he began to feel the wonted charm of travelling ; 
and his first great enjoyment was in passing a whole day 
with Ludwig Tieck in Ziebingen, near Frankfort. Rauch 
indeed knew him less as an author than as the brother of 
his dear friend, but he found great delight in his conver- 
sation, and his pure and delicate feeling for art. 

He reached Breslau on the eleventh, and dwelt in the 
house of Herr von Stein. On the thirtieth he was pre- 
sented to General York, that he might model his head. 
The general received him at a handsome breakfast, and 
Rauch was much impressed by his energy and power. 

On the fourth of October the conference in regard to 
the Bliicher monument took place. It was agreed with 
Baron von Stein and Langhans that, in order to show the 
plan of the monument, a pedestal should be made of 
boards, and a figure of canvas and pasteboard should be 
painted. This shows how little the men of that time were 
accustomed to the erection of statues. 

While modelling the bust of the Duke of York, Rauch 
made some interesting observations on the difficulty of 



BERLIN AND LAGERHAUS 93 

modelling any one part of a man without the rest. This 
is characteristic : he saw things in wholes, in the mutual 
relation of their parts, and the trunk and limbs are as 
expressive as the face. He says, " I have completed this 
head in four days, but I could have done it better in two, 
if it had been on a statue ; it is so much easier to fit the 
right expression to the action, and bring it out, even from 
the beginning, while a bust must be attacked in general, 
and so becomes insignificant." 

He carefully investigated the Prieborne quarries, and in 
his letters to Tieck gives full particulars of the quality of 
the marble. He earnestly desired to find in his own 
fatherland the materials for work ; but he feels that he 
cannot wait for the development of the stone-work here, 
but must return to Carrara. Yet full of impatience and 
many cares as he was at this time, for he felt a stress for 
money which was unusual with him, he neither loses sight 
of the Congress at Aix-la-Chapelle, nor of the potato 
harvest in Carrara, which had been arranged according to 
German methods. And, in spite of his empty pockets, he 
must send to England for the " Stuart and Revett," which 
he wants. The book cost over a hundred and fifty-five 
thalers, but it was a treasury of the best engravings of 
France and England. He must have it. " What a splen- 
did possession ! " he cries. Careful economist as he was, 
he knew how " to spend for his genius." His last days in 
Breslau were made very pleasant by social intercourse, and 
by a visit to Tieck's home, where he had a frolic with the 
children, whom he drew round in their little carriage. 



94 LIFE OF CHRISTIAN DANIEL RAUCH 



CHAPTER VI 

GERMAN ART. SCHOOLS AND MUSEUMS 

1819-1822 

RAUCH'S relations to the life of his time and to the 
development of art in Germany were so intimate, that it 
is impossible fully to understand him without some ac- 
quaintance with the drift of historic events, and the work 
of other artists in Germany. In his second volume, 
whose appearance was long delayed, in order to make use 
of new material in the correspondence of Rauch, Dr. 
Eggers gives an interesting sketch of this youthful bloom 
of art in Germany, when every tendency of thought and 
every phase of feeling seemed to find expression. I can 
give only a slight rtsumt of these influences as they espe- 
cially influenced Rauch. 

"The summer of 1819 was sultry in its physical and 
spiritual aspects. The reactionary spirit of the govern- 
ment shown in the Carlsbad decree against the associa- 
tions of students had caused profound dissatisfaction, 
which broke forth in the murder of Kotzebue by young 
Sand, a deed which distressed the friends of freedom 
more than it intimidated its foes." "Is that the spirit," 
writes Frau von Humboldt from Rome, " that animates 
our German youth ?". 

Wilhelm von Humboldt retires from the ministry, since 
he cannot guide the state to constitutional freedom. The 
German thinkers withdrew from politics into the calmer 
regions of speculation and study. The armies of France 
had been driven out of the fatherland, but her ideas still 
held a strong sway in literature and art. 



GERMAN ART. SCHOOLS AND MUSEUMS 95 

How much the intellectual life of Germany turned away 
from politics appears in the diaries of Rauch. He had 
followed with keen interest every detail of the War of 
Freedom, but now the most stirring events of the time 
receive scarcely a comment. The murder of the Duke de 
Berri in 1820 is briefly mentioned, followed by a note that 
Ceccardo has made the first point on a relief for the 
Biilow monument. As slightly are noted the Turin Revo- 
lution of 1823, the death of Pope Pius VII., and the acces- 
sion of Leo. XII., and even the death of the Emperor 
Alexander, and the mutiny when Nicholas ascended the 
throne in 1826. He says of the Russian movement, " The 
issue of this tumult indicates the intention to overthrow 
the Russian dynasty, and to erect a republic; to repeat 
the madness of the Neapolitans, the Piedmontese, and the 
Spaniards ; only with less humanity, and with less good 
fortune than the young emperor was able to secure for 
himself." 

But the struggles of Greece for freedom, which awak- 
ened sympathy even in many conservative hearts, since 
reverence for antiquity united with interest in humanity, 
called renewed attention to the classics, and gave fresh 
meaning to old allegories. At the same time an excite- 
ment for the Christian church, which caused many rever- 
sions to Catholicism, led also to a renewed study of the 
history and mythology of the Middle Ages ; while the 
younger men, full of hope and patriotism, would hear of 
nothing but German religion, art, and science. Thus, 
while we see the same confusion and jarring of many dif- 
ferent influences in the world of art and literature, as in 
the political world, we yet find rich activity and life, a 
drinking anew from old historic sources, and an openness 
to new influences. History is no longer a dead letter, a 
dry record of facts, but a study of the evolution of 
humanity. Thus a history of art arises, and it is seen 
how art is related to the historic development and spirit- 
ual life of the people. 



96 LIFE OF CHRISTIAN DANIEL RAUCH 

To this upheaving of life was added what was indeed 
necessary to give it solid success, a great advance in 
the material means at command for the expression of 
thought. 

Art could no longer be confined to a few wealthy 
patrons, or be at the command of an exclusive church, if 
it was to bear its part in this great uprising of the peo- 
ple ; and the arts of reproduction needed to be greatly 
extended to carry on the education of the masses. Albert 
Diirer and others had in the first time of Protestantism 
found the value of such means in influencing the people. 
We find Goethe deeply interested in the improved meth- 
ods of engraving, and especially of lithography, which 
gives with so much truth the chiaro-scuro and feeling of 
the original work. Steel-engraving and printing in colors 
excited much attention in England. But most important 
of all was the wonderful invention of Daguerre, who began 
his experiments in photographic work in 1822, although it 
was nearly .twenty years before he attained satisfactory 
results. This art has revolutionized methods of reproduc- 
tion, and has proved a powerful ally, instead of a danger- 
ous rival, to genuine art work. At the same time the 
art-unions began their work of mediating between the 
artist and the public by introducing the works of one to 
the other. Without denying that they have been capable 
of errors and even follies, we cannot but recognize the 
great service they have done in spreading the knowledge 
and enjoyment of art. There is a beneficent process of 
natural selection always going on in art, which, if it may 
possibly sweep away a few jewels, saves us from being 
overwhelmed with the rags of the garments we have out- 
grown. 

In 1824, in Berlin, artists and friends of art united 
to obtain commissions for their countrymen studying in 
Rome. Humboldt was the soul of this little band, to 
which Rauch, Tieck, Schinkel, Wach, Schadow, and Begas 



GERMAN ART. SCHOOLS AND MUSEUMS 97 

belonged. They now proposed to extend it under the 
name of "Union of Friends of Art in the Prussian State." 
At Rauch's request, the king examined the plan of the 
union, and consented to be its patron. Goethe expressed 
warm interest in it. In the spring of 1824 Rauch writes 
to Lund, " that the union is already in its desired path. 
There is money," he says, " but as yet no acceptable 
pictures ; this rouses up the good painters, and the public 
is very sympathetic." It found less welcome in Rome. 
But the fruits of years of study of German artists in 
Rome were now appearing, and young artists were return- 
ing to their native land full of eagerness to ripen their 
talents in German air. Finally all these tendencies 
towards activity .in art found a concrete expression in 
King Ludwig of Bavaria, who esteemed the promotion 
of art the great object of government. Alike devoted to 
classic art and German glory, he built his Walhalla with 
an eager haste and impatience corresponding to the spirit 
of the times. " I don't treat art as a dessert," he said to 
Rauch ; " it must be our beefsteak." He would gladly 
have drawn Rauch into his own exclusive service as a 
sculptor ; but Rauch's early relations to the royal family 
of Prussia, and his strong attachment to them, made it 
impossible for him to leave his home in Berlin. He had, 
however, frequent and pleasant relations with King Lud- 
wig ; but we agree with Dr. Eggers that it was most fortu- 
nate that he preserved his independent position, and was 
not drawn into the rapid current of the royal amateur's 
designs. In Schwanthaler, King Ludwig found a man 
whose lively fancy and rapid execution suited him. Rauch 
founded his school on the principle of thorough work, and 
spared neither time nor labor to carry out his ideas to the 
most perfect expression. 

Rauch was not at all carried away by the romantic 
school, so far as it was represented by mysticism and 
Catholicism. He always remained a liberal Protestant, 



98 LIFE OF CHRISTIAN DANIEL RAUCH 

and studied alike the lessons of antiquity and the needs 
of his own time. 

At the same time Berlin was fast becoming, under the 
direction of Schinkel, a noble capital of art ; the painters 
were decorating the Opera House, and under the direction 
of Rauch a great school of sculpture was being rapidly 
established. 

In the spring of 1819 Rauch was in the full tide of 
activity in the Lagerhaus, happy in the companionship 
of his friend Tieck and the skilful co-operation of his 
laborers. He writes to Frau von Humboldt, " Tieck has 
made a stepping Apollo in clay, splendidly successful ! 
If it were only possible to get him an order for marble ! 
Do you know how beautifully he can work in that 
material ?" 

The great demand for busts continued ; and Rauch 
writes in regard to the bust of Hardenberg, " The people 
have gone mad over the likeness, but I cannot find the 
least pleasure in it." Rauch began to model a colossal 
bust of Frederic the Great. Many other commissions 
poured in, some of which indeed came to naught ; but in a 
few months the atelier was crowded full, and all were busy 
and merry. 

Now that his work was thus prosperously going on, 
Rauch indulged himself in the happiness of a visit to the 
home from which he had so long been absent. He had 
last seen his mother in 1797, when he accompanied King 
Frederic William on his journey. She had died in 1810. 
A very aged brother of hers, Johannes Hildebrandt, was 
yet living in Mengeringhausen ; and some distant cousins 
on his mother's side, and the widow Marhof Niggemannat 
Flechtdorf, to whom Rauch had given his mother's inher- 
itance, remained. He found also a cousin, the court- 
physician Mundhenck, who was happily married, and had 
two charming daughters, living in Pyrmont. His own 
blooming young daughter Agnes accompanied him on the 
journey 



GERMAN ART. SCHOOLS AND MUSEUMS 99 

He spent three refreshing weeks in this family life, and 
the intercourse thus renewed was always kept up. His 
relations delighted to send him sausages and other delica- 
cies for the household. His daughter Agnes, who had 
been for the last five years at the Luisenstift, now took 
charge of his housekeeping, and made pleasant little 
social parties in the home. He had a visit from his rela- 
tives, and took pains to give his medical cousin every 
opportunity of professional observation in Berlin, and 
himself showed the party everything of interest in the 
world of art. 

He afterwards went to Pyrmont in search of health. 
He writes to Humboldt, " Since the beginning of the year 
[1821], when the cold and wet weather began, I have suf- 
fered uninterruptedly from pains in the limbs, which were 
as good as cured by Kohlrausch. I pass the nights with- 
out sleep, sometimes when I am travelling, in wildest 
delirium. By day this bad condition hinders me from 
work, and drives me to hypochondria. I shall go to Pyr- 
mont at the end of this month." These pains appear to 
have been caused by his habit, when absorbed in his work, 
of kneeling down in the damp clay, although he preferred 
rather to believe them to be a result of the severe nervous 
fever from which he had suffered. He spent the summer 
months at the baths, and made a few busts, among them 
one of his medical cousin. 

Every journey afforded him opportunities of artistic 
study and pleasure. At Braunschweig he enjoyed the 
fine pictures, and at Hildesheim the rich old bronzes. 
He was much interested in studying the manner in which 
these were cast, as is plainly to be seen "in the Euripides, 
not over a model in ' cire perdue,' but in the modern 
manner with a core." He was already interested in this 
method of casting, in relation to his Bliicher statue. 

He made comparisons between the antique and medi- 
aeval work, and spoke disparagingly of Peter Fischer's 



IOO LIFE OF CHRISTIAN DANIEL RAUCH 

reliefs, saying they were coarse, like those of an ignorant 
founder. " How unhappy were we sculptors but for Greek 
art and its works ! " he cries. He found reason to modify 
this judgment, however, when he saw more of Vischer's 
productions. Not only art, but nature, gave him the 
keenest delight. He noted every tree and stone, the 
form of the clouds, the lights and shadows, and was 
grieved when night came on and concealed the sur- 
roundings. If his daughter fell asleep from the heat 
of the day or motion of the carriage, he called out, " For 
shame ! look about you ! " But he could not bear the 
senseless chatter of admiration, and forbade the use of 
" himmlisch schon" or " fiirchterlich reizend" even when 
passing through the wild, picturesque scenery of the 
Saxon Switzerland. He delighted to live over again with 
his daughter the lively feelings with which, in his first 
journey to Dresden, he had seen the beauties of his 
own land. Rauch's personal happiness centred more and 
more in his beloved Agnes. He took the younger, nine- 
year-old daughter Doris from school, and secured for her 
a governess, who for forty years acted as housekeeper, 
and took charge of his home and daughters most success- 
fully. Agnes was old enough to enter society, and her 
own charming character and manners, as well as the 
regard for her father, secured her a cordial welcome in 
the best families of Berlin. He accompanied her to balls, 
masquerades, and receptions. She must always present 
herself in her ball-dress beforehand for his criticism, that 
she might not, in compliance with fashion, infringe on 
the real laws of beauty. She must leave the ball at the 
prescribed hour as punctually as Cinderella, and no en- 
treaties served to prolong the time of amusement. She 
must give up the rich viands which her father despised, 
and enjoy the ham and potato soup whose fragrance 
always greeted her return home. 

During his middle life Rauch was subject to severe 



GERMAN ART. SCHOOLS AND MUSEUMS IOI 

attacks of headache. He would continue at his work as 
long as possible, trying to drive off the attack ; but when 
sight failed him he would come up from the atelier, say- 
ing, " I am good for nothing." The pain was usually so 
severe that he must go to bed, often for some days, with- 
out eating anything, being almost unconscious until the 
attack wore off, usually about nightfall. Then he rose 
up, ate his potato soup and ham, and returned to take up 
his work where he had left it. These were black days in 
his calendar. He counted them every year on Sylvester 
Day, as, " Twenty-two headaches, of which eighteen were 
in bed." Sometimes with the addition, "The only inter- 
ruption to work." One year, when he noted twenty-six, 
he says, " Except this fatality, I was never better in my 
life." The attacks grew less in later life, as he often 
remarked for the comfort of young people who suffered 
in a similar way. 

He was very regular in his diet, and did not like to take 
anything but his usual meals, and he was never known 
to approach anything like a debauch on any occasion. 
He loved the society of cultivated men, and talked much 
and well on all subjects in which he was interested, but 
in the atelier he was perfectly silent. *He shared in all 
the entertainments of the court, in concerts where Cata- 
lani and Sontag sang, and in the tableaux and private 
theatricals where Faust was acted by dukes and princess- 
es. He rarely visited the theatre, except for some great 
work of dramatic art. He enjoyed Gluck's "Alceste;" 
and often his sculptor's eye was delighted with the forms 
and movements of the actors. " Don Juan " was his favor- 
ite opera, while he cared little for the popular " Der 
Freischutz," and could not fix its melodies in his mind. 

He was frank and generous in his judgment of other 
artists, even when their theories and methods differed 
greatly from his own. A touch of irony sometimes 
appears in his estimate of the "genre'' painting of his 



IO2 LIFE OF CHRISTIAN DANIEL RAUCH 

day. He warmly recognized the genius of Leopold 
Robert, whom he had known in Rome, and introduced 
this leader of Realism to the Berlin Academy, and ordered 
a picture for his own gallery. He had great personal 
sympathy for artists, especially if they were earnest and 
laborious ; and for one who was sick he exerted himself 
to obtain commissions for copies. He gratefully remem- 
bered his old master, Ruhl, and endeavored to assist his 
sons, whose own merits would not give them the high 
places they coveted. For nothing else would have led 
him to take the painter, Ludwig Ruhl, under his personal 
care, and seek to introduce his pictures to Prince Charles. 
His pictures (of horses) were not indeed worthless ; but, 
being a handsome man, he paid more attention to his 
clothes than to the canvas on his easel ; and was too eager 
for high society, where he might play the fine gentleman, 
to please Rauch, who had no attraction to the fool 
(liausnarr). 

Rauch also assisted his old master when he was de- 
prived of his office and work in Cassel, procured marble 
for him, and took an interest in his work, although his old 
master deprecates his employing his sharp, critical blade 
upon it. The younger son, Julius, became an excellent 
architect in Frankfort on the Main, and later the Hessian 
electoral court building director. 

Rauch kept up his connection with Rome through 
occasional correspondence with Frau von Humboldt and 
other friends. He writes with delight that the king has 
ordered Rudolf Schadow's " Achilles and Penthesilea " in 
marble. But Schadow never finished the group. 

On the twelfth of January, 1822, Frau Buti sent Ru- 
dolf's best greetings, and gave notice of a dinner which 
Signor Alberto (Thorwaldsen) had given to the household. 
They danced, and drank punch made from lemons from 
Ranch's garden, giving him a special " Hoch " as the 
patron of lemons. Schadow had planted lemons, apples, 



GERMAN ART. SCHOOLS AND MUSEUMS 103 

and palms in the garden in remembrance of Rauch. 
Fourteen days after the feast he was taken ill with an in- 
flammation on the chest ; and Rauch was startled with the 
news that, on the first of the next month, their friend had 
found his last resting-place in S. Andrea della Fratte. 
Frau Buti took charge of studio and garden until Emil 
Wolff was sent as a five-years' pensioner to Rome. He 
remained there in constant correspondence with Rauch 
until his death. 

His correspondence and friendship with Lund was 
equally close and enduring. After making a rich student 
journey with Wach, in which he gathered treasures of 
sketches of Italian painters, Lund left the Eternal City, 
more than a year after Rauch. He accompanied Thorwald- 
sen, "who gave way to a new race in Rome," to his home, 
where a number of commissions awaited him for many 
altar pieces, and for painting the introduction of Chris- 
tianity into Denmark for the royal castle. A pupil of 
David's, he had kept closely to classicism, and had be- 
longed to the select Humboldt circle. He only agreed in 
the choice of subjects with " Nazareth," which he believed 
to be already dying out. To Lund the correspondence 
with Rauch was most precious, for he felt the want of 
artistic sympathy in Copenhagen very deeply; and his 
homesickness for Rome was not relieved until he became 
betrothed, and wrote joyfully to Rauch of his new-found 
happiness. He earnestly desired the same blessing for 
his friend. 

With all his blessings Rauch had indeed often felt the 
want of a centre to his home, a partner of his joys and 
sorrows ; but, as he had before said to Schinkel, he now 
answered to Lund, that, if he did not follow his example, 
" it lay not in his will." But he was now very happy in his 
work in the Lagerhaus, and his family life with his daughters. 

His birthday was a standing festival at the Lagerhaus. 
Here his artistic friends assembled, accompanied by their 



IO4 LIFE OF CHRISTIAN DANIEL RAUCH 

wives, and filled up the hour in pleasant intercourse. One 
of the company unrolled a copy of verses an ell long, in 
which he recounted how the Great Elector made his 
legendary round on New Year's night to inspire the 
Rauch statues, and to secure the order for the statue of 
old Fritz. 

But however gay and pleasant the social life, when 
Ranch returned to the atelier he was again the silent, 
earnest master, devoted to work himself, and requiring the 
same diligence from others. " I am again in my accus- 
tomed course of work," he says, on his return from a 
journey ; "that is, to rise and go to bed with the lark, and 
between times to work eight or nine hours." From half- 
past five in the morning, when the neighbors in summer or 
winter saw him place the shaving-mirror so punctually at 
the window that they could set their clocks, by it, until 
breakfast, he conducted his correspondence, in which his 
rule was of great punctuality. The time until one o'clock, 
when he took his noonday meal, was given to the atelier. 
Here the greatest order and neatness prevailed. It made 
him unhappy that an old measuring-circle that he had 
used in his years of study got mislaid. He disliked any 
interruption, and looked upon every one who came during 
his working-hours without great necessity as a thief. But 
he was very glad to receive those who were earnest to 
learn, and gave them the clear, frank criticism which he 
prized so much himself. When the king visited the stu- 
dio, and criticised the long over-hose of the Bliicher statue, 
Rauch said, " He is perfectly right." He showed the 
work of his pupils to the king, and was pleased that they 
gained his approbation. 

A break in the enjoyment of the Lagerhaus came from 
the constant attempts of various persons to get possession 
of a part of it for other purposes. Every year some con- 
test of this nature must be fought. Once he had to resist 
the letting of a hall for the exhibition of a sea monster ; 



GERMAN ART. SCHOOLS AND MUSEUMS 1 05 

and he obtained the promise of its castellan that "in 
future no cattle shall be brought into the neighborhood 
of your Excellency's atelier." He had to threaten an 
appeal to the king, which finally secured him in peaceable 
possession. He added an annex to the Lagerhaus for a 
marble-yard, in which he could store marbles sent from 
Carrara. The great cost of marble prevented the use of 
this stone, which Rauch considered the best adapted for 
ideal work. He was not satisfied that the artist should 
model only the soft clay ; he felt that he should, with 
hammer and chisel, give the last touches to the hard 
stone. He stored up blocks of marble, which he carefully 
selected in Carrara, both for his own use and for sale to 
other artists, many of whom took advantage of the oppor- 
tunity. It remained for many decades the chief source of 
, supply for Germany. The English imitated his example 
until, finally, the price of marble rose so much, that in 
1828, good Carrara marble was cheaper in Berlin than in 
Rome. 

He had imported not only marble but marble- workers ; 
and his example was followed by Thorwaldsen and others, 
until the supply of skilled workmen was exhausted, and 
Wolff found it very difficult to secure suitable assistants. 

Rauch tried to secure a pension for the men he had 
brought from Carrara, to support them while there was a 
lack of work in marble, as their skill would soon be needed 
for the restoration of antique works for the museum. He 
succeeded in gaining an allowance of two hundred thalers. 
When, however, the hope of a permanent foundation for 
marble sculpture was given up, all the workmen but 
Ceccardo Gilli finally returned to their homes. He was a 
very young man, and he became devotedly attached to the 
master, and remained with him until his death. 

Many of his German scholars were very helpful and 
dear to him ; but dearest of all were Rietschel and Drake, 
who came to him in 1826 and 1827. Rietschel, indeed, 



IO6 LIFE OF CHRISTIAN DANIEL KAUCH 

became bound to him in a friendship so close, tender, and 
enduring, that Dr. Eggers compares it to that noble tie 
between Goethe and Schiller, which Rietschel has immor- 
talized in his statue. He was at first repelled by Rauch's 
earnest, even severe, manner. But when Rauch had seen 
Rietschel's drawings, and his model of a bust, and espe- 
cially a sketch of Tyrolean singers, the Rainers, he was 
so much struck with the character of the work, that he 
gave it warm praise ; and it was quickly decided that 
Rietschel should remain in the atelier. Rauch was a 
severe critic, but he was overflowing with delight when he 
discovered new talent or excellence in any one. He used 
few words, but illustrated his meaning by actual work on 
the object, cutting away or adding or changing with a 
master-stroke. An anecdote told by Rietschel shows his 
manner of teaching. 

Rauch asked him if he had modelled a relief. Rietschel 
had no idea about it, and thought a relief was only a figure 
cut through the middle, with its flat side laid down. 
Rauch told him to take a manikin, which was draped in 
calico, and had served for a figure of an apostle, and make 
a Paul, with a book under his arm and a sword in the other 
hand. Berghes showed him how to lay out the nude 
figure ; and Rietschel, knowing nothing of the flat princi- 
ples of relief, went on building it up higher and rounder, 
until the outer arm stood almost free, and the drapery fol- 
lowed it with ever-increasing impossibility. Rietschel 
says, " Rauch came day after day, saw the work, and went 
away without saying a word. I thought that indicated 
great satisfaction, and I went on encouraged. Finally, on 
the third day, he asked me for a wire, which I reached 
him, full of expectation. Then he cut down the height 
of the figure almost one-half, till he left only a high out- 
line, and said, ' How could you make such an infamous 
tinker's work? It should be only so high.' " He laid down 
the wire and went away. Tears stood in the pupil's eyes 



GERMAN ART. SCHOOLS AND MUSEUMS IO/ 

over his failure. But the friendly Berghes came to his 
aid ; and Rietschel, having given his mind to the subject, 
made a relief which must have satisfied his master, 
since he used it later as one of the ornaments of his 
staircase. 

Rauch's principle of teaching was self-instruction, not 
only because he had gained his own knowledge in that 
way, but because he believed it was the only thorough 
one. 

He expected pure love and a full surrender to art, and 
constant effort, after the best of which one is capable. 
Worldly ambition was offensive to him in others : he 
never felt it himself. As Rietschel was once trying to 
model a free figure that Rauch had given him as an exer- 
cise, Tieck found him in great despair over his own want 
of power. Tieck, who was often the consoler when 
Rauch had been severe in blame, relieved Rietschel by a 
playfulness which was in line with Rauch's thought. 
" What are you so troubled about ? " he said. " Do you 
wish to make a masterpiece ? Never mind Rauch ! " 
Rauch may be said to have known no other aim than 
striving for the best. Every finished exercise was only a 
stepping-stone to another ; and he struggled like a young 
man who exerted himself as if he had never done any- 
thing in his life. He was modest in the deepest sense of 
the word, and relentless towards himself. If anything 
displeased him in his work, he would destroy months of 
labor, and unweariedly begin anew. Thus he always re- 
mained young, because he always began every work with 
fresh ardor and zeal, as if he had accomplished nothing. 

The closest relation existed between Rauch and his 
master, Gottfried Schadow, and his elder friend Thorwald- 
sen. Thorwaldsen had renewed the classic feeling in 
sculpture. He left to Greece itself its highest god, the 
Zeus ; but he used the beautiful circle of Greek forms to 
express the whole range of thought and feeling, of force, 



IOS LIFE OF CHRISTIAN DANIEL RAUCH 

craft, and strength, but especially of love, the master- 
passion of life, the all-conquering " Amor," which is alike 
his first and last work. By no means slavish in his imi- 
tation of the Greek masterpieces, but using their method 
of simplicity and repose to express new thoughts, his 
works seem almost a continuation of theirs, and to link 
themselves happily to a circle of plastic Christian repre- 
sentations. His Christ and his apostles express the mod- 
ern feeling in fit harmony with the ancient form, showing 
that true art is not a fossilized but a progressive creation. 

Thorwaldsen hardly belonged to any nation ; and he 
does not express the life of his time even in his portrait 
and monumental statues. He avoids the question of 
modern costume, and uses either a wholly Roman costume, 
or a modification of the cloak, or a dress of the Middle 
Ages. 

Gottfried Schadow works in quite a different direction. 
He does not shun the question of modern costume, but 
meets it directly. 

On the twenty-eighth of July, 1781, at three o'clock in 
the morning, the master Tassaert sent his apprentice, 
Gottfried Schadow, seventeen years old, to draw the ruins 
of the tower of a church lately overthrown. Picturesque 
ruins had until then only been known by engravings and 
pictures ; and artists and dilettanti thronged to take advan- 
tage of this actual ruin for purposes of study. Schadow 
had the greatest success in his picture, and his artistic 
existence may be said to date from this event. 

Penetrated by his love of reality, Schadow went to 
Rome, where he preferred the Roman art to the Greek, 
especially where, in the delineation of men of the period, 
it proved faithful to every detail, from the crown of the 
helmet to the rim of the sandal. But the delicate sense 
of beauty, and the true artistic feeling of Schadow, pre- 
served him from the excesses of realism ; and although he 
has not the wide popularity of Thorwaldsen, whose tender 



GERMAN ART. SCHOOLS AND MUSEUMS IOQ 

sentiment is felt by all classes, he is equally prized by 
connoisseurs. 

As Dr. Eggers has well expressed it, " From the Greeks 
flow the fountains for which men thirsted." This people 
dwelt close to art : art was to them nature, and Thor- 
waldsen drew from the natural source. But the springs 
of nature flow unceasingly in actual life, and to them 
Schadow turned. 

So he went to the living world, and measured and drew 
hundreds of men of all ages and classes, to find the most 
beautiful proportions of the human figure, and in this 
laborious, empirical way to settle the question by his 
own standard whether the German human form corre- 
sponded to Greek laws. 

He followed nature so closely, that he boldly repre- 
sented the historic men in the clothing which they wore 
in life. Thus he unconsciously reached the Greek prin- 
ciple, on which he laid his foundation of portraiture ; for 
the Greeks held it to be a fundamental principle so to 
fashion the individual man as he was clothed in life. The 
character of a personality penetrates his clothing, and 
determines it. The truth of the kernel breaks through 
the shell. As the poet says, " Nature has neither kernel 
nor shell; both are alike." Therefore that clothing will 
be most natural to a man which he has worn all his life. 

According to this idea, Schadow wished to represent 
Frederic the Great in the costume of his time, as he also 
modelled the beautiful group of the crown princess and 
her sister, not omitting the band around her throat. 
Rauch admired his work in this respect, and speaks of his 
Luther monument as " a nafve, true, and excellent work." 

While Thorwaldsen and Schadow thus brought out 
with admirable skill and feeling the varying characteristics 
of classicism and realism, it was the special merit of a 
third artist, Rauch, to unite these differing tendencies in 
an organic unity. He gave full emphasis to the inde- 



IIO LIFE OF CHRISTIAN DANIEL RAUCH 

pendence of individuality, but he escaped the fetters of 
bare naturalism and narrow actuality, while he rose in the 
region of the universal, and in the free world of thought, 
bringing out his noblest self. " This, his achievement, is 
the history of art ; and for the development of sculpture 
we must unquestionably accept it as a fact, and as a 
method of work consciously dictated throughout." 

Not that Rauch worked on a theory of eclecticism, tak- 
ing so much of reality and so much of ideality, but that 
his whole perception of natural forms was so clear, and his 
thought was so vivid, that this method of conceiving art 
sprang out of his whole life. He was helped by Schadow 
and Thorwaldsen, as he also helped them ; for it is not the 
prerogative of genius to stand isolated and alone, but to 
gather into itself the influences of his time, and give them 
out to others again in fresh organic life. 

Schadow and Thorwaldsen were genial enough not to 
be uninfluenced by Rauch. The proof is in their works, 
while Rauch's constant recognition of his indebtedness to 
them fully appears in his diary. 

If Schadow did not go so far as Thorwaldsen in his in- 
difference to national interests and feelings, yet he did not 
feel the full influence of the modern life of the people, 
but recognized the grandeur of dynasties as a thing apart 
from the life of the people's heart. Although actually 
only thirteen years younger than Schadow, Rauch's artis- 
tic career really began much later ; and almost at the very 
time of his recognized mastership at Berlin, Schadow 
was ready to lay down the chisel. Schadow had his strug- 
gles early in life in his efforts to marry the woman he 
loved, and to provide means of support. Rauch had his 
outward existence smoothed for him, and his struggle was 
to escape to his ideal life. But even the years in the 
queen's antechamber brought precious results, for the 
close tie which bound him to the king and queen gave him 
a deep personal affection for them, as well as a strong love 



GERMAN ART. SCHOOLS AND MUSEUMS III 

of his country ; and he was born with the nation in her 
throes of agony, and rightly became her representative in 
art when she was again prosperous and happy. Neither 
the nation's foe nor the hand of death could conquer the 
noble Louise : she rose again in his art, more truly 
the queen of the nation than ever before ; and if. she was 
the founder of the Unity of Germany, he helped to give 
form and substance to her work. Thus in art, as in life, 
he belonged to his own period ; and he most truly mirrors 
the life of his own time because he so deeply studied the 
whole life of the past ; and he is most true to his own 
people because he was so free from provincial narrowness, 
and recognized worth and loved goodness in every peo- 
ple. Germany must live in his spirit. She has achieved 
unity ; she needs now to broaden her lines, and to enter 
into true relations of respect and mutual benefit with her 
neighbors, in order to develop a national life equal to the 
intellectual glory which her poets, artists, and philoso- 
phers have shed around her. 

The formation of noble museums in her national capi- 
tal is one of the benefits which Germany owes indirectly 
to the victorious career of the man whom she este'emed 
her greatest enemy, and is one of the ever-recurring 
proofs how life can bring good out of evil, and victory 
out of defeat. 

The collection of ancient works, gathered from all 
Europe, and shown so freely at Paris, was a grand object- 
lesson, which led all men to consider the preciousness of 
these works of art, and the importance of placing them 
in proper care. Five and thirty statues stood in the 
antique gallery, labelled " Fruits of the Conquest of 
Germany." How many Germans then recorded a vow 
that these statues should be once more returned to their 
owners, and that the nation should become their guardi- 
ans ! One of the articles of the proposed treaty of peace 
required their return. In September, 1815, the returned 



112 LIFE OF CHRISTIAN DANIEL RAUCH 

works of art were placed on exhibition, and all felt the 
need of a suitable, permanent place for them. 

Perhaps for the first time in Europe it was felt that 
works of art should be the birthright of the people rather 
than the private delight of kings and nobles. All lovers 
of art knew that in the museum open to the people lay 
a powerful lever to raise the whole structure of art. The 
king entered warmly into these plans. A great impulse 
was given to the desire for a suitable museum building, 
by the purchase, in 1815, in Paris, of the celebrated 
Giustiniani Gallery, with which should be united what 
could be found in the royal palaces at Berlin, Potsdam, 
and Charlottenburg. One hundred and fifty-four pictures 
out of that gallery, and twenty single ones that the king 
had bought elsewhere, passed under Rauch's windows ; 
and the king had also commanded many copies after 
Raphael, and his own full-length figure in life-size, by 
Gerard. 

Rauch announces to Tieck in triumph, that on the four- 
teenth of February, 1816, one hundred and thirty-five 
pictures of the old German masters will come from Heidel- 
berg, the collection of the brothers Boisseree. He thinks 
the matter is all arranged that they are to pay ten thousand 
thalers, which will go for the finishing of the Cologne 
Cathedral, and so there is great joy all around. But, 
unfortunately for Berlin, the rejoicing was premature ; 
and after Schinkel thought the matter all arranged, the 
pictures went to Munich, the decisive "yes " not having 
been said soon enough by the ministry. 

In the ye'ar 1820 the great museum was planned, and 
Rauch took the warmest interest in Schinkel's plans for 
it, and in his struggle to carry them out. Schinkel went 
to Italy to study buildings, and also to procure casts from 
the antique and other works of art ; and he constantly 
writes of them to Rauch. Already the museum project 
had influenced Rauch's artistic career, since it led to his 



GERMAN ART. SCHOOLS AND MUSEUMS 113 

being commissioned to purchase works of art in Italy, 
and to have casts made there; and he was also much 
employed in making restorations of ancient statues, which 
led him to a very careful study of classic art. 

He secured the Barberini Faun, and casts of the 
Colossus of Monte Cavallo and other fine works; and 
Altenstein, the minister of state, approved of all, and 
adds, "You will oblige me very much if, during your 
residence in Italy, you will leave nothing unobserved 
which can be important to us in future for the progress 
of art." And Rauch replies, " I will, with the greatest 
zeal, do everything to secure for the Prussian state that 
pre-eminence in this department which it already enjoys 
through so many other scientific establishments." 

Bunsen and Thorwaldsen assisted in this work, and 
Paris and London furnished objects of interest to add to 
the collections. 

In iSjQ a tourist gave such glowing accounts of dis- 
coveries in the land of Delos, that Wolff was sent to 
Greece, with an architect named Wessenburgh, at the 
cost of the state. 

After an absence of six months, they reported to Rauch 
an almost total failure in attaining the object of their 
expedition ; the representations of the tourists proving 
incorrect and false. They express their convictions that 
without further excavations there is nothing to be gained. 
Time seems to have justified their opinion. 

But the work of the museum did not always run 
smoothly, and there was much difference of opinion 
between artists and connoisseurs. Rauch complained that 
"literary appointees did nothing right at the museum. 
Professor Gerhard has invented the convenient term 
' apparatus,' and on these he works and fusses. He is 
now going again to Italy (where I and a thousand others 
might like to run every hour), to Greece, etc., while the 
work for making known the treasures of Berlin is at a 



114 LIFE OF CHRISTIAN DAXIEL KAL'CH 

stand. It is dreadful ! Wilhelm von Humboldt plainly 
foresaw this sinecureship, and now a great deal of friction 
has occurred ; for as the building of the museum ap- 
proaches completion, the question of filling the rooms 
comes into the foreground, and it is necessary to decide 
what objects should be received, and to arrange the 
appointments of the administration." Important addi- 
tions were made to the commission, which consisted of 
very able men, and Rauch was appointed as " one to be 
trusted for competent judgment, on account of the high 
position in which he stands in respect to art culture, by 
his acquaintance with the finest pictures that exist in 
foreign galleries, and especially in relation to antique 
sculpture." 

Much controversy arose in regard to the additions to 
the committee ; but Rauch was finally fully appointed, 
May 1 6, 1829, and in a month he presented a plan for 
placing the antique sculpture in the Rotunda, and for the 
hall, afterwards called that of "the gods and heroes." 
A year was passed in the necessary restorations, in 
framing, hanging, and placing the pictures, and at last 
Rauch had the satisfaction of seeing the result of eight 
years' care. 

The building was finished in 1830, and Rauch writes to 
Rietschel, "The museum of statues and pictures is the 
most delightful which I have ever seen for similar pur- 
poses, and the great beauty of the whole pleases me yet 
more than the finest antique statue." 

July I, 1830, the king visited the new museum for the 
first time, with the Duke of Mecklenburg, and was received 
by Briihl, Schinkel, Tieck, Wach, Levezow, and Rauch. 
He expressed unconditional satisfaction with the work. 
The museum was opened to the public on the third of 
August, as an offering to the people, on the king's sixty- 
first birthday. On the same day the news of the Revolu- 
tion of July in Paris was received at Berlin. 



GERMAN ART. SCHOOLS AND MUSEUMS 115 

At the same time that Rauch was working so busily 
with others for the great museum, he was actively engaged 
in his atelier, that new institution of art which he con- 
trolled as governor and final authority. It would be 
interesting to follow in detail Rauch's work in the resto- 
ration of statues, but it would require too much space. 
He says that " from 1824 till 1829, five to seven workmen 
were uninterruptedly engaged in this exacting and weary 
business. Twenty-nine subjects were wholly, and nine 
others partly finished. As he was going to Munich, he 
left what further work remained in Tieck's hands." 

Rauch urges the purchase of two bagnaroles from the 
ruins of the baths of Diocletian, although the restoration 
of the handles, with other repairs and polishing, will cost 
two thousand scudi, which Humboldt thinks very dear ; 
but yet the finished vessels will be of great rarity and 
beauty; "for," he says, "besides the one intended for your 
majesty, there is only one similar, and that of less beauty, 
in the Vatican at Rome." The king approved the pur- 
chase, and in April, 1820, they arrived in Berlin, and were 
temporarily placed in the Art Academy. In connection 
with the Danish and Russian Museums, he procured casts 
of the ^Eginetan marbles, and thus was able to have the 
whole series for Berlin. By an exchange with the British 
museum he also obtained casts of some of the Elgin mar- 
bles, of which Caroline von Humboldt had written him 
glowing accounts. 

Rauch took pains to arouse interest in every direction, 
in order to increase the collections. He tried to get casts 
of the statues in the Cologne Cathedral, and asks Beuth 
to procure anything possible in London. 

October 12, 1820, a cabinet order was issued, by which 
the art treasures of royal palaces, gardens, and galleries 
were given to the public museums. 

Rauch was much interested in the picture gallery, and 
all felt confidence not only in his taste, but in his skill in 



Il6 LIFE OF CHRISTIAN DANIEL RAUCH 

managing delicate business relations. Different museums 
eagerly contested for the different collections offered for 
sale from time to time. The Giustiniani collection, which 
formed the groundwork of the gallery, needed much revis- 
ion and restoration, and an engagement was made with the 
painter Palniaroli to put the pictures in order. Rauch 
failed to get the fine Boisseree collection of pictures ; but, 
since it did not come to Berlin, he rejoiced that it went 
to Munich, and not out of the country. He succeeded in 
getting the Solly collection of three thousand and six 
pieces, which needed much careful selection. Many of 
the pictures obtained were copies, or of inferior merit ; 
some were injured, and some not wanted in the museum 
were reserved for exchanges, or to fill up empty spaces in 
the various palaces. One thousand one hundred and 
sixty-five were thought suitable for the gallery, but Rauch 
finally rejected many of these. From the various palaces 
Hirt had made a list of seven hundred, but he left out 
four hundred, for which the Solly collection made ample 
amends. With the addition of nine purchased pictures, 
among which were two pictures by Fiesole (Fra Angelico), 
and one by Giovanni Sanzio (the father of Raphael), in 
the year 1823 there were one thousand three hundred and 
forty-nine pictures as a foundation of the future gallery. 
Many pictures also were purchased from private sources. 
The restoration and framing of these pictures required 
much time and money, twelve thousand thalers being paid 
out for this purpose in five months. 

The whole amount paid for restoration of pictures ap- 
pears to have been about one hundred thousand thalers. 

Count Ingenheim was a very active assistant in the pur- 
chase of pictures. He discovered that the Prince Lante 
had a Raphael for sale, for which he asked one thousand 
five hundred Louis d'or. Rauch must speak to the crown 
prince ; but, as he was just then interested in buying a 
Roger van der Weyden, he refused to give more than a 



GERMAN ART. SCHOOLS AND MUSEUMS 1 1/ 

thousand. Ingenheim was enthusiastic. " If we had that 
picture the king need not buy another for the museum." 
The King of England also was in treaty for the picture ; 
but the zeal of purchasers was a little cooled by the opin- 
ion of Camuccini that it was not genuine, and was 
spoiled. However, neither Waagen nor Schinkel was 
convinced of this ; and Waagen counselled the purchase, 
although he did not think it one of the finest easel pic- 
tures of the master. 

Not until 1827 could Emil Wolff write to Rauch that 
the picture was secured, and then at the price of eight 
thousand five hundred scudi, besides a copy of the picture 
by Karl Eggers, and a portrait of the Princess Lante, to be 
made by Von Grahl. This was a purchase somewhat 
after the style of the Sibylline books, and even then the 
commission " degli antichita e belle arti" objected to 
the sale; but the Pope declared that "the friendship of 
the King of Prussia is more important to me than a 
picture." 

In preparing the sculpture gallery, Rauch had the help 
and sympathy not only of his old friends Schinkel and 
Humboldt, but the active co-operation of Emil Wolff. 
Wolff went to Rome after the death of his cousin Rudolf 
Schadow in 1822. The inheritance of his cousin's work 
fell to him. He had been a pupil of the elder Schadow, 
and was under the powerful influence of Thorwaldsen. 
He occupied the apartment of Schadow, and took up the 
chisel to finish his group of " Achilles and Penthesilea." 
He became, as Schadow had been, Rauch's right-hand man 
in making purchases for the museum, and was full of glow- 
ing enthusiam ; he was the Roman scholar of the German 
master. 

In the Northern capital Wolff was engaged in working 
on one of Thorwaldsen's apostles, which were executed by 
young sculptors under his direction. His next original 
work was a monument to Rudolf Schadow. Schinkel 



Il8 LIFE OF CHRISTIAN DANIEL RAUCH 

writes of this to Ranch in 1824, "Wolff's little marble re- 
lief on Schadow's grave is most tenderly felt out and 
finely executed ; like himself, it makes no pretensions, and 
is on that account charming. This monument is remark- 
able for its successful blending of antique symbolism, in a 
laurel-crowned victory presenting a wreath, with a figure 
of Christ welcoming the parted soul. Rauch later failed 
in such an attempt in the Bliicher Berlin monument, and 
only when an old man, in the monument of Frederic the 
Great, succeeded in the representation of such a union. 
Wolff sends his sketches to Rauch for criticism, and 
expresses the greatest gratitude for his advice, which 
he says he shall certainly follow; unfortunately Rauch's 
share in the correspondence is lost. 

Count Ingenheim was also a very important helper : he 
would often make a purchase with his own means, and 
trust to the king's taking the picture for the museum. 
Casts of many of the finest antique statues were thus pro- 
cured, besides bronzes and collections of Etruscan remains. 
Ingenheim kept watch of all the excavations in Rome, 
partly to secure a quantity of seemingly worthless old 
fragments of weather-stained marble, which Rauch could 
use in his restorations. Wilhelm von Humboldt speaks 
with the highest praise of the restorations planned by 
Rauch, and during his absence carried on by Tieck. " I 
think I can say with perfect truth that they are models 
worthy of imitation, and that no other museum rejoices 
in such perfectly arranged, such carefully thought out, and 
beautifully executed restorations as these." 

Rauch profited by his journey to Italy to obtain casts 
for increasing the collections in the museum. He sent to 
Berlin whatever casts he could get of Thorwaldsen's 
works. The minister, Altenstein, commissioned him to 
obtain at once casts of the Amazon of the Capitol, " A 
Daughter of Niobe," and the group of "Menelaus and 
Patroclus " in Florence, and also to inquire with regard to 



GERMAN ..ART. SCHOOLS AND MUSEUMS 119 

the cost of copies of the Ghiberti gates in the Baptistery 
at Florence. These last proved too costly to purchase. 

A controversy now arose in regard to the comparative 
importance of art and science in the museum, and it was 
complained that much more money was spent for pictures 
and statues than for objects of scientific and archaeologi- 
cal interest. Rauch, of course, took the artistic side very 
warmly, and Dr. Eggers allows that even his judgment 
was a little warped by strong personal feeling. He was 
anxious that his friend Ruscheweyh should be employed 
to engrave the treasures of the museum ; but he finds 
little co-operation from his colleagues. Later, when he 
thinks he has secured the consent of the commission, the 
death of the engraver puts an end to the plan. His 
greatest satisfaction is in the work of Wolff, who con- 
tinues to send him word of whatever can be procured of 
value. In 1832 casts of the Arch of Constantine were 
sent to Berlin. Only a few original works of sculpture 
were bought at this time. The policy of purchasing casts 
of the best works every year has been steadily pursued, 
and now it is said that Berlin has the most complete col- 
lection of this nature in existence. It is of immense 
value to students, who have the masterpieces of different 
epochs and different schools, side by side, for comparison. 

A little anecdote related to me by the son of Rauch's 
old friend, Chevalier von Bunsen, will give us a parting 
glimpse of the master in the enjoyment of the works of 
art that he had toiled so many years to collect. " I had 
not long been entered on the books of the Berlin Uni- 
versity, in 1843," he writes, "when Rauch, an old friend 
of my father's, accosted the shy lad one evening at the 
house of an acquaintance. ' Have you seen any sights ? ' 
he asked. ' Only the Museum of Antiquities,' was the 
answer. ' And what did you like best there ? ' 'I could 
look at nothing after the head of Julius Caesar.' ' Well,' 
he said, placing his mighty hand on my shoulder, ' let me 



I2O LIFE OF CHRISTIAN DANIEL RAUCH 

tell you that I cannot live without it. In my house there 
are three casts of it.' ' 

From the middle of January, 1819, Rauch's letters are 
full of jubilee over the final completion of the Lager- 
haus. He is delighted with the arrangements, which he 
minutely describes. " How fine the workshops are ! A 
foundation for a museum could not be nobler and more 
fitting. There is an ornamental window case ; what splen- 
dor ! " It is his constant joy to watch the progress of 
the work ; and he calls all his friends to come and rejoice 
with him. He wants Tieck ; but Tieck, formerly so 
impatient to come, now is not ready. Rauch constantly 
urges him, and writes him every detail of preparation, 
and what to bring him : as fine paper from Florence, 
sponges for modelling, a cask of pumice-stone, etc. He 
goes into the cost of sugar, coffee, meat, butter, but 
breaks off, saying, " What would people say if such an 
unartistic letter fell into other hands ? But, after all, 
are we not striving for the general good of art, to place a 
god in his chariot and Bliicher on his granite pedestal ; to 
say nothing of heroes, emperors, etc ? " And then he con- 
siders the important political question whether Wilhelm 
von Humboldt will accept the call to the ministry of 
state. 

Rauch was almost wild with impatience for Tieck's 
arrival. Everything was ready ; even the troublesome 
disputes with the former occupants of the Lagerhaus (for 
an execution had to be served on the princesses to get 
them out) were settled, and he could, in a certain sense, 
now call the house his own. Tieck's rooms were all 
ready, and even the watch-guard, which he had asked 
Agnes to work for him, lay on his table. Franceschino 
is full of impatience to greet his father in the new Eng- 
lish coat which the master has given him for his faithful 
service. 

Tieck writes that he has not the money for the journey, 



GERMAN ART. SCHOOLS AND MUSEUMS 121 

and Rauch sends him an order on Leghorn ; but Tieck 
has already started before this letter arrives, and on the 
twenty-seventh of April Rauch goes to Potsdam to meet 
him. Franceschino went also, embraced his father, and 
welcomed the Lazzarini, father and son, and Ceccardo. 
The last of July the moulder, Domenico Bianconi, was 
added to the company which formed the working force of 
the atelier. 

All went busily to work. Rauch built up Biilow and 
Scharnhorst, and modelled on the reliefs, while Tieck 
took direction of the work for the theatre. The work- 
men, being well paid, were delighted with the change, and 
did wonders. In June Rauch could show the king the 
design for the Biilow statue. 

Thus was Rauch's desire fulfilled, and he was estab- 
lished as the centre of the school of sculpture, which 
continued forty years under the direction of its founder, 
and brought forth the many noble works that have adorned 
his country, and given lustre to his name. 



122 LIFE OF CHRISTIAN DANIEL RAUCH 



CHAPTER VII 

RAUCH AND GOETHE 
1797-1832 

ONE of the most interesting circumstances of Rauch's 
artistic career is his relation to one "by whose spirit no 
one in this century has remained uninfluenced." Fortu- 
nately we have full record of this friendship. 

The bust of Goethe, which Rauch began to model in 
1820, when Goethe was seventy years old, led to a con- 
stantly increasing intimacy between the sculptor, then 
forty-three years old, and rapidly developing his powers, 
and the great leader in all national literature and art. 

One of the earliest works of art that ever drew the atten- 
tion of the boy sculptor was a bust of Goethe, by Trip- 
pels, in the castle at Arolsen ; 'and he listened with eager- 
ness in the atelier of Ruhl to all he could tell him of the 
man whom this masterpiece represented. And almost the 
last artistic thought of the dying sculptor was that he 
might yet improve his work, and finish the model for 
the group of the great poets Goethe and Schiller. 

When at twenty years of age Rauch waited in the ante- 
chamber of Queen Louise, he had already in his evening 
studies taken for his guide into the region of art Goethe's 
Propylean, " where head and heart both entered into their 
rights." Later, the "second part of Faust took possession 
of his soul," and Schinkel was to him "the dearest inter- 
preter of this wonderful poem." His diary gives frequent 
evidence of his interest in the poet, whom he often names, 
and at last he says his "understanding has increased 



KAUCH AND GOETHE 123 

through the circumstance that he has made Goethe's per- 
sonal acquaintance, and has experienced the immediate 
influence of his speaking presence." He said to Lewes 
that " Goethe's talk on art had roused an enthusiasm 
which influenced his whole life." Already intimate with 
Schadow and Tieck, Goethe wished to come into relation 
with this artistic power, to give to, and receive from 
him. 

Frauvon Humboldt had written to him in 1812, speak- 
ing in high praise of the statue of the queen. The first 
meeting proposed on Ranch's return from Italy fell 
through on account of Goethe's absence in Carlsbad, and 
so in the summer of 1820 occurred the first personal intro- 
duction in Jena. On the twenty-fourth of September 
Rauch sent the first cast of the bust of Goethe, begun in 
Jena, to an academic exhibition. In October the crown 
prince received a cast for his birthday ; two were sent to 
Goethe, and one to Stein in Breslau. Stein writes of it 
thus : " One first rightly sees that a whole world lies in 
his eyes, when one has him quiet before him in a bust, 
and is not distracted by what he is saying, and there is 
not the space of an eyelash in the face wherein there 
is not character and likeness." The bust was sent to his 
old friend in Copenhagen, Frederika Brunn. She stood 
with Lund a half-hour before it, and exclaimed, " My 
God, it seems at last to breathe!" The bust was every- 
where recognized and praised. This success led Goethe's 
friends to consider the idea of enlisting Rauch's co-opera- 
tion in carrying out the plan of a monument in Frankfort, 
already suggested. 

On Goethe's seventy-first birthday, 1819, Thorwaldsen 
took part in the festival at Frankfort. The inspiring hour 
gave to Sulpice Boisseree the idea of having a statue of the 
honored poet in his birthplace. Thorwaldsen agreed to 
it later, and a Denkmal Verein was formed. Boisseree, 
Staatsrath von Bethmann, and Herr Brentano, with others, 



124 LIFE OF CHRISTIAN DANIEL RAUCH 

were on the committee, and to them was given the carry- 
ing out of the project. It was planned to erect a temple 
of marble and bronze in some beautiful spot in the neigh- 
borhood of Frankfort, and to have a statue by Dannecker. 
The inner wall, lighted from above, should have a frieze 
ornamented with subjects from Herrmann and Dorothea. 

Thorwaldsen approved the plan in general, but sug- 
gested that the subjects should be more varied, and 
drawn from other poems of Goethe. Boisseree gives 
the commission to Dannecker, and begs Goethe to allow 
the necessary sittings. Goethe consents to this, but 
adds, " It is truly a serious matter to send a sculptor 
where he no longer finds forms, where nature on her 
retreat burdens herself with the necessary only." He 
therefore proposes a face mask taken by Gall six years 
before as the foundation of the bust. The committee, 
however, insist on a new one ; but for a year no meeting 
of the poet and sculptor can take place, on account of the 
illness of Dannecker's wife. This is a serious interrup- 
tion, for Goethe thinks " the woodcock of life is whirring 
by, and must be hit with a quick shot," and, speaking 
under correction, he proposes Rauch as the maker of the 
bust. Dannecker has made the same proposal, on account 
of the hindrance to his own work. Scarcely four weeks 
later the meeting between Goethe and Rauch took place, 
among whose results was the bust. Goethe declared the 
handling of the bust "truly grandiose." 

Much discussion took place about the proper position 
for the monument, as the site first suggested was found 
to be very costly. Goethe proposed uniting the monu- 
ment with the library, but others were unwilling to give 
up the idea of its being an ornament to the city. 

In the summer of 1821 the official commission was first 
porposed to Rauch through Boisseree, who wished to know 
the cost of a marble bust, and eventually of a marble 
statue. 



RAUCH AND GOETHE 125 

Rauch was not pleased with the plan. He wrote to 
Frau von Humboldt, " A colossal bust in a temple with 
closed doors, standing in an open space, does not please 
me. The facade of the house where Goethe was born, 
with a statue of him, would make a fitter monument. The 
confectionery temples on the islands and promenades are 
a horror to me; but I think the gentlemen will come to 
sounder thoughts, by which much expense will be saved." 
He replies to the committee, however, that a likeness of 
Goethe of the size of the Dannecker bust of Schiller, on 
an 8X9 foot-support, corresponding to the proposed 
plan, to be represented after the Greek manner as an 
undraped Hermes, or after the Roman manner, having 
the breast covered with folds, with a pedestal, would cost 
from about nine hundred to a thousand thalers. A stand- 
ing or sitting figure, 3X4 inches over life-size, would cost 
thirty-eight hundred to four thousand thalers. 

He did not conceal his opinion of the plan from Bois- 
seree. A lively discussion of differing views followed, 
but at last, after eight months, a compromise was effected. 
Boisseree gave Rauch a commission for a statue, and 
asked for sketches for a standing or a sitting figure which, 
if not in a separate building, might be placed in an open, 
well-lighted room in some large public building. 

Earnest discussion as to the costume then began. 
Rauch wished it to be either fully classical or entirely 
modern, while others thought the one too strange for the 
well-known poet, and the other too familiar for a stately 
monument. A mixture of Greek robes with necktie and 
boots seemed to be demanded. Rauch wanted a classi- 
cally draped statue in the open air, Boisseree one in boots 
in a room. Achim von Arnim left no stone unturned to 
connect the statue with the library, as Rauch himself had 
once suggested. Then the local press took up the ques- 
tion. Rauch communicated to the papers his idea of 
uniting a building for the Stadel Museum with the library. 



126 LIFE OF CHRISTIAN DANIEL RAUCH 

But there was dispute not only over the place, but over the 
statue itself. Bettina von Arnim had designed a group 
representing in antique costume the poet, whose lyre 
Psyche is tuning. 

Bettina's design was a very fanciful and pleasing ex- 
pression of her own sentiment ; but as she herself expresses 
it, " I was thought capable of forming the idea, though at 
that time I had never interfered with the arts." But this 
"glorified production of her love" could not, of course, 
satisfy the thoroughly artistic demands of Rauch. Bet- 
tina mistook inspiration for creation. She had the fancy, 
but not the forming power of an artist. No opinion of 
her design was directly asked of Rauch, although it was 
hoped that he would give one ; but although he preferred 
to keep silence in public regarding it, he expressed his 
views very frankly to Professor Ritter, in a letter which I 
am obliged to translate somewhat freely, as we have only 
a rough sketch of it. 

RAUCH TO RITTER. 

To PROFESSOR HERR RITTER IN BERLIN, I have the honor to reply 
to the question of Herr von Bethmann of the seventeenth of January, sent 
to me by your excellency. 

I have seen with pleasure the drawing of Frau Bettina von Arnim, repre- 
senting Goethe grouped in a sitting attitude, with a naked young female 
figure, and lyre, and also later the small model wrought in clay after this 
drawing, by the help of the sculptor Wichmann. 

The idyllish representation of Goethe on the Gothic seat richly orna- 
mented with pictures, with the laurel crown in the right hand, and in the left 
the lyre, and the other accessories, may succeed in a picture or relief, as 
Michael Angelo has successfully shown in the Sistine Chapel, I keeping 
the principal subject uninjured, while making clear the desired image of the 
poet ; but as a personal (iconisc/ie) statue, which should immortalize the 
characteristic personality of the one to be represented, it is thoroughly im- 
possible ; that should be done in a work of sculpture with the greatest pos- 
sible simplicity of truth and breadth, as the Greek, the Roman, and even 
newer works, sufficiently teach us. 

If a similar thought had been given to me in words or writing as the 
subject of this monument, I should not have hesitated a moment to carry it 
out according to my own arrangement. But I cannot undertake it after the 
1 This refers to the Daniel in the Sistine Chapel. 



RAUCH AND GOETHE \2J 

sketch of Frau von Arnim and Herr von Wichmann, since, as a round work 
of sculpture, the lines and forms are neither practicable nor beautiful, and 
its execution in marble would involve the greatest obstacles, which could 
only be overcome with great effort and skill, of which the sculptor would 
have the trouble and the designer the praise. 

The execution in marble of the above-named model in full size may 
probably cost two thousand thalers more than than of a statue without such 
accompaniments. Other grounds against the taking of this design, even 
as weighty, I would wish to impart to you by word of mouth. 

FEB. 10, 1825. 

Rauch's zeal was not cooled by all this difficulty. He 
sent an estimate of five hundred and ten thalers, and made 
out an inventory of the sitting figures of antiquity from the 
bronzes and pictures of Herculaneum, the museum Pio 
Clementino, etc., and began his work. He sends his sketch 
first not to Frankfort, but to Weimar. Goethe prefers a 
standing figure. " The sitting figure," he says, " if not man- 
aged with great taste, has something heavy, but it is easy 
to know where to put a standing figure ; every niche-like 
recess in the wall is a suitable place." He also decidedly 
preferred the antique costume, and objected to the Psyche 
group as not at all suited to the round. In a small relief 
it might be a pretty idea. Ranch made new sketches to 
suit Goethe's ideas, and declared himself ready to go to 
Weimar, whither he accordingly went with his daughter 
Agnes, June 18, 1824. He was warmly welcomed by 
the Goethe family. He finds Goethe very little changed, 
full of life and health, wonderfully upright in person, his 
eyes full of life, and the color of his face of almost youth- 
ful bloom, so that he feels ashamed of his bust, that looks 
older than nature. The days were passed in delightful 
artistic discussions. The plans for the museum met 
Goethe's full approval, and the object of the journey, 
the Goethe statue, was not forgotten. Rauch measured 
Goethe's height, which was six feet, one and two-thirds 
inches, or one hundred and seventy-four centimetres. 

The Frankfort people became impatient of delay, and 



128 LIFE OF CHRISTIAN, DANIEL RAUCH 

were anxious to have the statue for the celebration' of 
Goethe's fifty years of service. The models are at last 
sent, and subjected to criticism. Dannecker praises them 
freely, and Boisseree says, " You have not only represented 
Goethe's traits with the greatest truth, but you have known 
how to breathe his spirit into the work, and there is no 
doubt that the statue executed after this bust will be a 
thoroughly worthy .monument." He then makes some 
minute criticisms of the limbs, and the want of freedom in 
the sitting position. He suggests that the sandals should 
be exchanged for shoes, as approaching modern costume 
more nearly, but supposes that the bareness of the arm 
may demand a corresponding nakedness of the foot. 

Bethmann now takes the matter into his own hands, and, 
having received from Rauch the contract tor the price 
according to his sketches, he says, " To-day Goethe's fifty 
years of service are celebrated in Weimar. I believe the 
day cannot be better honored than by signing this con- 
tract." Nov. 7, 1825. 

Rauch announces to Goethe that one of his dearest 
wishes is fulfilled, and that " with living interest he will go 
to hard work." Goethe responds in a very warm letter, 
expressing his delight that what he has wished and longed 
for is to take bodily shape. But a year later Bethmann 
died, and Boisseree took up the work with fresh interest, 
urging Rauch to its completion. 

Rauch answers him, April, 1827, that the great model 
of the statue will be begun this spring, "at which, after 
so many ' herren Stadtholders* ' en pantalon,' " he says, 
" I am much delighted. I hope that my longing after 
nude arms and legs, at least after a costume that does not 
arbitrarily conceal the form, will be justified." Goethe 
also speaks of Bethmann's loss as a death-blow, but hopes 
that he himself may live to see the completion of this 
monument of Rauch's art and personal regard. 

Yet this is the last that we hear of it for ten years. 



RAUCH AND GOETHE 129 

Bethmann's heirs do nothing towards carrying out the 
commission, and Rauch had no disposition to touch the 
statue while it remained uncertain whether, according to 
his wish and Goethe's, it would ever be a public monument. 

While this matter of the Frankfort monument was 
under consideration, a lively correspondence was kept up 
between Goethe and Rauch, who seemed to draw nearer 
together in affection as well as in interest in art. The 
artist Meyer acted as Goethe's pen. Rauch sent draw- 
ings and models of various sorts for Louise Seidler, the 
instructress in drawing of the young princesses ; and 
Goethe often sent Rauch little poems, among them one on 
the unveiling of the Bliicher statue in Rostock, 1819. 

The next principal subject of consideration was a medal 
for the jubilee of the Grand Duke of Weimar. Rauch 
had taken a great interest in the stamping of coins by 
Brandt, and had especially admired a head of the king, 
with an eagle on the reverse. " We believe that even on 
Greek and Roman coins no finer image of an eagle is to 
be found." He hoped "that the royal Prussian coins in 
future would be distinguished as works of art among 
those of other cultivated nations, and that posterity would 
have through them a proof of the continued efforts and 
art-industry of their ancestors, as is the case with us in 
regard to Greek and Roman coins." Goethe was also 
much interested in this art, and, naturally, especially so in 
regard to the medal of the grand duke. He ordered a 
sketch of full size, the medallion having for the face the 
likeness of the prince in a wreath, and for the reverse a 
suitable symbolic figure. He wished Rauch to consult 
over the design with Tieck, as " the artist formerly con- 
nected with Wiemar," and with Brandt on the work of 
the cutting and the cost. 

Three proofs of the medal were sent in May. The 
face with the likeness of the duke gave satisfaction, but 
for the reverse Goethe proposed the zodiac, so placed that 



I3O LIFE OF CHRISTIAN DANIEL RAUCH 

the scales should be uppermost, as a symbol of the jubi- 
lee month of September, with the inscription : 

DER FUNFZIGSTEN WIEDERKEHR. MDCCCXXV. 

From Berlin came some proposals of change ; and discus- 
sions ensued as to the color of the bronze. The medal 
gave much satisfaction, and Rauch, Tieck, and Brandt 
each received a copy in silver and in bronze. 

At this time Goethe sent to Rauch a letter introducing 
to him " Demoiselle Facius, daughter of a medal and 
stone cutter of this place, who has inherited a love of, and 
a capacity for, art from her father, and who is going with 
Herr Posch to Berlin, in that world of art to become 
aware of what is demanded of the artist, and to what she 
should educate herself." In April Rauch wrote that the 
young artist came to the atelier to work on medals. The 
correspondence on both sides shows great interest in 
the young woman's work. Goethe is delighted with some 
busts sent to him, " which plainly show that she has the 
good fortune to possess a rich art element, and to be 
enlightened and helped by the master's inspiring sun- 
beams." The young girl did credit to the interest they 
took in her, showing herself not unskilful, both in busts 
and bass-reliefs. In expressing to Rauch his satisfaction 
with the medal of the grand duke, Goethe had said that 
he hoped they might work together again ; and a welcome 
opportunity soon came. 

Ten weeks later the grand duke called Rauch to 
Weimar to arrange a fifty years' jubilee for Goethe. He 
proposed to have a medallion, whose front should bear 
Goethe's profile after Rauch's bust, and its reverse a fly- 
ing eagle bearing a laurel crown. This plan was changed, 
however, and the medal was to bear on the reverse the 
united profile heads of the grand ducal pair. The work 
was committed to Brandt. But neither was the medal 
ready at the appointed time, nor was the work satisfac- 



RAUCH AND GOETHE 13! 

tory ; and Rauch begs further time for the engraver, that 
important changes may be made, so that the work shall be 
equally good with that of the grand duke's medal. Goethe 
cordially consented to the delay, and the supervision of 
the whole work was given to Rauch. The medal, as 
finally executed in 1826, shows Goethe's head with laurel 
wreath and toga, and the inscription : 

KARL AUGUST UND LUISE. GOETHEN ZUM VII. NOVEMBER 
MDCCCXXV. 

On the other side are the profile heads of the duke and 
duchess draped with the toga. 

Goethe wrote to Rauch a most cordial letter of thanks, 
recognizing Brandt's patient and faithful work, and rejoi- 
cing in his success after so many trials. He concludes : 
" May the reflection and conviction for which, in the 
course of this year, he has had opportunity, work right 
powerfully for good in his future career." Goethe ex- 
pressed much pleasure in this recognition by his friends, 
although he had said that a more fitting memorial was the 
proposed edition of his works by Cotta, " which, from my 
own material, endeavors to raise for me an enduring 
monument." 

About this time Rauch suffered severely from sympathy 
with his beloved daughter Agnes, who had formed a mar- 
riage engagement which proved most unfortunate, and 
was finally broken. We have not his own words regard- 
ing this matter, but we catch the echo of them in this 
beautiful letter of Goethe's, which shows such frankness 
of affection, and tenderness of sympathy, as make it the 
best memorial of this noble friendship. 

GOETHE TO RAUCH. 

" That you, dear, honored man, in the moment of a heavy grief turn 
your thoughts to me, confer with me, and feel some alleviation of your sor- 
row, gives me the grateful certainty of an inward, sincere, good feeling, of a 
tender, cordial relation such as I have ever felt towards you. 



132 LIFE OF CHRISTIAN DANIEL RAUCH 

" You thus show that you are sure of my truest sympathy, of a real par- 
ticipation in that trouble which violates, in its worthiest activity, a relation 
rich in spiritual forces, a beautiful, noble exercise of the happiest talent, 
and injures it in its very depths. So to me, with the deepest sympathy in 
your grief, it is yet some comfort to answer you at once. Even so to me, 
during a long life, events have come which, out of seemingly bright condi- 
tions, have unfolded a train of misfortunes ; and there are fearful moments 
in which one might hold a short life as the greatest blessing, that one need 
not bear an insupportable sorrow for an immeasurably long time. Many suf- 
ferers have gone before me, but on me was the duty laid to continue, and to 
bear a succession of joy and pain of which any single instance might well 
have been fatal. 

" In such cases nothing remains but to call up once more, in the most 
earnest way, the activity that still remains possible, and, like one engaged in 
a deadly warfare, to continue the struggle as vigorously when it goes against 
us as when all is in our favor. 

" And so have I fought my way through, even to the present day, when 
to the highest fortune which might ever raise a man above himself, so much 
that moderates it is added, that it admonishes and obliges me from hour to 
hour to be true to myself, and for myself, in order to remain indifferent 
to that which one is justified in calling ' tricks of fate.' If I knew how to 
find no other means, yet it must certainly be wholesome for every one, who 
by his nature is fitted for noble creative activity, to set aside the repulsive 
sense of unforeseen hindrance, and, in so far as it is given to men, aspire to 
reinstate himself. 

" The foregoing thoughts, flowing out of my own experience, may show 
that, in connection with the sad event that has happened to you, the memory 
of earlier sorrow has become living in my soul, and that at the same time 
my spirit has called up all that has been helpful to me. While it cannot 
heal, may this heartfelt sympathy have power, at least for the moment, to 
soothe your pain ! 

" With return of all most friendly and sincere greetings. 

" Let me soon speak to you of artists and works of art, of masters, ap- 
prentices, and scholars, and in many questions, wishes, and hopes express 
my sympathy. 

Most truly, 

J. W. VON GOETHE. 

WEIMAR, the twenty-first of October, 1827. 

Rauch answered this affectionate letter a fortnight 
later, and his answer is again full of artistic themes. He 
says, " I may truly say that the only true satisfaction that 
yet remains to me is to quicken my life by plastic art." 
This correspcndence was soon interrupted by a visit to 
Weimar in June. Rauch left Berlin to take Agnes away 



RAUCH AND GOETHE 133 

from the Pyrmont Cure, and to have a brief vacation for 
himself. He found his daughter restored to blooming 
health, and enjoyed eight days in visits to old friends 
and relations. At the old town of Soest, which he found 
very beautiful, he was much interested in the oldest church, 
the Wiesenkirke, where, among some twenty-four mostly 
worthless statues in stone and wood, he found those of 
Mary, of John, and of a bishop on the side entrance, of 
extraordinary beauty. They went on to Cologne, visiting 
churches and museums, to Wiesbaden, Mainz, Frankfort, 
etc., and thence to Weimar, where they spent two days 
with Goethe, whose kindness and attention were those of 
a father. Rauch stayed with the prince, but most of the 
time was spent at Goethe's house, the evenings in the 
society of his choicest friends, the mornings in working 
on a small statue of Goethe in his dressing-gown. This 
is the well-known statue of which Reimer said, " It is the 
old master in his gown, just as he walks and stands ; " and 
the same of which Thackeray spoke, when Goethe re- 
ceived him in 1830, "He held his hand on his back just 
as Rauch represented him." When Goethe was yet a 
young man he noted in his diary, " I can do nothing 
sitting. Good things always come to me while walking." 
This trait led to his habit of dictation. This likeness 
was for a statuette, not intended for a public place, and 
Rauch made no question of the propriety of a modern 
costume for this purpose. 

In 1837, after Thorwaldsen had finished his statues of 
Schiller and Gutenberg, the Frankfort Union again re- 
curred to the idea of a sitting statue of Goethe by Rauch. 
The old disputes arose again, some wishing that the 
statuette in the dressing-gown should be enlarged, and 
others going back to the Von Arnim design. It is said 
that Goethe himself liked none of the plans but the 
statuette, and he thought even that too stout. Rauch 
had been to Weimar at his pressing invitation, to make 



134 LIFE OF CHRISTIAN DANIEL RAUCH 

some change in it. Rietschel was with him, and worked 
on the back of the statue while Rauch worked on the 
front, " and the old master stood between us, and told us 
charming stories, or showed us engravings." They stayed 
through the noonings and evenings with Goethe, who, like 
a happy grandfather, took Rauch repeatedly to the cradle 
of Alma, his youngest grandchild, to see the lovely child 
asleep, "a sight truly worthy of rapture." This was 
Rauch's last visit to Goethe, and even their correspondence 
was interrupted for a while, as Rauch was busy with work 
and travel. At last he wrote to Goethe, and received from 
him a letter full of the warmest expressions of affection, 
and of commendation of the young woman artist whom 
he had recommended to his care. He makes many inter- 
esting inquiries about art, and speaks of his earnest desire 
for an institute of plastic anatomy at Berlin. He says, 
" I find myself, almost for the first time, a propagandist. 
I want to see my plans carried out. It appears to me old 
age. is impatient where youth is slow." This was his last 
letter, written only four weeks before his death. 

Twelve years later "the beautiful child in the cradle" 
came to Rauch's atelier, "a darling, blooming, beautiful 
maiden." She left for Vienna. Eight weeks passed, and 
the diary records the painful intelligence of the death of 
the beautiful girl by typhus-fever. So ended the personal 
relations of Rauch with Goethe and his family. Of all 
the statuesque designs by which the sculptor sought to 
give to posterity a worthy statue of Goethe, none came 
to monumental execution. 

After the Frankfort Union had discussed and rejected 
many plans, the Goethe statue was finally erected by 
Schwanthaler. 

After Goethe's death an International Monumental 
Committee was formed to erect a double monument to 
Goethe and Schiller. Rauch went to Weimar to consider 
the best position in which to place it. The plan was not, 



RAUCH AND GOETHE 135 

however, carried further for ten years, when the then 
Grand Duke of Weimar commissioned Rauch for the 
model of the two great poets. But the old disputes about 
costume arose. Rauch was quite unwilling to represent ]/ 
the two poets except in classic drapery. His model in 
this style may now be seen in plaster in the Rauch 
Museum. It was very highly praised ; but money for the 
execution flowed in but sparingly, and the whole matter 
was delayed until the art-loving King of Bavaria took 
hold of it. He desired, however, that the statue should 
be cast at his own foundery at Munich, and that it should 
be in modern costume. Rauch objected to both these 
conditions. He was not willing to have his work taken 
away from the foundery he had taken so much pains to 
establish, and he could not accept the modern costume 
for a public monument. He wrote to the king, regretting 
that he could not comply with his wishes ; but he said, 
"An artist's embodied ideals are a part of his life." 

Attempts at reconciliation on these points met with no 
success, and Rauch definitely refused the commission, and 
recommended that it should be given to Rietschel. He 
took a warm interest in this work of his friend, and pre- 
dicted its well-deserved success. This beautiful group of 
Rietschel's, in which the costume of the day is treated 
with such refinement and poetic beauty, and the model 
by Rauch, now in the museum at Berlin, in which the 
classic drapery is modelled with great breadth and sim- 
plicity, afford the student an admirable comparative study 
of the two methods of representation. 

The influence of Goethe and Rauch was mutually 
beneficial. Rauch was, indeed, mainly the recipient, since 
his artistic life began when Goethe was in the perfection 
of his powers, and he drank in the teachings of Goethe 
as the flowers the rain. Goethe's devotion to classic 
culture gave inspiration to the young sculptor's thought 
and works. The true relation of the ideal and the real 



136 LIFE OF CHRISTIAN DANIEL RAUCH 

was with both the great problem of art ; and to Goethe, 
the embodiment of his theories in plastic art, through the 
hand of a younger artist, with whom he was in close and 
affectionate relations, was a joy such as seldom comes to 
old age ; and the order and self-poise and thorough love 
of perfection which distinguished Rauch, were qualities 
which the poet dearly prized. Not crushed by his grief, 
but animated by the ever-living thought of his friend, 
Rauch went on his way to carry out the principles of art, 
in which they both so firmly believed. 



HISTORIC MONUMENTS 137 



CHAPTER VIII 

HISTORIC MONUMENTS. POLISH PRINCES. ALBERT DURER 

1815-1840 

THE heroes of the War of Freedom for Germany were' 
fortunate in having artists to build their monuments who 
were penetrated with the spirit of that struggle, and 
capable of preserving for us their personal characteristics, 
as well as the general feeling of the time. 

Rauch was well fitted to bear his part in this work; for 
while he never forgot ideal truth, he had a great respect 
for historic accuracy. We might claim his statue of Queen 
Louise as the beginning of this historic cycle ; for she was 
indeed its inspiration, though she did not live to witness 
its triumph. It will be impossible for me to follow mi- 
nutely the progress of these great works in which he was 
engaged so many years. The most important ones in 
relation to his own development and the progress of sculp- 
ture in Germany, are the statues of Billow and of Scharn- 
horst, the two Bliicher statues for Breslau and Berlin, and 
the genii for the monument on the Kreuzberg, just out of 
the city of Berlin. The statues of York and Gneisenau 
belong to a later period. 

When Rauch designed the candelabra for La Vendee, 
he wished to make a grand monument for celebrating the 
war, having a statue of the king, and two immense cande- 
labra with allegoric figures. The king objected to that 
plan ; but he now conceived the idea of a grand monument 
on the hill overlooking the city, of which Schinkel should 



138 LIFE OF CHRISTIAN DANIEL RAUCH 

make the design, while Rauch should contribute to its 
decoration. 

There was a time when no stranger left Berlin without 
visiting the monument on the Kreuzberg, either from 
motives of patriotism, love of art, or the desire to enjoy 
the beautiful view from the summit of the hill. But even 
in 1844 Waagen complained "that this monument was 
not so much seen as its subject and its artistic worth 
deserved." The distance of the monument from the city, 
and the miserable sandy road that led to it, combined with 
the increasing number of attractive objects within the 
city, produced this neglect. But in our day, since the 
railroad has been extended to bring distant places near,, 
the Kreuzberg is again within easy reach of Berlin, and 
the hill is being made into a public park. A basement 
twenty-six feet high has also been added to the monu- 
ment, which will make it more conspicuous from afar, so- 
that it may now attract its due share of public attention. 

Schinkel's work forms an obelisk nineteen metres high,. 
on the ground-plan of an equal-armed cross. In each 
arm of the cross are three niches, and in each of these 
niches a statue of one of the most important battles of the 
War of Freedom. 

One of the most interesting points in this work was 
the employment of the allegoric genius to express the 
spirit of the persons or events to be commemorated. 
This conception of the ancient world, which had almost 
given place to the Christian angel, had been lately re- 
vived. It was variously represented ; sometimes as a figure 
in a toga, with suggestive attributes ; sometimes as a 
naked boy, with only a pair of wings. Rauch designed 
for the monument the "Genius of Dennewitz," in the cos- 
tume of a young soldier, holding a sword and laurel 
wreath. To indicate the most decisive victory, the head 
of the Genius of the Leipzig battle is surrounded by a 
starry crown ; he is clothed in old Greek armor, and rests. 



HISTORIC MONUMENTS 139 

the left hand on a large shield, while the right points to 
the three eagles representing the allies. In contrast to this 
is the " Genius of Wartenburg." "To indicate the rash 
and bold passage of the river," this genius steps on to a 
boat, belonging to a bridge, whilst he swings a standard 
with a Prussian eagle. "The Genius of La Rothiere," to 
which Bliicher's features are given, is yet more in action. 
He is "in Northern armor, stepping quickly forward, with 
a laurel crown in the left hand, while the right is raised 
to express his decided character, and the victory of Prus- 
sian intelligence." In his models for the female genii he 
has indicated his own sympathetic feelings by giving to 
the one (Paris) the features of the beloved Queen Louise, 
and to the other (Waterloo) those of the Empress Alex- 
andra Feodorowna. The king urged on the completion 
of the monument ; but it was impossible to have all the 
statues ready as early as he wished, and finally it was un- 
veiled on the thirty-first of March, 1821, Nicholas of Rus- 
sia taking part in the programme ; and the hall was 
thereafter called the Kreuzberg. 

As soon as these modern statues were proposed, the 
question of costume became important, and Rauch gave 
much attention to it. Until within a short time the an- 
tique drapery had been universally used as alone appro- 
priate to heroic subjects, but Schadow had already treated 
them with bold naturalism. Rauch sought to unite the 
characteristic costume of the time with the ideal beauty 
which his aesthetically trained sense demanded. He sub- 
stituted the modern cloak for the ancient toga, but in- 
stead of trying to use it in precisely the old manner, he 
endeavored to give the character of the cloak, and yet de- 
velop its artistic peculiarities. This is the true method 
of art. Both generals are represented in their uniforms, 
as their contemporaries saw them. Their cloaks are 
thrown about their shoulders, but neither in a strange, 
theatrical manner, nor in a silly, prosaic one, but with an 



I4O LIFE OF CHRISTIAN DANIEL RAUCH 

unconscious, ideal fitness, as will happen to men in some 
exalted moment of their lives. The forms thus enveloped 
are in accordance with the laws of beauty as exemplified 
in Greek art, and the general impression of heroic mili- 
tary character is united to the personality of the indi- 
vidual warrior. The monuments of Biilow and Scharn- 
horst gave ample field for such considerations. That of 
Scharnhorst represents the contemplation of an heroic 
deed ; the general thoughtfully leaning on an oaken staff, 
wrapped in his own thoughts, his left side quite concealed 
by the cloak. Billow's monument presents the deed it- 
self ; he stands brave and confident, holding back his 
cloak with his right arm, his left supported on his sword, 
and gazing fixedly at the struggle he is directing. 

Rauch had very poor material to work from, merely 
death-masks and slight sketches, and the descriptions of 
those who had seen the generals. The reliefs on the 
monuments, in strict classic style, help to carry out the 
idea. On Scharnhorst's is the armed Minerva, instruct- 
ing in the science of war. On Billow's is the first rep- 
resentation of the Victory, in which Rauch afterwards 
achieved such brilliant success ; while the Prussian eagle 
on both expresses the patriotic cause to which they were 
devoted. The eagle is at rest, but his wings are wide- 
spread, as if prepared for action, while the body, turned to 
the left, with the head inclined to the right, indicates con- 
stant watchfulness. He is also the bearer of the tablet, 
on which is simply inscribed : 

FRIEDRICH WILHELM III. 

DEM 

GEN. VON SCHARNHORST. 
im JAHRE, 1822. 

On Billow's: 

FRIEDRICH WILHELM III. 
DEM GEN. GRAFEN BULOW, 
VON DENNEWITZ 
im JAHRE, 1822. 



HISTORIC MONUMENTS 14! 

Appropriate inscriptions of the victories won by the 
general in his conquering march through the Netherlands 
are placed on the Scharnhorst monument. Rauch never 
undertook an historical work without making himself as 
familiar as possible with all the biography of his hero, and 
the localities and circumstances of his deeds ; and he 
studied even the lions from life. The architectural part 
of the support was designed by Schinkel. 

Rauch was handsomely paid for this work, but he 
enjoyed much more the recognition as an artist which he 
received from the king. " Day before yesterday," he writes 
to Frau von Humboldt, July 22, 1822, " I received at noon, 
with a very gracious cabinet writing from the king, the 
decoration of the Red Eagle Order, III. Class. I used to 
know how to deal with eagles, but this little 'musje* 
takes me aback, and makes me grow red and hot." 

While still engaged on the Bliicher statue at Breslau, 
Rauch was commissioned by the king to make a monu- 
ment to Bliicher for Berlin. He began to make sketches 
for it in August, 1819. His first sketch represented the 
hero in full action, his foot resting on a howitzer. His 
costume is more strictly realistic than in the Breslau 
statue, yet it is not a historic incident, but a resumt of his 
whole military career that the sculptor gives us. Stein 
wished him to exhibit his sketches publicly, and let the 
people express their preference in regard to them ; but 
Rauch appears to have followed his own thought, which 
was of quiet determination of purpose, rather than action ; 
and he kept pretty closely to his first sketch. 

In February, 1824, he had completed a model in plaster, 
and in November the bronze casting was finished. One 
of the first persons to see the completed statue after the 
king was the Duke of Wellington, who visited the atelier 
February 19, 1826. Rauch describes the visit, saying, " In 
lively, short, and decided phrases of rather faulty French, 
the duke expressed his pleasure, and the king sent him a 



142 LIFE OF CHRISTIAN DANIEL RAUCH 

small copy of the bronze statue." On the eighteenth of 
June the statue was relieved from its casings, and on the 
anniversary of the battle of Waterloo the monument was 
given to the city. When Rauch went to see it at five 
o'clock in the morning, he found many persons gathered 
about it. Among them was Bliicher's old comrade, Gneise- 
nau, who wished Rauch joy, with eyes full of tears and 
a trembling voice, while he recalled the old heroic times 
with his general, and the glorious deeds which now, mir- 
rored in bronze, shone in the light of the morning sun. 
But Rauch was too much preoccupied to feel the full mean- 
ing of the scene. The first sight in the public square of 
the statue on which he had worked four years with the 
greatest care was a terrible shock to him. From the 
castle-bridge even to the watch-house his first impression 
was of mistrust, even terror. " Too long, too broad, was 
my first thought ; the statue stiff and clumsy." He 
thought he had gained nothing of the effect for which he 
had been striving for years. And as he continued his 
walk to the end of the university building, and turned 
back, he was only partially calmed down by the view on 
that side. " The first thing," he says, " that encouraged 
me to reconciling reflections was a comparison with the 
Biilow monument which, in comparison with that of 
Bliicher, looked to me like an over-big disproportioned 
wooden chest." Dr. Eggers explains this feeling of the 
artist as a physiological effect of his high-wrought expec- 
tations, and the difficulty of seeing as a whole what he 
had wrought upon so earnestly in parts. Three weeks 
later he wrote to Schinkel, then in London, " The people 
seemed pleased with the monument, only the sheath of 
his sword is wanting ; and the pedestal, seen from afar, 
is not broad enough, but it fills its place." 

This incident gives a valuable lesson to young artists, 
who often feel bitter disappointment when they first look 
upon the results of long and faithful work. The more in- 



HISTORIC MONUMENTS 143 

tensely they have labored, the more likely is this reaction 
to come. Rauch was always eager for improvement, but 
he was by no means a morbid detractor of his own work ; 
yet he was utterly unfit to judge of this statue at first sight. 
Always appeal from an excited brain to a calm one ! 

Rauch has been censured for incongruity in making the 
bass-reliefs on the pedestal, representing the events of the 
war, in a realistic style not corresponding to the character 
of the statue ; but Dr. Eggers maintains that, at the dis- 
tance at which the whole monument must be seen to get 
its full architectural effect, the details are lost, and the 
sculptures only enrich the general appearance ; while if 
the spectator is near enough to study the details of the 
bass-reliefs he cannot see the proportions of the statue, 
and therefore the one does not interfere with the other. 
These reliefs are extremely varied in character, and rep- 
resent many different scenes. One of the original 
sketches represents Bliicher as triumphing over his ene- 
mies in the person of Bonaparte ; and Rauch defends this 
design against the criticism of the Pole, Anton Waga, 
saying, " Bliicher contended against Napoleon rather than 
the French people, and, as Bonaparte is now dethroned 
and imprisoned at St. Helena, they cannot take it unkindly 
that he is thus represented." He says that "Anton 
Waga does not seem to remember that on the column of 
Victory in the Place Vendome, a bass-relief represents 
Bonaparte, at whose feet the Emperor Francis kneels 
and sues for peace (after the battle of Austerlitz). Both 
are likenesses. This monument remained standing when 
the daughter of the emperor was the wife of Bonaparte, 
and while the allied armies twice entered Paris victorious, 
and yet stands to-day, though the Emperor Francis is 
still ruler of Austria." This is one of the few instances 
where Rauch expresses bitterness towards the French ; 
he usually treats them as fellow-artists, and does full jus- 
tice to their work. 



144 LIFE OF CHRISTIAN DANIEL RAUCH 

The reliefs on the lower part of the monument repre- 
sent scenes in the life of the people during the war, the 
young volunteers leaving their homes, and soldiers taking 
the oath of fidelity to the flag. The men are parting with 
their friends, while a shepherd boy looks on with aston- 
ishment. The army goes on its way watched by the curi- 
ous boys, and refreshed with water drawn by the peasant 
maidens from the fountains. Scenes of triumph and of 
death appear. The army goes into the rich vineyards 
of France. Dragoons are cooking their food, resting in 
slumber, or chatting with the market-women. Finally 
the army passes through the gate St. Martin, preceded 
by the bearers of banners, while the hero of the monu- 
ment, Blucher, with his staff of officers, leads them on. 
To meet them comes, rolled on cylinders, by workmen, the 
regained Victory of the Brandenburg, which appears at 
the end of the row of statues, as representing the object 
of the march to Paris. These reliefs are of the greatest 
interest, and deserve a thorough study, in which Dr. 
Eggers's book would be an excellent guide. He closes 
his account by saying, " The historic epic of the War of 
Freedom, from the call of the king, on the tenth of March, 
1813, to the second Peace of Paris, which, after the re- 
peated entry of the allies into the Enemy's capital at the 
end of the year 1815, restored the treasures of art, is 
sung by Rauch in a plastic hymn of victory." 

A tone of humor runs through these representations, 
and Rauch has introduced portraits of well-known men 
whose influence was felt in this popular war. Theodor 
Korner and Wilhelm von Humboldt are easily recognized. 
A cast of one of the most stirring of these scenes, " The 
Bivouac," was sent as a present to Goethe. Dr. Eggers 
says "that the frieze of the Blucher monument, with its 
admirable treatment in relief of modern stuffs, was a 
new achievement of plastic art. The casting of the 
whole pedestal was also a novelty in the history of the 



HISTORIC MONUMENTS 145 

art of our times, which, until then, was accustomed to 
place the bronze statue on a stone basis." 

Rauch's pecuniary reward was a thousand Friedrichs 
d'or. The cost of the monument was forty-eight thou- 
sand six hundred and eighty-four thalers. 

Other portrait statues of importance now occupied 
Rauch's attention. January 25, 1826, he received a com- 
mission, by a royal cabinet order, for a statue of King 
Frederic William I. for the city of Gumbinnen, founded 
by him. The costume was to be the military uniform. 
The citizens had asked this favor of the king on the cen- 
tennial celebration of the founding of the city. 

The king had a special regard for his predecessor, 
Frederic William I., with whose ideas of statesmanship 
and economy, as well as of religious toleration, he had 
much sympathy. The work of the statue was much 
delayed by political and other causes, and it was not 
unveiled until 1835. It stands in the marketplace at 
Gumbinnen. The statuesque representation of the king 
is excellent. He stands in an erect attitude, correspond- 
ing to his strong character, but with an earnest, benevo- 
lent expression on his face. He is the first of the princes 
of Europe represented in a simple soldier's cloak, the 
military costume of his time. 

Indeed, the whole of this series of monuments to the 
heroes of Germany marks the development of popular 
ideas. Up to this time it was a maxim that public monu- 
ments were erected only by princes ; the people had 
played a passive role. They were the governed classes. 
The seed of national feeling had been sown by the War 
of Freedom ; yet it was not all Germany, even all Prus- 
sia, which united to erect a monument to the popular 
warrior. Mecklenburg was the first to place a monument 
in Blucher's birthplace, Rostock, and then the Silesians 
followed. He was theirs, because he had set forth from 
Breslau with a conquering army of Silesians, who first 



146 LIFE OF CHRISTIAN DANIEL RAUCH 

gave the cutting sharpness to the sword of "Marshal 
Forwards." Dem " FeldJierrn BlucJier und dem Hcrre die 
Sc/ilesien" was the inscription, and the cost of its erec- 
tion was furnished by this province. 

I am inclined to doubt whether Rauch found full satis- 
faction even in this noble historic work. He loved not 
only beauty, but quiet grace and sentiment, and was always 
striving after an ideal which was not represented by the 
captains even of a righteous war. Dr. Eggers says, 
"Rauch's power did not lie in violent movement approach- 
ing the dramatic, but rather in quiet greatness and unity, 
resembling architecture more than painting." 

One of the most interesting and beautiful of Rauch's 
historic groups, which happily combines the ideal and the 
realistic in its treatment, is the monument to the two old 
kings of Poland at Posen, and its progress is strongly 
related to the modern movements in Polish history. The 
story of this monument dates back to the year 1816. In 
consequence of the arrangements of the Congress of 
Vienna, the Emperor Alexander gave a constitution to 
the so-called kingdom of Poland, which first came into 
effect in the year 1818 by the calling of a Polish parlia- 
ment. The aristocracy and clergy of Poland appear to 
have been impressed with the desire to represent their 
political position by an outward sign, and also to indicate 
the union of all the separate parts of Poland. The fittest 
means for this end appeared to be the erection of a monu- 
ment to the Polish princes, Mieczyslaw and Boleslaw. 

Duke Mieczyslaw of Poland, who was obliged by force 
of arms to hold his land as &fief from the German Em- 
peror, Otto I., went over to Christianity, and towards the 
end of the tenth century established the first bishopric 
in Posen. His son, Boleslaw the Great, redeemed the land 
from its dependence on the German emperor, increased 
it by conquests in all directions, and allowed himself 
to be crowned by the Pope in 1024. No better repre- 



HISTORIC MONUMENTS 147 

sentatives, therefore, could be found to express the wish 
of the aristocracy and clergy for national unity and inde- 
pendence. .After Boleslaw's death a sarcophagus was 
erected in the cathedral at Posen as a common monument 
to the two princes. This sarcophagus was entirely de- 
stroyed by fire and the overthrow of the tower, and in the 
year 1814 the bishop of Gorzenski proposed the restoration 
of the monument, offering to give the tenth part of his 
income for the purpose. As this was insufficient, how- 
ever, a general call was made upon Poles for the erection 
of a national monument. In 1818, when in Carrara, 
Ranch received a letter from the Abbot Wolicki, asking 
him to prepare designs for a monument to the two kings. 
He refers again to the subject in 1819, but in 1820 the 
political difficulties in Poland seemed to render the prose- 
cution of the plan unadvisable. 

But the patriotic excitement, which found violent expres- 
sion in the bloody revolution of 1830, again offered oppor- 
tunity for an appeal to popular feeling ; and in November, 
1828, when Rauch dined with Wolicki in Berlin, he records 
in his diary, " First agreement for the monument in Posen." 
Schinkel was to be joined with Rauch in the preparation 
of an architectural design, which was to be on a very 
grand scale. But the cost of this plan was so large that 
it was difficult to raise sufficient money for it, and it was 
proposed to narrow the design to a statue to be placed in 
one of the chapels of the Metropolitan Church. Before 
the year was out, Wolicki, the zealous promoter of the 
scheme, died, and Prince Radziwill took it up. In order 
to carry out Wolicki's plan, a committee was formed ; but, 
as Rauch had asked too high a price, they wished to in- 
trust the carrying out of the designs to Herr Tatarkiewicz, 
under the direction of Thorwaldsen, as they hoped, as 
their countryman, he would be more saving of money. 
But before a decision was reached new difficulties arose. 
The insurrection in Russian Poland absorbed the interest 



148 LIFE OF CHRISTIAN DANIEL RAUCH 

of everybody, and in the year 1833 Prince Radziwill died, 
before he had put matters in train for the monument. In 
the summer of 1833 the papers and money already col- 
lected were passed into the hands of Count Eduard 
Raczynski, rightly considered one of the best friends of 
the fatherland. 

As Count Raczynski made up his mind that the re- 
establishment of Poland was not to be expected from 
Napoleon I., he endeavored to arouse the national feeling 
through literature, by the publication of a series of old 
historic works. He resumed the purpose of securing a 
monument by Rauch, and assisted him by furnishing him 
with many historic details. 

With the help of Wolff and Blaser, Rauch prepared the 
help-model, and in 1837 the great clay model begun by 
them was finished by himself. He writes to Rietschel 
that he finds great difficulties in arranging the group to 
his satisfaction, and wishes for his help, for he cannot 
seek that of others, as he does not wish to show the model 
to anybody sooner than to the prince, who has the best 
right to see it first. Rauch was not at first interested in 
his subject, for he was not much attracted to the romantic 
side of the Middle Ages. Schinkel, on the contrary, de- 
lighted in them, and it is thought that his hand is percep- 
tible in the sketches made by Rauch for this group. But 
when Rauch received genuine portraits of Poles and other 
rich historic material from Raczynski, he began to feel him- 
self on firm ground, and he made many changes in his de- 
sign. The two princes no longer both look to the symbolic 
cross, but one of them shows the cross which he has planted, 
to the other, who is the people's representative. A crown 
is placed on Boleslaw's head, instead of the laurel wreath. 

Rauch felt very much chagrined that he did not have 
the full control of the casting; but in the end all difficulties 
were reconciled, and he was very much pleased with the 
manner in which the work was done. In November, 1839, 



HISTORIC MONUMENTS 



149 



he met Rietschel at Lauchhammer (where the casting had 
been made). The group was almost ready, and now they 
made trials of putting jewels as ornaments of the cover- 
ings of the heads, the girdles, the sword and its trappings. 
Thus gilded and richly ornamented, the group became the 
shining feature in the Berlin Exhibition in 1840, and in 
February the placing in the cathedral at Posen was 
accomplished. In a richly ornamented and beautiful 
chapel stands this noble group, which is full of majesty 
and grace. The noble couple, father and son, represent 
the highest sentiments of devotion and patriotism ; the 
action is simple and manly, and the costume is rich and 
flowing. I cannot give a better idea of its merit than by 
quoting the words of the celebrated critic, Franz Kugler. 
"All these elements," he says, "of historic truth, of char- 
acter, of truth to nature, move in an element of pure, 
plastic beauty. In every separate form, as well as in their 
union as a whole, there rules a proportion, a clearness, a 
harmony of lines and proportions, a thorough conformity 
to law, with great freedom in details, in a word, a per- 
fection of style which can be found only when art is 
'raised to its highest point.' " 

Successful as this monument was, from an aesthetic 
point of view, the story of its financial affairs closes very 
sadly. The money collected from more than fifteen hun- 
dred donors was used up in arranging the luxurious 
chapel ; and Count Raczynski himself paid for the statues. 
The statues were inscribed to the count as his gift. An 
evil-disposed member of the Landtag brought up the 
charge that the count had claimed an honor not due to 
him, as the statues were a component part of the whole 
monument. The Landtag, when appealed to, declared 
itself incompetent to judge the case. This was a hard 
blow to the sensitive nobleman, as he could not endure that 
any of his countrymen should accuse him of appropriating 
to trmself praise which was due to others. He appealed 



I5O LIFE OF CHRISTIAN DANIEL RAUCH 

to the king to grant the competency of the Landtag to 
decide in the case. This being granted, he collected the 
original papers to present to the Landtag, to show the 
way in which the business of the monument had been 
conducted. But the sting of this charge had penetrated 
his soul. He had the inscription taken from the statues, 
then went home and shot himself. His son had the 
mournful duty of vindicating his father before the Land- 
tag of 1845. It was partly accomplished; but the in- 
scription was so framed as to indicate that the funds 
"raised for the monument by Wolicki, were largely 
increased by Raczynski." The widow of the count pre- 
sented the proofs of the transaction to the Landtag, and 
asked for the restoration of the inscription, but in vain. 
"So," says Dr. Eggers, "the monument of the Polish 
princes has also become a monument of that partisan 
spirit which has had such an injurious influence in Polish 
history." 

The original models in plaster we're brought from 
Lauchhammer to Berlin in 1847, an d are now in the 
Rauch Museum. 

The venerable aspect of the father, and the vigorous, 
manly bearing of the son, are finely contrasted. No 
limitations of costume prevent the full, picturesque effect 
of the figures ; the full, flowing mantle of the one, and 
the rich armor of the other, lend grace and dignity to 
the erect yet easy attitude, while the noble features are 
rather brought out than concealed by the regal covering 
of the heads. The cross in the hand of the father, and 
the sword in that of the son, are full of historic signifi- 
cance. The mediaeval character of the group makes it 
more romantically attractive than the monuments of our 
own times. 

A noble transition from the warlike portraits to ideal 
work is afforded by the statue of Albert Diirer. The 
approach of the three hundredth anniversary of Diirer's 



HISTORIC MONUMENTS 15! 

death aroused a strong desire among his countrymen to 
erect a fitting monument to him. A plan was formed by 
engravers and artists for a collection of German works of 
art. But King Ludwig was not satisfied with this, and de- 
clared that the greatest of German sculptors, Rauch, must 
design a statue of the greatest of German artists, to be 
cast in the only great bronze foundery in South Germany, 
at Munich. Rauch took the commission, August, 1825, 
and proposed a statue of Diirer based on the likeness he 
has given of himself. He inquired into the place de- 
signed for it, saying " A small square is preferable ; and 
the statue ought to stand, not in the middle, but in a good 
position at the side, as we see in the historical works of 
the olden time ; not after the tedious Northern fashion, at 
the end of a long perspective, where the monument looks 
like a target, or a salt-cellar planted in the middle of the 
table." 

But the Nurembergers protested loudly at the casting 
of the statues at Munich. They thought it could be 
equally well done at Nuremberg, and that was the fitting 
place for the work. Rauch went to the foundery to ex- 
amine the quality of the casting, and he had a bronzed 
and painted model of the monument of full size made in 
wood, which was erected in the marketplace, that all 
might judge of the proposed site of the statue. Although 
this place was found satisfactory, another trial was made 
at the Burgfreiung, where it would stand finely against a 
clear horizon ; but the general preference was for the 
neighborhood of Diirer's dwelling. 

Rauch gave some time to the churches and monuments 
of Nuremberg, and was greatly feted by its inhabitants, 
who took leave of him with the words, "You will live 
here to all time united with Diirer." He delighted the 
citizens by obtaining the king's consent to have the statue 
cast at Nuremberg, if he was satisfied with the work. 
Rauch was unable to be present at the great festival of 



I $2 LIFE OF CHRISTIAN DANIEL RAUCH 

the laying of the corner-stone. He applied himself dili- 
gently to this work, and in ten days after the festival the 
whole monument stood before him in a bronzed cast. He 
wrote in his diary, " It seems to me that I have never 
projected anything better." The interest was not con- 
fined to Nuremberg ; all Germany wished to take part in 
the honor to the great artist ; and contributions flowed in 
from artists and art-societies, so that in November twelve 
thousand gulden of free-will offerings were counted. 

A great festival was held in Berlin on the three hun- 
dredth anniversary of Diirer's death, at which this model 
was shown ; and among many other tributes offered was 
a symphony of Mendelssohn's. Rauch could not have 
had a finer subject for his art. The personal beauty of 
Diirer, his noble bearing and character, the deep universal 
feeling of the people, and the position of the statue in his 
native place, were all powerful 'stimulants to the artist's 
imagination. Rauch was named an honorary member of 
the Union of Artists of Nuremberg. He already planned 
to improve upon his sketches, not foreseeing that this 
constant effort for improvement would be made a handle 
of, in trying to take the monument entirely out of his 
hands. He was led by the difficulties he encountered in 
procuring good work to investigate the whole subject of 
bronze casting ; and Dr. Eggers gives a very interesting 
account of the history and development of this important 
art-industry ; but my limits will prevent my entering upon 
this discussion, except in so far as it directly affects 
Ranch's work. 

The new method of casting introduced by the French, by 
which the original model was not destroyed, interested 
Rauch extremely, and he took pains to establish a foundery 
and school in 'Berlin. He tried to bring a celebrated 
founder, Hopfgarten, with whom he had formerly worked, 
from Rome ; but Hopfgarten was not inclined to adopt 
the new method. Leguire was invited by the king to take 



HISTORIC MONUMENTS 153 

charge of the school and the casting of the BlUcher 
statue. The school was not, however, wholly successful, 
and in three years only one founder was fully trained. 
Hopfgarten finally came to Berlin, and used the new 
method. After many difficulties, such as beset all indus- 
trial schools where the attempt is made to combine in- 
struction and practical work, the school languished, and 
was closed in 1832. Rauch did not lose his interest in 
the subject, however ; and he continued his efforts for 
improvement in the instruction of pupils, and in the style 
of work. The technical question was finally decided in 
favor of the French method, not only for Berlin, but for all 
Germany, for which the Berlin foundery served as the 
mother-school. At the same time King Ludwig of Bavaria 
was doing his utmost to establish the foundery at Munich ; 
and he wished to cast Rauch's statue there. Rauch 
formed an intimate friendship with the master of the 
foundery, Stiglmaier, which was kept up by a happy inter- 
change of gifts and correspondence for many years. 
Stiglmaier hopes soon to rival the French founders, as 
" they have no secret but practice." Soon came the prac- 
tical question, Where should the statue of Diirer be cast ? 
As the expense would be much less, Nuremberg was 
chosen ; and Burgschmiedt, the teacher of the polytechnic 
school, agreed, with the help of his scholars, to perform 
the work in eighteen months ; but Rauch made the con- 
dition that a trial statue should show that the work could 
be done to his satisfaction. 

Nothing now seemed to stand in the way of the execu- 
tion of the statue ; but many difficulties arose about the 
pedestal, and the cost of different materials. It was pro- 
posed to give up the bass-reliefs, and have a very simple 
pedestal. Rauch consented to lessen his own price, " in 
order that an essential hindrance be set aside, and that 
such a praiseworthy, unique monument in our fatherland 
may be perfected." This description expressed the truth, 



154 LIFE OF CHRISTIAN DANIEL RAUCH 

for this monument really forms a landmark in German 
art, giving to the heroes of art and science the public, full- 
sized statue formerly appropriated only to crowned heads 
and heroes of the sword. 

A curious effort was made to supersede Rauch in this 
work. His enemies even went so far as to employ Hei- 
deloff to make sketches for a different representation of 
Diirer. The various sketches were sent to the king, who 
must decide upon them. One is described as "the for- 
ward-striding hero and artist-prince," while the new one 
expressed " the master turned back to his own thoughts,, 
without pretension, and scarcely conscious of his own 
greatness." Such was not Albert Diirer, who, while 
truly modest, had a just estimate of his own powers and 
success. I do not know whether his biographer, Tausing, 
had this controversy in his mind when he wrote his. 
splendid paragraph on the portraits of Diirer, but it is. 
singularly appropriate to it. He says, "The lofty self- 
consciousness which all these portraits breathe, the joy in 
his own splendid personality, might be taken in a wrong 
sense in any other than Diirer. He is in that wholly the 
child of his time," The decision of the king was delayed 
for half a year, and then was in Ranch's favor. He 
should make the standing figure ten feet high, and of the 
new designs by Heideloff for the pedestal, the first and 
simplest shall be carried out in Eberweiser bell-metal, 
thirteen feet high, on four steps. Yet so sharp was the 
opposition that it was yet another half-year before Rauch 
received the definite commission. At this time he was 
receiving very important commissions from King Louis 
to finish the Max Joseph monument, and to make the six 
Victories for the Walhalla ; and this may have led his 
rivals to hope that he would himself give up the Diirer 
work, which had proved so annoying. 

But he took the commission, and only considered that 
this accumulation of work freed him from the obligation 



HISTORIC MONUMENTS 155 

- 

to have the Diirer statue finished at any definite time. 
Even to his immense power of work, unequalled by that 
of any sculptor of his time, it was impossible to touch 
the model till the next year, 1834. The king, becoming 
impatient, required the magistrates to announce when the 
statue would be ready. Rauch set the time on his side 
for the first of May, 1836. He made this decision just 
before his summer journey to Munich for the unveiling of 
the Max Joseph monument, and hoped that by personal 
intercourse with the king the newly arisen difficulties 
might be smoothed away. 

He had copies made of the Diirer portrait, with the tab- 
let out of the " Allerheiligenbilde," and of Diirer with 
Pirkheimer, from the picture of the " Martyrdom of the 
Ten Thousand." The engraving of the former had 
served him for his first sketch of the statue. 

Prince Metternich and other grandees invited him to 
dinner, but he did not much enjoy the princely feast. 
He says in his diary of the eighteenth of July, " At mid- 
day at dinner in Hietzing, near Schonbrunn, with the 
chancellor, Fiirst von Metternich. Fiirst Wenzel Licht- 
enstein and many diplomatic persons. were at this princely 
table, but the entertainment was not very agreeable, and 
I never suffered from greater tediousness." On his 
return to Berlin he received copies of the Diirer picture 
from Vienna, etched with miniature-like delicacy by Albert 
Theer, who had acquired fame in this kind of work. 
The king claimed his promise to have the statue by the 
first of May, and Rauch put his hand to it in February, 
and appealed to Rietschel to let him have young Melz to 
help him, but Rietschel could not spare him. Rauch 
went to work with insufficient help, and before the first 
alarm-shot reached him from Nuremberg, he had written to 
Rietschel that he was working busily on the life-size model 
of Diirer, making some changes, such as the right hand 
resting with the style on the left, which he hopes will be 



156 LIFE OF CHRISTIAN DANIEL RAUCH 

advantageous." It was not unknown to him that his 
opponents held fast to the Burgschmiedt design, but he 
based this change on the authority of the portrait in the 
"Martyrdom of the Ten Thousand." He supported him- 
self on this ground when, a few days later, the demand 
came from the Nuremberg magistrates to know whether he 
had finished the model according to his promise. He had 
to answer "No ; " but he excuses himself on the ground of 
the great amount of work claimed by the king, and the 
changes he had made, and promises to finish it during 
the summer. The Nurembergers were furious, and wrote 
to the king that Rauch did not take any interest in the 
monument, and that he was only fitted for warlike statues, 
and could not succeed in other subjects. They prayed 
the king to give the work to the greatest of European 
sculptors ; viz., Thorwaldsen. 

He would unquestionably take a great interest in Diirer ; 
and as he had generously made the busts of Gutenberg 
and Schiller for nothing, he probably would not charge so 
much for this as Rauch had done. A strong minority 
sided with Rauch ; but a majority, five of whom were 
members of the art-union, were so carried away by pas- 
sion as to send to the king a proposal, which Dr. Eggers 
characterizes as " alike wanting in artistic sense, truth, 
reason, temper, and logic." 

Without making reply to them, Rauch appealed directly 
to the king. I give in full his temperate but manly and 
respectful letter, 

" Your Majesty's grace and favor make me bold enough to appeal to 
your Excellency's protection and indulgence. Your Excellency was pleased 
to command that I should be commissioned to make a model for the statue 
of Albert Diirer for the city of Nuremberg. The words which your Majesty 
spoke at the same time, that I was the best of the now living sculptors of 
Germany, how much soever I may be convinced that these words are rather 
a proof of your Majesty's disposition than my services, yet laid upon me a 
double obligation to put forth all my strength, in order to produce some- 
thing worthy in the model under consideration. I have, therefore, since the 



HISTORIC MONUMENTS 157 

completion of the monument of his late Majesty Max Joseph, busied myself 
particularly with this work, and I hoped to finish it in the month of May of 
this year. But I have found greater difficulties than I expected, and my 
achievement has not kept pace with my wishes ; so that, with my former 
experience, I can scarcely calculate to have the model in clay finished in 
six months. 

" During this time I have received a letter from Nuremberg, in which it 
is pointed out that your Majesty has been pleased to command that the 
monument of Albert Diirer should be erected in the year 1837, and that it is 
therefore necessary that the model should be in Munich during the next 
month, August, in order that the bronze casting may be begun, or the whole 
work will be considered as given up, so far as regards my connection 
with it. 

" Only your Majesty's lofty protection can turn away this mortification 
and injury from me, for it appears that your Majesty's commands and 
expressions offer the pretexts on which to break with me. Even if the 
model in clay were finished, these few weeks would not suffice to make the 
cast in plaster, and dry it so as to be fit for sending. 

" On this account, I therefore respectfully venture to beg that your 
Excellency yourself may please to give command that proper time be allowed 
me for finishing the monument, since the delay of a few months cannot be 
considered, if the artistic worth of a work which should last for centuries 
should suffer from over haste. Besides which, the erection of the monument 
could only take place much later, if, as appears, it is desired to have the 
model made in Nuremberg by another sculptor, who must now begin anew, 
and certainly must finish it much later than I can mine, on which so much 
work has been already done. 

" In hope of a gracious answer to my most respectful prayer, etc." 

The king extended the time to December, intimating 
that any further delay would be considered as putting an 
end to the contract. Rauch refused an invitation to the 
Strelitzer Court, on account of this pressure, which an- 
noyed him very much. The matter became publicly 
known, and caused much excitement, with a good deal of 
heat on both sides. Rauch refused an invitation to visit 
Rietschel at Dresden because " Ludwig had demanded 
the completion of the statue in a very short time, making 
no allowance for unexpected hindrances." These soon 
came. His trusty helper Wolff was sick, and a new, inex- 
perienced workman must begin the drapery of the great 
statue. Fifty-five hundredweight of clay was needed, and 



158 LIFE OF CHRISTIAN DANIEL RAUCH 

this great weight caused a shrinking of the model, and 
changed the action of the legs. This caused Rauch much 
embarrassment ; but finally, November 12, the clay model 
was finished, and the manikin could be relieved from the 
thick gray woollen stuff which represented the fur mantle 
of the statue. With characteristic economy this cloth 
was made over into winter cloaks for the grandchildren. 
For long years it served under the name of the Diarer 
cloak. What the little ones had often looked at with rev- 
erence, as the dress of the high man which they saw the 
grandfather make in his workshop, now proudly clothed 
their own little bodies. 

The clay model was publicly exhibited a few days, with 
a free-will entrance-fee for the benefit of a school of 
industry for poor children, and over two hundred gulden 
.were received. The applause was as loud as universal. 
The model was then given to the cast-maker. Meanwhile, 
the king urged Rauch to name a definite time for the 
delivery of the statue. This question came very oppor- 
tunely, for Rauch could now complain of the injurious 
conditions of a fixed term of delivery on the part of 
the Nuremberg magistrates. The drying of a plaster 
cast ten feet high, at this time of the year, even if 
hurried, could not be accomplished at a given day and 
hour, and sending it too early might destroy it. There- 
fore, he begged the king to command the Nuremberg 
magistrates to delay the delivery, that the model might 
dry, and be properly packed and forwarded, which might 
cause a difference of four weeks. The king gave the 
desired command, and Rauch again had his hands free. 
The casting took place in November, and December was 
consumed in the drying, which had to be done with great 
care, and the retouching and necessary finishing was not 
completed until January, and on the first day of February 
Rauch was relieved from his task by the actual delivery 
of the statue. 



HISTORIC MONUMENTS 159 

But the annoyances were not at an end. Reindel an- 
nounced the arrival and the preliminary placing of the 
statue for judgment and exhibition in a place entirely 
unfit for it, and very badly lighted. But he himself was 
quite overpowered by the statue, even under these cir- 
cumstances. Rauch's patience was exhausted. He found 
an intentional purpose to mortify him by this neglect. 
He had asked for a suitable location for the statue, and 
they had given him the worst one possible. He wrote 
angrily to the magistrates, proposing to build a wooden 
booth, properly lighted, at his own expense, and demanded 
that the exhibition should be closed until this was done. 
But fortunately this time his displeasure was needless. 
The committee themselves saw the unfitness of the place, 
and at the sight of the masterpiece the old jealousies and 
quarrels vanished. The view of this splendid work of art, 
ten feet eight inches high, filled the assembled spectators 
as well as the committee with an admiration which in- 
creased the longer they looked upon it. The verdict of 
the artists was equally favorable. They agreed that "the 
work as a whole, as in all its separate parts, was a perfect 
success, and nothing was left to desire." This speech 
suited the committee, and all left the hall well satisfied. 

In March of this year Rauch made a small copy of this 
statue " in order to keep a remembrance in his neighbor- 
hood." A cast is in the Rauch Museum. 

From all sides the position of the statue is grand and 
simple. The high houses of Nuremberg, with their rich 
lines of roofs, gables, balconies, and towers form the back- 
ground. The rather small square has a decided slope, so 
that the monument looks down even to St. Sebald's 
Church. The pedestal of marble, which appears some- 
what too light, gives weight to the dark mass of the 
draped figure. The stately form wears a cloak richly 
trimmed with fur over a damask under-garment. The 
long, broad sleeves hang down on both sides. The left 



l6o LIFE OF CHRISTIAN DANIEL RAUCH 

hand holds back the cloak, and by this natural motion 
gives occasion for fine graceful folds, and the leg is shown 
from the knee down in hose and ribboned shoes. The 
right arm falls almost directly down, and the hand holds 
the style and a sprig of laurel. 

But the statue is still more noble by its inward meaning 
and expression : it is Diirer's very self. The noble head 
with its flowing hair, the handsome, regular features, the 
earnest, deep expression of the eyes, and the beautiful 
brow are the same that we are familiar with in the por- 
traits by his own hand, while the manly grace of his atti- 
tude is in keeping with the self-respect which always 
recognized his calling as an artist as high and ennobling. 
It fitly stands in his birthplace, making it dearer still to 
all pilgrims to this shrine of truth and beauty. 

Much discussion took place in regard to the pedestal. 
Rauch was very earnest to have Heideloff's designs carried 
out for a bronze pedestal with rich bass-reliefs. He wrote 
earnestly to the magistrates, urging this point, and offering 
to give his own assistance in making models for the ped- 
estal without remuneration. The Nurembergers seemed 
willing to bear the expense ; but Reindel writes to Rauch, 
April 19, 1838, that it was some time before a decision 
came from the king. But now it is here, contrary to all 
expectation, it is that the pedestal shall be made according 
to a design sent, in the simplest manner, entirely of stone, 
with no bronze work, and must be executed as soon as 
possible, since the erection of the whole monument must 
take place without fail on the twentieth of May, 1839. On 
one side comes the inscription, and on the three others, in 
round Gothic ornament, Diirer's monogram, his arms, and 
the state arms. 

This was after Ludwig's usual fashion, when he had 
done the utmost for a great work of art, to hurry up the 
conclusion for a definite time, at the risk of spoiling the 
whole effect. Gartner was the architect of the simple 




ALBERT DCRER, NUREMBERG 



HISTORIC MONUMENTS l6l 

pedestal, and Klenze, through whom Rauch heard of the 
plan, begged him to oppose it, pointing out how unsuit- 
able the marble pedestal would be to a bronze statue. To 
avoid delay the king gave" up the proposed ornaments on 
the side, having only an inscription on the front : 

ALBRECHT DURER. 
and on the back : 

ERRICHTET AM XXI. MAI MDCCCXL. 

It will be remembered with what difficulty the casting 
of the statue was secured to Burgschmiedt. He did it 
splendidly. He first made a trial of separate parts, as 
the sleeve, lock of hair, head, and right hand. Reindel 
says, " The trials of Burgschmiedt succeed beyond expec- 
tation. The surface is so thick and fine that it only 
needs to be cleaned in order to make the clear color of 
the material visible, and chiselling is quite superfluous." 
He also says of the casting of the whole statue, that those 
acquainted with the best French casting say they have 
seen nothing better. Even Schinkel, who saw the nearly 
finished monument when travelling through Germany, 
declared the casting to be extraordinarily fine, and as pure 
as the model. On the thirtieth of March, 1840, the magis- 
trates made known that the casting was successful, and 
the monument would be unveiled on Diirer's birthday, 
the twenty-first of May. 

This must, of course, be done with festivities worthy of 
the occasion, to which Rauch was invited. He started 
with his daughter Doris for Halle, where they were joined 
by Agnes. They gladly accepted the invitation of Platner, 
a member of the committee, to dwell with him in the 
^Egidienplatz. 

All the dignitaries of the city were present, and the 
address was made by the first Burgomaster Binder. The 



l62 LIFE OF CHRISTIAN DANIEL RAUCH 

covering fell off, and, deeply overcome by the emotion of 
the moment, the two masters, Rauch and Burgschmiedt, 
embraced amid a tumult of applause. After the feast in 
the Rathhaus came a torchlight procession in honor of 
the artist. Post-horses were ordered for the journey home ; 
"but," says Rauch in his diary, " instead of the post-horses 
ordered, Herr Platner surprised us with his four black 
horses harnessed to the carriage. With hearts full of 
thanks and emotion we took leave of this love-worthy 
family. At the Erlanger Gate I was, to my great surprise, 
again greeted by my friendly host and my artist friends, 
Reindel, Heideloff, Dr. Zumpe, etc., and with a ' lebehocli ' 
wished a pleasant journey, wherewith, in inextinguishable 
remembrance of a joyous, happy day, with a thankful 
heart toward these friends and this city, I continued my 
journey." 

Thus the wearisome delays and many anxieties that had 
hindered the progress of this monument came to a happy 
end ; and Dr. Eggers considers this as the best of all 
Rauch's portrait statues, far surpassing any of his military 
ones. 

Rauch had modelled the face of Durer from several 
different pictures, but he took the profile from a medallion 
of Durer. He used this head for the portrait of Durer to 
be placed in the Walhalla, only being obliged to change 
the arrangement of hair to suit the prescribed Hermes 
form. 



KING LUDWIG OF BAVARIA 163 



CHAPTER IX 

KING LUDWIG OF BAVARIA 
1812-1852 

THE frequent mention of the King of Bavaria, which 
occurs in connection with the account of the Diirer statue, 
leads naturally to a review of Rauch's relations to that art- 
loving monarch, which led to the production of some of 
the most important, as well as most characteristic and 
beautiful, of Rauch's works. 

Rauch had been in friendly relations with this prince 
since his visit to Munich in 1811, and had received many 
commissions for busts, which he put into marble in Car- 
rara. In the beginning of his bust-work Rauch had 
received only five hundred and fifty gulden (one thousand 
marks, or two hundred and fifty dollars) for a bust ; but 
in 1823 he found that this price hardly covered more than 
the outlay ; and he announced that he could not even make 
the Scharnhorst, which he had already begun, for less 
than double that price. ' The crown prince was unpleas- 
antly surprised at this announcement ; but after two years, 
having become king, he promised to pay the increased 
price, but at the same time sought for sculptors in Berlin 
who would work cheaper, and gave some commissions to 
Tieck and Wichmann. 

Ludwig had already conceived the magnificent project 
of the Walhalla, a monument to the heroes of Germany ; 
and it was a delightful thing to Rauch, in his fever of 
patriotic excitement, to have commissions for the busts 
of Blucher and Schwarzenberg, to be placed in this new 
temple of glory. All the little feeling about the price of 



164 LIFE OF CHRISTIAN DANIEL RAUCH 

the busts soon vanished, and, as Ludwig said, " he was 
most anxious to confer with the sculptor Rauch." A 
peculiarity of Rauch's early work may be found in the 
busts in the Walhalla, in the turning of the head so that 
the front view gives almost a three-quarters' view of the 
face. 

The prince soon found fitting opportunity to show his 
interest in the sculptor. When his father, Max Joseph, 
celebrated the festival of his five and twenty years' rule, 
the magistracy of the capital decided on a monument to 
him, and to invite the crown prince to take charge of it. 

The exhaustion of the city treasure through the build- 
ing of a theatre prevented the immediate execution of 
this work, and Max Joseph did not long survive this festi- 
val ; but King Ludwig seized the opportunity to carry out 
the work on a grand scale, and asked Rauch whether and 
on what conditions he would come to Munich to see the 
locality and arrange for a colossal statue to be cast by 
Stiglmaier. For Rauch there was no question in regard 
to this commission, honorable to any artist ; but the 
answer must depend upon his king. The king graciously 
gave permission for an absence of eighteen months. 
Rauch announced his plan to Klenze in November ; but 
the work on the Bliicher statue delayed him until the 
following April, and then the journey was entered upon 
with somewhat changed conditions. Rauch made a sketch 
of Max Joseph in the manner prescribed, sitting on a 
throne in royal array ; but he thought it best to go 
to Munich only for the preparation, and to make the 
model in Berlin, doing only the last work on the colossal 
statue in Munich. He now, therefore, asked leave for 
only a short absence for this journey, which he wished to 
extend to Paris, as they proposed, according to his advice, 
to build a large new foundery at Munich, and he must, 
therefore, make himself acquainted with the French 
works. 



KING LUDWIG OF BAVARIA 165 

April 25, 1825, Rauch went to Munich with the sketches, 
and was received by the young king as an old friend. It 
was plain to see how delighted he was to find himself in 
the sphere of activity for which he had longed, and how 
he enjoyed the long conversations with Rauch. On the 
seventh of May the king approved the design of the 
monument in all its parts. The exhibition of the sketches 
became a real festival, at which many royal and noble 
personages, both lords and ladies, assisted. Rauch also 
enjoyed the society of artists and collectors, and with a 
joyful mind took part in the performance of a festival 
play which commemorated the ascent to the throne by 
King Ludwig. It was carried out with great animation 
by amateurs in declamation, song, and dancing. 

Rauch left Munich May 13, to satisfy his long-felt 
desire to visit Paris, which he felt to be necessary to 
the completion of his culture in art. Stiglmaier was 
chosen for his companion, on account of his knowledge 
of the Parisian bronze founderies. 

At Stuttgart he had great pleasure in spending four 
rich hours in the study of the famous Boisseree collec- 
tion ; and these pictures were to him, " next to Raphael's, 
the wonder of the world." Then he saw his old friend 
Dannecker again, after an interval of twelve years, and 
says that the Ariadne, which he had seen in the model, 
charmed him more than ever ; but a statue of Christ, and 
another of John, had little attraction for him. He sought 
in vain for the meaning as well as the form in them. 
Certainly Dannecker has in these works not only gone 
beyond the limits of his power, but the boundaries of art. 
When we meet him on the ground of the antique, or sub- 
jects approaching to it, then we see the old school-fellow 
of Schiller create plastic works in which he has done 
the best of his time. " It is doing Canova no wrong, 
but one is only fair to Dannecker, when one ascribes 
to him no little merit that he has essentially brought 



166 LIFE OF CHRISTIAN DANIEL RAUCH 

about the turning away from the time of modern stupidity 
(Zopfzeii), and the return to the antique." Ranch thought 
that Dannecker had tried to express in the Christ the 
words, " I go to my Father," and that this is impossible to 
represent in sculpture without any action. "The wish," 
he says, " to say too much, and to characterize too strongly, 
and to express too many details, leads to obscure speech, 
and consequently to want of the characteristic, a fault 
that we repeatedly meet with in the development of 
plastic art." At Strasburg, Rauch enjoyed the magnifi- 
cent cathedral, and paid his respects to the old Ohmacht, 
to whom his own city is indebted for so much plastic 
adornment, especially the bust of Klopstock. He tried 
to engage Helmsdorf, a landscape painter, as a teacher 
for the Berlin Art Academy, which did not yet satisfy 
him. 

A rapid journey of two days brought him to Paris, 
where he wandered as in Elysian fields, or, as he says, " in 
the happiest intoxication," at finding himself where he 
had so long desired to be. Schinkel and Beuth, whom he 
had hoped to meet, had gone to London. " Don't send 
me a letter," he wrote to Schinkel, "but a long list of all 
that I must see." Alexander von Humboldt introduced 
him to Hittorf, and for two weeks both were his constant 
and delightful guides. 

First, the sculpture of the Louvre attracted him, next 
to that of Rome the finest museum of ancient sculpture 
in the world. After that came the works of the French 
sculptors. He speaks with pleasant appreciation of all his 
contemporaries. He calls Cortot's relief of the king of 
Spain "a distinguished work of art." Of David D'An- 
gier's statue of Racine, bust of Lafayette, and several 
reliefs, he says, " They are portrayed with distinguished 
talent and knowledge." The aged Houdon, eighty-five 
years, calls forth his respect. In the Theatre Francois, 
where he admired Talma and Mademoiselle Duchesnois in 



KING LUDW1G OF BAVARIA l6/ 

Hamlet,- he saw " Houdon's statue of Voltaire in marble, 
represented in living truth. Its living yet quiet invention 
and admirable execution are like the best Greek work." 
He is also delighted with Pere la Chaise, its beautiful 
situation and its monuments, especially of General Le- 
febvre, of Prince Demidoff, Marshals Massena and Ney. 
Even the vegetation and the cypresses in the open air 
delight his northern eye. He saw David's first picture, 
the "Oath of the Horatii," and his last, "Venus and 
Mars," and says the beginning was certainly better than 
the conclusion. He visited Ingres, whom he had known 
in Rome, and Huyot and Cassas on account of their cele- 
brated painted studies of Egypt, Greece, Rome, and 
Palmyra. He was delighted with Horace Vernet's charm- 
ing house, and his atelier in the Rue de la Tour des 
Dames; and with the highest satisfaction he learned to 
know the Spanish masters in the collection of Marshal 
Soult. 

Hittorf took charge of his architectural entertainment, 
taking him to the Italian opera to show him its interior 
and decoration, to the Garden Choiseul, where he saw a 
model of the Pandrosium of Athens in its actual size, and 
thence to Mount Calvary for a view of the whole city, to- 
the new churches by Huyot, and to the unfinished Arc 
d'Etoile. 

Rauch declared Notre Dame the finest cathedral known 
to him, especially in its interior, as by its whole impres- 
sion it was worthy to stand by the Dom at Ulm. He 
went to St. Denis, St. Cloud, Meudon, and Versailles with 
Humboldt, who also introduced him to the royal library, 
to the cabinet of engravings, and into the choicest circle 
of his own acquaintance. At Gerard's, who kept open 
house on Wednesdays, he met Duvenet, former director 
of the French academy at Rome, and the sculptor Dupre, 
his old acquaintance. He learned to know the engraver 
Toschi, as well as Richomme. He made arrangements 



l68 LIFE OF CHRISTIAN DANIEL RAUCII 

with them to receive pupils from the Berlin Academy ; 
and Mandel and Luderitz were sent to Paris, and Eichens 
to Toschi, at Parma, for a four-years' course. He visited 
the Jardin des Plantes, and was especially interested in a 
vulture on account of the power of his wings and body. 

The evenings were spent at the theatre, or in delightful 
society ; and on June 5 Humboldt gave him a farewell 
dinner, at which many distinguished artists were present, 
and then, hastening back without pause, after eight days 
he met his family at Potsdam, who accompanied him the 
same day to Berlin. 

In this same month Rauch received the intelligence 
that the corner-stone of the Munich monument was laid ; 
but it was a year and a half before the contract between 
him and the Munich magistrates was finally settled. 
There were questions in regard to changes in the sketches, 
and to the estimate of cost, which required careful con- 
sideration and much correspondence. Stiglmaier had 
mentioned that critics had found fault with the archi- 
tectural effect of the union of the supporting lions with 
the upper sockel, and Rauch suggested to Klenze that 
candelabra should be introduced. The jealousy of Klenze, 
to whom the architectural design was committed, also 
caused delay and trouble ; for he considered his the most 
important part of the work, and did not like it that the 
magistrates conferred exclusively with Rauch over its 
execution. He even caused an inscription to be placed 
on the finished monument, " Leo von Klenze invenit." 

Before Rauch went on with the execution of the monu- 
ment, he availed himself of a journey to Nuremberg, to 
make an excursion to Munich, in order to shorten the 
correspondence, and to bring the contract to a final con- 
clusion. This came about with the representatives of the 
magistrates finally on the twelfth of February. Accord- 
ing to this, Rauch was to make the life size help-model in 
Berlin, and in two years after its completion carry out the 



KING LUDWIG OF BAVARIA 169 

full-sized statue in Munich, for which purpose an atelier 
was to be provided for him. The items of cost were ex- 
actly calculated, and the whole sum of the monument was 
to be two hundred and thirteen thousand marks (fifty-three 
thousand two hundred and fifty dollars). He spent a 
week in Munich in the enjoyment of the society of his 
artist friends, and then hastened back to Berlin to work. 

On his return to Berlin he was himself dissatisfied with 
the plan of the Max Joseph monument ; and, to fill up a 
space which he thought looked empty, he introduced two 
figures. One of these, finally called " Felicitas Publica," 
became a very favorite statue for decoration, and has been 
repeated many times. It is a very rich, flowing, majestic 
figure. Even as late as 1852 a bronze copy was placed in 
the city hall at Breslau in remembrance of the queen's 
visit to the industrial exhibition. 

After finishing this work Rauch turned to the life-sized 
model of the sitting statue. On December 18 the first 
naked ground-plan was made and formed in plaster. He 
had an impression of this model made by Gropius in 
papier-mack^, and draped it with the king's cassimere 
cloak, and modelled the drapery on the plaster. In 
scarcely seven weeks, on March 21, 1829, this work was 
finished, and his workmen were sent to Munich to prepare 
the iron skeleton for the colossal model, and to put *upon 
it the first layer of clay. Four chests with the models of 
the lion pedestal had preceded them, and four more chests 
followed in the beginning of June, with the models of the 
king's statue, and of the Fortuna, with books and other 
articles. 

Stiglmaier had long prayed and hoped for the sending 
of the model, which he burned with curiosity to see. 
March 2 he sees an exceedingly high wagon in the 
streets. That could only be the long-expected pedestal, 
and truly it was. It had travelled four weeks, through 
storm and snow, often with a team of eight or ten horses, 



I/O LIFE OF CHRISTIAN DANIEL RAUCH 

having been obliged to go around many of the smaller 
towns whose gates were not high enough to admit it. 

The city was in excitement ; all the journals announced 
that the colossal statue had come. But much yet re- 
mained to be done in preparing an atelier, for which 
Stiglmaier had been working for a long time, and in find- 
ing suitable lodgings for the work-people. Rauch had 
his dwelling of two rooms in the neighborhood of the 
atelier. He sent careful directions for all the details of 
stoves, windows, etc. Three atelier rooms for Rauch, one 
large and two small, were connected with the foundery. 
In August, 1828, the dry -heating began, and all the steps 
of progress were reported to Rauch. Stiglmaier could 
hardly be satisfied that any place could be good enough 
for the master, and refused one of eight rooms at the 
price of a thousand gulden ; but Rauch was more easily 
pleased, and took one at half the rent on Odeon platz. 
A housekeeper and servants were provided, and all was pre- 
pared for him, when Berghes and Sanguinetti announced 
that they were ready with the first foundation of the 
building up of the statue. Rauch left Berlin on the 
twenty-eighth of July, and to his great delight he had 
the companionship of his dear friend Rietschel, "who would 
be a companion and help" to him in the work before him. 
The friendship between these two brothers in art, of which 
I have already spoken, had gone on steadily increasing. 
From the pupil, Rietschel had become the cherished 
and beloved fellow-worker ; and Rauch delighted as much 
in his artistic success as in his own, and constantly notes 
his progress in his diary. When Rietschel failed to get 
the allowance for a journey to Italy, Rauch took measures 
to make up the deficiency. Any one familiar with 
Rietschel's work, which may now be well studied in the 
Rietschel gallery at Dresden, and with his own beautiful 
face, as shown in the bass-relief, can readily understand 
how worthy he was of this affection. The friends made 



KING LUDWIG OF BAVARIA I /I 

a short visit to Goethe at Weimar, and reached Munich on 
the second of July. July 11 Rauch first put his hand to 
the colossal model of the king. Soon after he designed a 
Bavaria for the other side of the pedestal, as a companion 
to the Felicitas. After about four weeks the last retouch 
was given to the nude model, and Rauch could begin on 
the drapery, which he hoped to have finished by the 
beginning of September, in order to carry out a favorite 
plan of again spending the winter in Italy. 

Wilhelm von Humboldt writes him a warm letter of 
congratulation on the speed and skill with which he has 
executed this work. He says, " One sees clearly from 
this how all which people say about the rule of idea and 
feeling in art is a pure want of taste. Ideas, and much 
more genius, must indeed be there ; but without the hand 
both are inactive, weak, and slow, and the hand needs 
practice in working itself, and confidence in directing 
where it has the help of others. All does not take place 
without much mechanism. If seeing, feeling, and making 
do not lie in an artist as in one mould, it is only a half 
existence with him." 

But Rauch did not finish his work as soon as he hoped, 
not because his work was hindered by occasional excur- 
sions with Klenze to Starnberg, and a visit to the wid- 
owed queen at Tegernsee, with pleasant enjoyment of 
the artistic society of Munich, but because he took a 
severe cold from the heavy rainstorms of the summer, 
and the dampness of the clay, which delayed him fully 
three weeks ; and it was not until the twenty-second of 
September that he could resume his work. During this 
illness Rietschel worked diligently on the figure of Bava- 
ria, which Rauch had sketched. 

A visit from his daughter and her husband cheered his 
convalescence, and he was able to show them some of the 
beauties of Munich and its vicinity. On the thirtieth of 
September Rauch received from Cornelius a diploma of 



172 LIFE OF CHRISTIAN DANIEL RAUCH 

honorary membership in the Munich Art Academy, and 
on the same day three great wagons with eighteen horses 
brought into Munich Thorwaldsen's monument of the 
Duke of Leuchtenberg, which was placed in the Frauen- 
kirche. Three years earlier King Ludwig had the inten- 
tion of giving this work to Rauch, because Thorwaldsen 
had not fulfilled his engagement as to the time of deliv- 
ery. Rauch declared himself willing to undertake the 
work if Thorwaldsen, with full knowledge of the circum- 
stances, wished to give it up. This led to the completion 
of the monument by Thorwaldsen. 

On the twenty-fifth of September a festival was given 
by the artists, and on the twenty-seventh Rauch mounted 
the carriage with Rietschel which was to carry him south. 
Rietschel accompanied him as far as Innspruck, where he 
was obliged to take leave of him to return to Munich. 
Rietschel closes his youthful recollections with these 
words : " As Rauch the other morning at six o'clock 
went away from Innspruck, and I remained behind to re- 
turn to Munich the same day, the parting was infinitely 
hard to me, and I saw that it was not easy to him. My 
whole love, honor, and gratitude followed the excellent 
master and friend." I will leave to another place the 
account of Rauch's journey, to complete now the history 
of the monument. Rauch stayed in Italy until April. 
Rietschel kept him constantly informed of all that went 
on in Munich. Rauch writes from Rome, " That the 
works of the Bianconi are making such good progress 
makes me very happy, and I am full of obligation to you ; 
for you have been helpful at my side in all parts of this 
heavy business. For all, all my most hearty and undi- 
vided thanks." As in January they are busy with the 
plaster, Rauch repeats how happy the news from the ate- 
lier makes him, although he says that he is only half happy, 
since he is not at the work himself. " But I hope to 
make up for all, and to be very busy in Berlin. For I see 



KING LUDWIG OF BAVARIA 173 

better what I really should do myself." But soon after 
Rietschel was obliged to return to Dresden, on account 
of the work on the model of a statue of King Frederic 
Augustus, and Rauch sent to Berlin for other help. He 
left the matter to Tieck, and it was arranged that Drake 
should go to Munich. Drake was a favorite pupil and a 
most efficient helper, and he bore an important part in 
the completion of the monument. During the absence of 
Rauch in Italy they worked on the great model in plaster, 
often under the eye of King Ludwig, who willingly praised 
their work, but did not hesitate to scold them if he 
thought they left off work too early before a holiday. 

Rauch returned to Munich April 18, and gave three 
weeks to working on the hand and head of the colossal 
statue ; but his work was hindered by the same trouble in 
the back and limbs from which he had suffered before. He 
could work only in the forenoon ; the afternoon was given 
to the cure. At night he suffered severe pain. Steam- 
baths, leeches, blood-letting, were tried ; but nothing gave 
him relief, and he left Munich to go to the baths of Gas- 
tein, from whence he returned to Munich on the twenty- 
sixth of May. He had nothing more to do on the Munich 
work, and could give it up to the casting. The casting 
of the lion-pedestals, with the figures of Felicitas Publica 
and the Bavaria, was successfully accomplished by Stigl- 
maier in 1831, and that of the statue itself in the year 

1833- 

In this statue Rauch has happily overcome many of the 
difficulties of a sitting figure placed on a high pedestal. 
The king, in his coronation mantle, sits on a throne with 
his head lightly turned to the right, the right hand raised 
in the act of blessing, while the left, leaning on a support, 
seizes by the middle the sceptre lying on the upper arm. 
The mantle, drawn over the right shoulder, opens itself to 
the upraised right arm, which is clothed with a richly 
embroidered uniform. A very good bust by Stiglmaier 



174 LIFE OF CHRISTIAN DANIEL RAUCH 

served as the model for the head, and in the full face is the 
expression of benevolent earnestness. 

Not only does Rauch express the warmest gratitude for 
Rietschel's assistance in this work, but he also learned to 
prize another pupil, Drake, and he predicted his brilliant 
future career. " Herr Drake is fully occupied with some 
commissions in my atelier, and will soon gain a distin- 
guished reputation. He is yet very young." And again, 
" Drake is such a talent as only appears from century to 
century." 

When Rauch returned to Berlin, he found so many 
claims upon him that he could not do anything more for 
the monument for a whole year. But the bass-reliefs for 
the upper pedestal were still wanting. Rietschel assisted 
him in the work. I will give the description of the best 
ones, which represent the relation of religion and art. He 
has represented the two great branches of the Christian 
church by the figures of its priests, with an angel between 
them, extending her hands to the shoulder of each, while 
the light of the Holy Ghost on her head illumines all 
around. The Catholic has the features of the Court 
Bishop von Straber, who was personally known to Rauch ; 
and the Protestant is modelled from the portrait of Von 
Schmidt, cabinet preacher of Queen Caroline, and the 
leading Protestant minister in Munich. 

Equally interesting is the representation of art in the 
second field. In the first sketch the figures were purely 
allegorical, but Rauch finally took the portrait of Corne- 
lius sitting at the easel for the principal figure. On the 
left the sculptor is working and looking up to a plaster 
group of Charity, while on the right sits the architect 
taking measures for a ground-plan, and behind him, in the 
background, are workmen raising stones. 

As Rauch was considering the plan of this relief, he 
expressed to Drake his wish that he -had Klenze for a 
model of the head of the architect. At that moment 



KING LUDWIG OF BAVARIA 175 

Klenze walked in, and Rauch insisted that he must stand 
as a model. Impossible ! He was on his way to Peters- 
burg, and had only a half-hour to spare. "Just enough! " 
cried Rauch, while Drake, at a wink of his eye, at once 
prepared a form and the modelling-stick. Now Klenze 
must stand still, though on coals, and with watch in hand. 
In twenty-nine and one-half minutes Drake showed him 
the relief-portrait. Klenze took the stick and wrote on 
the rim of it, twenty-nine and one-half minutes, and then 
vanished. In that time the sculptor had seized all the 
strong peculiarities of the face, and the tangled, bushy 
hair. On the third side, with the inscription, is the repre- 
sentation of science by an astronomer, who investigates 
the heavens with his telescope, while a figure of Night 
discloses the constellations from under her veil ; and on 
the other side, by the biologist, who gazes with wonder at 
the singular forms which Tellus reaches up from out of 
her depths. Thus Rauch paid honor to those scientific 
men, such as Oken, Schubert, Schellirig, Fraunhofer, 
whom King Ludwig had welcomed to add to the glory of 
Munich. Dr. Eggers makes the criticism on this relief 
that " it is disturbing ; that the pillar, the laurel-tree, and 
the figure of Tellus are cut through by the line of the 
relief-field." For once Rauch seems to have confused 
the boundaries of the arts, and attempted a picturesque 
effect more appropriate to painting. 

The king was now becoming very impatient, and wished 
to set the first of May as the time for the unveiling of the 
monument ; but even kings must wait. It was impossible 
to have the work done at that time, and it was finally only 
on September 5 that the colossal image, drawn by twelve 
horses, was brought from the foundery to its position. The 
last necessary work upon it filled up the rest of the month. 
The first Tuesday of the festival week, October 13, was 
decided on for the unveiling. Rauch was expected to be 
present, and Stiglmaier secured rooms for him just oppo- 



1/6 LIFE OF CHRISTIAN DANIEL RAUCH 

site to the monument. He started with his son-in-law, 
D' Alton, from Halle, September 30, in order to arrive in 
Munich on Sunday for the first day of the festival ; but, 
owing to over-wearied post-horses, they arrived on the 
fifth day in the' Theresien Meadow, just as the train of 
wagons which represented the Alt-Bavarien's circle by the 
wearers of different costumes drew up before the royal 
tent. They saw everything ; the shooters, the wrestlers, 
the beauty of the splendid beasts, goats, steers, cows, 
horses, and swine. Ninety thousand men must have been 
present. 

The next morning Rauch went with Stiglmaier to the 
monument, still in the booth, and on which the men were 
working. He was not entirely satisfied with the effect of 
the casting, and said he could not understand whether it 
was owing to the want of skill of the workmen, or the 
difficulty of the material, that the final effect of bronze 
leaves so much to be wished for, and that this material does 
not compare with marble in the capacity for expression. 

The first general idea of the reliefs was to represent the 
giving of the constitution, and the blessings which flow 
from a well-ordered government. 

The first relief, in the composition of which Rietschel 
assisted, represented law and agriculture. Both are 
treated allegorically. 

Rietschel, who had become professor of the academy at 
Dresden, and established a household there, now came to 
join Rauch at Munich, and together they visited the 
studios, and examined many works of art. 

On the twelfth the monument was shown to the king 
by Klenze. The king expressed high praise of it, and told 
Rauch that he felt he was right in the decision not to 
yield to his wish to retain him entirely in his service, but 
to remain in his home and true to his own king. 

The day of unveiling at last arrived. Rauch had " a 
restless night from the very fulness of his prosperity." 



KING LUDWIG OF BAVARIA 177 

The excitement of seeing his finished work in its abiding- 
place left him no peace. He hurried out of his house and 
found the morning cloudy. He hastened the passage of 
the morning hours by making some visits, and he went to 
the Art Exhibition to forget himself in the works of others. 
He was enthusiastic for the excellent Peter Hess' picture, 
" The Entrance of King Otto from Greece into Nauplia," as 
" a work of the most striking talent." " So I went," he 
notes, "through the wet, but by degrees animated, streets 
to my dwelling, where I found that the Maximilian Street 
was gradually filling up. Burgher guards on foot and on 
horseback, the trades with their flags each borne by two 
men, the boys with their leaders, and the maidens dressed 
in blue and white, formed two choirs near the monument. 
Towards half-past twelve came the persons of the minis- 
try of the university and of the academy, in fine gala dress, 
and with uncovered heads, and then the clergy, with the 
archbishop and court bishop at their head. The magis- 
trates went into the new palace, but soon returned, and 
after them the whole court in full array. The king came 
with a quick step, followed by the royal princes, the Field- 
Marshal Prince Wrede, the generalship, pages, etc. The 
choir-singing began, and the second burgomaster asked 
permission of the king to unveil the statue, which the 
king granted. The archbishop pronounced a blessing, 
and at a pull of the first burgomaster on the cord, the 
golden image stood free. A hymn sounded amid the 
ringing of all the bells in the city, and the thunder of one 
hundred and one cannon most powerfully accompanied 
the inward feeling and the outward expression. With 
Edouard" (d'Alton), " Stiglmaier and his family, with 
friend Rietschel, Preacher Trautschold, and other friends, 
I looked out from my dwelling at the spectacle, to which 
Heaven did not appear unkind, since the cloudy day cleared 
at the moment of unveiling, and lighted the monument 
and the scene for two seconds, which made a great impres- 



178 LIFE OF CHRISTIAN DANIEL RAUCH 

sion on us all, and cleared my spirit so that I recovered 
from all the care and uncertainty of a nine-years' work, 
and was peaceful and happy over its success. All my 
earlier wishes were richly fulfilled." On that and the 
following day Rauch was constantly accompanied with 
ever-renewed good wishes and congratulations until the 
moment when he set foot into his carriage, which at noon 
stood at the door. The king took leave of him most gra- 
ciously, and, after a short stay at Halle, he returned to his 
workshop at Berlin. 

Before closing this chapter I must devote a page to 
Rauch's Italian journey, which I passed over lightly in 
order not to interrupt the story of the Max Joseph monu- 
ment. It is chiefly important for his observations on 
ancient and modern art. 

Rauch had long felt an earnest desire to revisit Italy, 
and his Italian friends constantly urged him to come 
there. His friend Humboldt encouraged him in these 
words : " To visit Italy, to travel through it quickly, and 
then with increased courage and fresh longing for work 
to come back, is the happiest thought that you could con- 
ceive." 

He began his journey October 27, 1829. He went by 
Innspruck and the Italian lakes, and spent the Sunday at 
Milan. He wandered about the wonderful cathedral at 
evening, admiring the effect of its thousand statues. He 
met here " the interesting engraver " Longhi, and visited 
both painters and sculptors. He then went to Genoa, 
Spezzia, and Carrara, where he found his own work in 
good progress. His constant correspondence with Riet- 
schel, and his note-book, give full accounts of this journey. 
At Lucca he speaks of the pictures of Fra Bartolommeo, 
and then he came to his old friends at Florence. 

November 20 he left Florence with a vettnrino, and 
enjoyed the cold weather, which enabled him to go much 
on foot. He says, " Everything after my long absence 



KING LUDWIG OF BAVARIA 179 

has for me a closer, higher interest." He reached Rome 
on the twenty-fifth. He is constantly with Thorwaldsen, 
and speaks most tenderly of this old friend, and will 
delay his journey to Naples to be with him, as he was 
soon to leave for Munich. He is in his old home again 
with Frau Buti, and he finds the city cleaner and more 
friendly than before, and French and English more 
spoken. 

He touches lightly on many artistic points, but says he 
stood two hours before the Transfiguration of Raphael, 
sunk in admiration and enjoyment, and could only look at 
the Madonna del Foligno, the morning was so dreamed 
away. The next day was given to the Raphael Stanze, 
of which he says, " It seems as if I had never seen any- 
thing so beautiful ; never this fulness and richness ; never 
the whole; never the details seen and felt so carefully." 

Thorwaldsen was to take possession of Rauch's house in 
Munich ; and Rauch writes, " Thorwaldsen will need no 
other accommodation than lodging, service, and breakfast, 
but especially your help not to miss the artists and good 
friends. Place my models skilfully in view in the atelier, 
but leave the large one of the king's statue where it is ; 
it will not interest him." 

Rauch was deeply interested in the two-days' visit to 
Pompeii, and the other beauties of the Bay of Naples. 
His evenings were spent at the theatre. He was aston- 
ished and delighted at the Pompeian paintings, and says, 
" These days are the most satisfactory of my life. The 
works of painting especially busied my thought, and 
always repeated to me ' that with the end of the Greeks, 
painting disappeared from the world.' I always believed 
this as regards forms, but now that I have seen the colors 
on the wet walls I am astonished at their harmony. The 
workmen are now busied with the house of Meleager ; all 
which comes to light is of the highest richness and excel- 
lence : one house on this street even surpasses that in 



ISO LIFE OF CHRISTIAN DANIEL KAUCH 

richness and beauty." He does not neglect the modern 
artists, and speaks with praise of Colantonio del Fiore 
(II Zingaro), Antonio Solario, and the old Southern 
school. 

But most exciting of all his excursions was that to 
Psestum, where he saw the noblest of Greek ruins in 
Italy, which are still more impressive from the solemn 
loneliness of their surroundings. His keen eye detected 
in the stalls of the archbishops at Salerno ancient capitals 
in the stone of Paestum, and he suspected their origin 
to be from a fourth temple at Paestum, not yet brought to 
light. He was promised that immediate steps should be 
taken to excavate this temple ; but the work was delayed 
by the unsuitable condition of the ground. This is what 
is now called the ruins of an amphitheatre. Official 
notice of his discovery was sent to Berlin in December. 
Pausing at Benevento on his way from Naples, he is so 
much excited by the Arch of Trajan, that he declares 
" that all which is most worthy of seeing from antiquity 
is less important than this." 

On returning to Rome, as he had already written to 
Rietschel, Ranch felt a strong desire to remain and model 
and finish a statue there ; but he was convinced by the 
wise advice of his friend Humboldt, who wrote him thus : 
" I thought that to see Italy, and above all Rome again, 
would be an unending enjoyment to you, and, more than 
that, a true elevation of the spirit, a new nourishment of 
the fancy, and a true encouragement to new efforts ; and 
your letter tells me that it has entirely proved so. But I 
wish, not only for all our sakes, but hold it better for 
yourself, that you should return to Germany in the spring. 
The time of life for work passes very quickly, and if it be 
a charming plan to remain a year in Rome to finish a 
determined work, yet this appears to me practically un- 
feasible ; since, especially for a sculptor, a great expendi- 
ture of time and cost goes to the bare erection. One 



KING LUDWIG OF BAVARIA l8l 

should then decide to choose either Rome or the father- 
land for his work-place, and unite therewith visits to the 
other, as you are now doing, which thus gives freedom to 
the fancy, without her becoming one-sided and uniform 
from continuous work." 

He remained a month in his own villa, rejoicing in the 
trees which he had planted, and modelled a bust of Prince 
Henry of Prussia in clay. He speaks of his desire to 
return home, as he is now a happy grandfather, and 
Humboldt also wishes him to come back for the opening 
of the Museum. 

At Siena he remarks that the artists, more especially 
Duccio, whose works in purity of form and execution 
remind one of the fine pictures of Pompeii, must have 
seen the ancient paintings. This dependence on the 
antique was also evident in the sculpture of the celebrated 
Niccolo Pisano. 

A short stay was made in Florence with his old com- 
panions ; a day or two spent in Bologna, and the same in 
Parma, where Toschi accompanied him on his art-excur- 
sions ; and he proceeded over the Brenner Pass, and 
reached Munich, April 9. Boisseree writes, " Rauch is 
here and full of his Italian journey. He looks somewhat 
thin, but right well ; and what he tells in his lively, spir- 
ited way raises my longing to go thither." He had been 
at work on the king's monument only three weeks, how- 
ever, when his health broke down, and he was ordered to 
the baths at Gastein to recruit. 

He gives a lively account of his journey and his annoy- 
ance from his servant's smoking bad tobacco. He never 
forgets his art, but takes the opportunity of his ten-min- 
utes' bath to study his own limbs in the water, as the 
anatomy is more evident. He also notes the beautiful 
color of the flesh, and wonders if Goethe ever took the 
bath there, which must have given him heavenly pleasure. 
He wishes that his feet had eyes, so that he could see the 



1 82 LIFE OF CHRISTIAN DANIEL RAUCH 

upper part of the body equally well. He has plenty of 
chamois, grouse, and heathcock at table, but he says, " No 
nightingale rejoices the ear, no bird but the hawk ; never 
once the everywhere darling sparrow did I see, only a few 
redbreasts fly over the raging waterfall." 

His mind is very active and full of projects, and he 
writes to Rietschel that he proposes to return the river 
Ache to its original bed, so that the warm springs may be 
protected from the noise of the waterfall, and the bath 
guests may sleep more peacefully. 

He now learns, too, with great delight, that the Land- 
tag has at last decided to erect the statue of King Fred- 
eric Augustus in Berlin, and that the commission will be 
given to his dear pupil Rietschel. He writes to him 
most warmly, and rejoices that he will have his society in 
Berlin, as the statue will be made there. He is anxious 
to return, but thinks the water is helping the nervous 
affection, and believes now that the trouble in his pru- 
dent head has gone to his stupid limbs ; "he wishes the 
head had kept it." He returns to Berlin in May with 
great joy, and hopes never to be away from his atelier so 
long again. 

Among the results of this work for King Ludwig was 
Rauch's great interest in the subject of casting in bronze. 
He studied it earnestly in Paris, and made very interest- 
ing comparisons with the work of the ancients, and of the 
old Italians and Germans. Founderies were established 
at Munich, at Berlin, and at Nuremberg, at all which 
places Rauch had work done ; and, as we shall see, there 
was a wholesome rivalry between them to do the best 
work, and obtain the employment on his statues. 

I will not attempt to follow out all the technical details 
of this work. The story of it was extremely interesting 
to Rauch. To Benvenuto Cellini appears to belong the 
merit of first using the modern method of casting by piece 
moulds instead of the destruction of the original model, as 



KING LUDWIG OF BAVARIA 183 

was necessary by the old method of " la cire perdue" 
Gottfried Schadow in 1791-1792 learned this technique in 
Petersburg, Stockholm, Copenhagen, and Paris, and intro- 
duced it into Prussia. Forty years later Schadow again 
brought forward the subject in regard to the Blucher 
monument at Rostock. Objection being made to Goethe's 
proposal that it should be made by Pflug and his son in 
copper, a bronze cast was decided on, which was confided 
to the founder Lequine, of Paris, to be cast in the Royal 
Cannon Foundery at Berlin. The cast of tne statue gave 
satisfaction, but the brass plate of the pedestal had to be 
helped by the hammer as it was bent in casting. This 
was in 1818. To this followed a second casting of one of 
Schadow's works, the Luther at Wittenberg, which suc- 
ceeded well in 1819. 

Meanwhile, Rauch was busy with preparations for the 
Blucher monument at Breslau, which was to be cast in 
bronze. He therefore set himself diligently to work, 
according to his usual habit, to learn everything he could, 
not only about the practical work, but of the history 
of the subject. The results were meagre, but historic 
research has since brought out much more. He found in 
Germany sporadic cases of work in metal, such as the 
equestrian statue of Frederic Augustus II. in Dresden, 
which gave an idea of the difficulties encountered a hun- 
dred years before. Frederic the Great, some twenty-five 
years later, at the building of the new palace at Potsdam, 
established an atelier for metal work. Here the group 
of the three women supporting a crown, for the great 
middle dome, was cast, and also the Atlas with the globe, 
on the little cupola of the council-house in Potsdam. 

From France, Rauch received some data regarding the 
cost of the work, which convinced him of the advantages 
of the new method. 

Rauch tried to bring his old friend Hopfgarten from 
Rome to cast the Blucher statue, and to establish a work- 



184 LIFE OF CHRISTIAN DANIEL RAUCH 

shop and school there. But Hopfgarten was averse to 
trying the French method, maintaining that the results 
from the old one were equally good. 

It was proposed to send workmen to Russia to learn 
the work, but as Lequine applied for the position of 
founder for the Royal Art Academy and the work of cast- 
ing the Bliicher statue, this was judged to be unnecessary. 
The king appointed Lequine to establish a school for 
founding in bronze, and for a yearly stipend of five hun- 
dred gulden he was to instruct two pupils, to be selected 
by Rauch. 

In spite of Rauch's careful oversight and earnest effort, 
this school was not wholly successful, and only one 
founder, Kastner, was really fitted for the work. Three 
learned the art of coining. But he never gave up his 
efforts to get the best workmen to Berlin, and build up 
the foundery there. Hopfgarten finally accepted the new 
method, and came to Berlin, where he was engaged on 
work for the king. 

While Rauch was thus struggling to establish this 
branch of art industry in Berlin, King Ludwig was deeply 
interested in establishing his foundery, and the first prod- 
uct of it was to be the statue designed by Rauch. Thus 
he came into direct personal relations with the Munich 
Bronze Foundery, which were facilitated by his former in- 
terest in Stiglmaier, the director of the new institute, who 
had been introduced to him by Klenze in 1824. 

Stiglmaier's history recalls that of Benvenuto Cellini. 
He began life as a goldsmith, but soon developed an 
ambition for larger works, and, having gained the recom- 
mendation of Canova, went to Naples in order to study 
his art by seeing the casting of Canova's statue of 
Charles III. Righetti's kindness allowed him to see the 
whole process, but the eager young man lost the favor of 
the older founder by his zeal. Righetti had a secret 
process of casting. This was really no other than the 



KING LUDWIG OF BAVARIA 185 

before-named " other process " of Benvenuto Cellini, by 
which the original model is preserved. Whether Righetti 
had learned it from Cellini, or had found it out for him- 
self, he was not pleased when Stiglmaier, who had heard 
of this method, but had not seen it with Righetti, found 
out all the technical methods for himself. 

He made the experiment on a statuette of Venus, two 
feet high, modelled by his friend Haller. In his day-book 
he details with great minuteness the result of his efforts. 
From September 22 to October 14, 1820, was employed 
in preparation. Many unavoidable delays occurred, and 
the excitement increased as the end drew near. By some 
mistake one of the assistants poured his molten metal 
into the air-hole. The casting was broken off, and came 
to a standstill. "The crowd of lookers-on," says the poor 
founder, " stood first dumb about me, then slipped out one 
by one and left me alone with my pain." On the seventh 
of November a second casting was begun and failed. 
With unbroken courage he began the third cast, and on 
Christmas Eve the metal was again poured in. It ran 
into the mould and spurted joyfully out at the airhole. 
"Our joy knew no bounds ; we raised a loud cry of joy, 
and embraced and kissed each other. Pasquale the helper 
kissed the head of Phidias coming out of the broken form, 
and burnt his mouth, for it had not had time to cool." 

From this time a close acquaintance and correspond- 
ence followed between Stiglmaier and Rauch, not only in 
relation to artistic matters, but in friendly intercourse. 
Rauch writes of the marriage of Agnes, and Stiglmaier 
tells of his own nuptials. 

The account of the difficulties in regard to the Durer 
statue with King Ludwig need not be repeated. They 
sprang from the king's royal impatience, which did not like 
to be opposed even by the inevitable conditions of art. 
The same spirit was apparent in regard to the work for the 
Walhalla, including the victories; but although Rauch 



186 LIFE OF CHRISTIAN DANIEL RAUCH 

was somewhat fettered by the wishes of the king, yet he 
was too grateful to him for the splendid opportunities 
he had opened to him not to rejoice in all that he had 
done for the promotion of art in Germany. Unfortu- 
nately, the king's haste led him to prefer the dashing, 
bold Schwanthaler, who, as Klenze writes, " contents him- 
self with dictating statues and reliefs. The king knows 
that something is wanting, but he lets it go, led on by 
the same haste of creation." * 

Rauch says of the pressure brought to bear upon him 
to hasten work on the Victories, " I was never in my 
life more disturbed, and never had worse hypochondriacal 
nights than now, when King Ludwig urges so hard, and 
I have no means to do more than I am doing." 

King Ludwig offered five thousand thalers for the pro- 
posed Goethe and Schiller group, if it were cast at Munich; 
but he differed seriously from Rauch in regard to the 
costume of the statue, and Rauch objected to his plan of 
the two wreaths. 

King Ludwig showed his full appreciation of Rauch by 
the position he has given him in his great temples of art. 
Kaulbach painted his portrait in the seventh field of the 
frescoes on the new Pinakothek, with the other sculptors 
engaged in his work, and Rauch used his own portrait in 
the representation of sculptors on the relief on the Max 
Joseph monument. Ludwig writes to him, "I wish to 
receive your best likeness, that your statue may be pre- 
pared, which I wish to place, with six of the best sculptors 
of my own time, in the east niche of the Glyptothek. 
That Rauch should not fail there, goes without saying. 
Since the Glyptothek is in antique style, it follows, of 
course, that the costume should be the same for harmony. 
This determines me, little as I like the new in antique 
dress. How high I hold you is known to you far better 
than to a generation. With this feeling, I am your most 
appreciative Ludwig." 



KING LUDWIG OF BAVARIA 187 

King Ludwig was anxious to retain Rauch in his con- 
stant service, and invited him to Munich. It was a 
tempting proposal, for Bavaria was then the kingdom of 
art, while Prussia was still struggling with poverty and 
sorrow ; but Rauch's nature was essentially loyal, and he 
could not leave the king who had befriended him from 
boyhood. The marriage of his daughter also made a 
strong tie to her home, where he knew the best joys of 
family life. We must rejoice that he decided to remain 
in Berlin, where he worked in greater freedom and with 
that devotion to thorough perfection which made his 
influence on art so precious. He gained from Munich an 
impulse in art, and to Ludwig we are indebted for the 
production of his most original works; but we are not 
sorry that his life and his fame belong to Prussia. 



188 LIFE OF CHRISTIAN DANIEL KAUCH 



CHAPTER X 

HOME AND FRIENDS. SCHOOL AND ATELIER 

1830-1840 

ON May 26, 1829, Ranch's oldest daughter, Agnes, mar- 
ried Dr. Eduard d' Alton, a son of the celebrated writer 
on comparative osteology, who, having already made a 
reputation in Paris, had been appointed professor of anat- 
omy in Berlin. The married pair remained in the Lager- 
haus in Berlin, while Rauch went to Munich, and thence 
to Italy. 

The birth of his first grandchild, a girl, on the same 
day that he discovered the ruins of the fourth temple at 
Paestum, was a great delight to him. On his return home 
he found great satisfaction in the child ; and writing to 
his friend Rietschel on the birth of his first daughter, he 
betrays the grandfatherly feeling by his anxious injunc- 
tions to him in regard to the care of the child. " Take 
care," he says, "for the most anxious watching and obser- 
vation of the child, even pedantic foresight, this is our 
earnest prayer." His diary records all the little illnesses 
and other slight events in the lives of his grandchildren, 
and informs us that he gave his granddaughter Eugenie 
on her first birthday a carnelian ring, engraved with two 
children's heads. He expresses his joy to Lund : " For you 
know," he says, "my daughter's well-being makes my 
earthly heaven and my best refreshment after the labors of 
the atelier." The little family was successively increased 
by the birth of Marie and Bertha, and then of Guido. In 
1834 Professor D'Alton received an appointment at Halle, 



HOME AND FRIENDS. SCHOOL AND ATELIER 189 

which occasioned the removal of his family thither a little 
later. The separation was very painful to Rauch. He 
wrote to Rietschel, " In the spring begins my solitude, 
which, if I could go back to Carrara, would not be so 
heavy as here." 

This change, however, finally gave him a new interest ; 
for in 1835 he determined to build a house in Halle for 
the family, after his own ideas, " not in the mason-and-car- 
penter style, " but suited to home-life. He proposed to 
decorate the house, especially the interior, and hoped to 
introduce a new and better style of house architecture, 
in conformity with the ideas of Schinkel. This " D } Alton- 
isch Hausclien " was long a unique specimen of the modern 
villa. The architect was Strack, a pupil of Schinkel. 
The grounds were about five acres in extent, affording 
space for gardens in both front and rear, and the view 
was both extensive and beautiful. One noble elm has out- 
lived all the changes the house has seen. In December 
the house was roofed in, young trees having been already 
planted. At Whitsuntide, Rauch saw it for the first time, 
and said that "both house and garden surpassed his expec- 
tations." He found beauty and convenience united in an 
admirable whole. 

Rauch employed himself during this visit in modelling 
in profile his three granddaughters, now three to six years 
old ; Eugenie with braided hair, the others with short, 
straight locks. They are charming, simple pictures of 
childhood, and have often been repeated for the family. 
Later in the same year he modelled Guido, and he made 
use of these models in the decoration of the staircase. 
Rauch planned to decorate the corridor and staircases 
with the work of his contemporary artists, Tieck, Drake, 
etc., and he writes to Rietschel begging him to have his 
profile portrait sketched by Metz, and to send him also, 
if possible, a bit of his relief-work, that he may have "you 
and your hand forever united there." He says, " I prepare 



LIFE OF CHRISTIAN DANIEL RAUCH 

* 

for myself the pleasantest rest, in passing my last days 
with my own people and among these bass-reliefs, remem- 
brances of my most active days, and of the society of 
friends so dear in themselves. Our friend Strack exerts 
himself with his fine talent and our small means to care 
for everything, to satisfy our needs as well as our eyes." 

The house-warming took place at Christmas. The 
grandfather and his daughter Doris and the four children 
made the winter journey, passing two nights on the way, 
and Agnes and Eduard received them with tears of joy 
in the brilliantly lighted house. 

Almost every year Rauch made two visits to Halle, in 
spring and autumn, until the opening of the railroad 
shortened the time of the journey, so that frequent re- 
unions with the growing family were possible. He took 
pleasure in the care of the gardens, and especially in 
what he called his " Wandstammbuches," or collection 
of bass-reliefs on the walls. These were plastic memen- 
toes of the present and the past time, a mingling of 
fragments, sketches, and finished work in an album-like 
manner, the large and the little mixed in pleasing confu- 
sion. The collection of sixty pieces first planned was 
afterwards more than doubled. The setting of these re- 
liefs began about six feet from the floor, and sometimes 
reached the ceiling. He was eager to fill up every blank 
spot with portraits of his friends, especially of artists. 
Rietschel holds an honored place as a mark of old and 
tender friendship. Rauch tried to keep some symmetry 
in the arrangement, and therefore sends exact measure- 
ments for portraits which he wishes to place in relation 
with his own or others. 

The spaces between the reliefs were filled with Pom- 
peian colors, and Wach painted the figures and decorations 
which were to unite them. 

The D'Alton family often visited their grandfather in 
Berlin, the children staying with their Aunt Doris, under 



HOME AND FRIENDS. SCHOOL AND ATELIER IQI 

the care of Fraulein Lieberkuhn, the good house-dame 
who had been so long with them. The grandfather did 
not fail to enforce his principles of education. His great 
motto was, " Poverty is a blessing ; it rouses us to self- 
reliance, to activity, to independent thought." Even with 
the children he suffered no idle lingering : they must busy 
themselves with something. The utmost which he al- 
lowed was, that they might sit as quiet observers of the 
work, of whose worth and meaning they might thus learn 
to think ; a permission of which they respectfully availed 
themselves. The parents came regularly at Christmas- 
time, thus uniting that festival with Rauch's birthday on 
the second of January, when he was accustomed to gather 
his Berlin friends to meet his family. The grandchildren 
took part in this festivity, playing duets for their sixty- 
one-years-old birthday-child. 

Rauch had but few relations, and had not seen them 
since the death of his cousin Dr. Mundhenck ; but he cor- 
responded kindly with those who remained, and sent them 
money according to their needs. Some of his country 
friends sent him the home-made sausages dear to his 
German heart, while Frau Engelhardt added the pickled 
brawn, of which he was fond. Rauch could always add to 
his thanks the remark that the contents of the packages 
were consumed in health and enjoyment with friends and 
fellow-laborers. According to his frequent expressions, 
these years were the most healthy of his life ; his attacks 
of headache constantly decreased, and only occasional re- 
currence of pain made summer journeys to Aix necessary. 

On one of these journeys he made a long stay in Mu- 
nich, on account of the works in process for the Walhalla. 

His journey by Darmstadt, Bonn, etc., was full of interest, 
giving him the opportunity of seeing Schepeler's fine col- 
lection of Spanish pictures, which he compared with those 
of Marshal Soult in Paris. 

Herr Schepeler was his companion at Aix in his walks 



LIFE OF CHRISTIAN DANIEL RAUCH 

and observations. Rauch's eager desire for knowledge 
always led him to inspect industries as well as works of 
art; so he visited cloth-factories, coal-mines, and great 
elevators, and a steam-engine of one hundred and twenty 
horse-power, and did not fail to observe with human 
interest the condition of the work-people. 

On his return he gave a glance at Diasseldorf, and was 
much impressed by Lessing, then a young man of thirty- 
one, whose first fresco, the battle of Iconium, he much 
admired. Rauch kept a note-book with careful details of 
routes ; and his habits of method and order on his journeys, 
as everywhere else, enabled him to accomplish a great deal 
in a short time. 

He gained strength from his journey ; but the sciatic 
pains returned the next year with so much severity that he 
repeated the experiment, but the weather was so bad that 
he said " that on the whole he returned worse than he 
went, a distressing result for so much loss of expense and 
time." The final conclusion was more satisfactory, how- 
ever ; for after these pains had passed, another journey 
was not necessary. 

His next journey was purely one of pleasure. He had 
long held the kindest relations with the brother of Queen 
Louise, the Duke of Mechlenburg-Strelitz, ever since the 
time when the young duke had gone on his tour of study 
to Rome, with Rauch as his artistic guide. The duke 
now recommends to Rauch young Wolff as a pupil, and 
Rauch's answer gives us a fine idea of his plan of education 
for an artist. The duke's letters are full of affectionate 
remembrance of his early intimacy with Rauch, and of 
recommendations of this young aspirant to art. 

Rauch answers after the usual compliments, saying, 

" I can only repeat how dangerous it is for a young man destined to the 
pursuit of art to begin his life-course with studying its theory, instead of 
practising the technique of eye and hand, in which the greatest part of sculp- 
ture consists, and with which as a last resource the most necessary means 
of subsistence can be gained. 



HOME AND FRIENDS. SCHOOL AND ATELIER 193 

" On this account I advise placing the young Wolff with a sculptor with 
whom he may pass four or five years, not as a student, but as an apprentice, 
reserving two half-days in the week for visiting the academy for instruction 
in drawing. Evenings and Sundays he can consecrate wholly to the study 
of art. 

" If there is a true impulse and vocation for art, it will show itself clearly 
in the years so spent ; if it does not exist, he will remain, with the technique, 
a skilful workman, having a well-paid and honorable existence, of which 
in our modern times there is great need ; for the world swarms with sighing, 
lazy young artists wandering about, burdening their parents and the state." 

Young Wolff, and amother pupil recommended by the 
duke, proved very able scholars. Rauch took them to his 
studio, and on Sunday to his table, and the duke was de- 
lighted with their progress. Rauch made repeated visits 
to the duke, and modelled many busts, among them those 
of the Duke and Duchess of Cambridge. The society 
was delightful, and much time was spent in excursions by 
water and land. A favorite amusement was found in per- 
forming living tableaux, in one of which Rauch figured as 
the Father in Bendemann's picture of " The Mourning 
Jews." 

At a later visit to the duke, Rauch had much pleasure 
in the society of some of the court-dames, especially with 
Fraulein Dewitz, in whom he found much artistic sym- 
pathy. She sent him the second part of " Faust," which 
took possession of his whole soul, although, as he says, 
" without being able to follow the bold flight of this world- 
soul who belongs to the race of Titans," and so he 
reads again this " Helena-jagd " from the beginning. In- 
vitations from the duke, accompanied by kind words 
from these gracious ladies, are more frequent than the 
busy artist can accept, and he answers that the "hard, 
weighty must is more powerful than the will." But in 
the hot days of July he is again there, and they find 
relief and refreshment in excursions to Hohenzieritz. 
At this time Rauch places the bust of Queen Louise in 
the room where she died. " It is the most beautiful mar- 
ble that I have ever worked," he wrote. 



194 LIFE OF CHRISTIAN DANIEL RAUCH 

This pleasant interchange of thought and letters con- 
tinued until Fraulein Dewitz became the wife of Von 
Bernstoff, the minister of state, in 1845, when Rauch 
wrote, " I need not describe to you how happy the union 
of our dear friend the Fraulein Augusta has made me." 
The pleasant friendship continued unchanged. 

Another old friend of the Roman days, Alexander von 
Rennenkampf, who had long been a member of Alexan- 
der von Humboldt's household, now recalled himself 
to Rauch's remembrance. A correspondence full of 
interest followed. Rauch waited a year to answer his 
first letter, that he might send him full particulars of him- 
self and his work. Out of this correspondence grew 
Rauch's interest in the nuptials of the young King Otho 
of Greece, and the re-opening of the Penthelicon marble- 
quarries, with the suggestion of what an inspiration it 
would be to make a lovely statue of the same marble in 
which Phidias and Praxiteles wrought. 

One incident of this friendship was the visit to Rauch's 
atelier of Rennenkampf's twelve-year-old daughter, who 
writes, " I have been with my aunt to your friend Rauch's. 
What an artistic man he is ! with his splendid statues and 
his gray hair, a fine old man! I like him awfully! 
(IcJi habe ihm schrecklich gern an ! ") 

Two blocks of Greek marble reached Rauch's workshop 
in 1838; and he writes thus to his friend, "Now look at 
me, dear friend : I bend my broad back deep down into a 
right angle ; both arms sink perpendicularly to the ground, 
and lips and fingers tingle with pure gratitude ; and now 
having risen up you meet a stream, yea, a waterfall, of 
resounding words of warmest thanks for two blocks of 
marble from the holy Penthelicon, which by your sugges- 
tion and the great distinguishing favor of King Otho 
have come into my atelier. One shall be used for an 
ideal head which I shall begin in a few days. For the 
larger one I will make a statue four feet high. I am 



HOME AND FRIENDS. SCHOOL AND ATELIER 195 

very proud of this royal present, since it is the first 
Athenian sculptors' marble which has come here for cen- 
turies. But it will also excite me to lay my hand upon it. 
This marble appears to me to have different life-sap from 
that which is quarried at Carrara." 

Out of the smaller block Rauch worked a Victory in 
1843, and offered it to King Friedrich Wilhelm IV. It 
bears the inscription, " Gebrochen, 1838, am Pentelikon. 
C. R. fee., 1843." It stands now in the red-silk saloon in 
the castle of that king in Berlin. The head is taken 
essentially from the second of the Victories made for the 
Walhalla. 

On the death of Prince Radziwill, Dr. Eggers remarks 
that he was the only person who called out any love of 
music in Rauch. This art had too little of the plastic 
character to interest him fully. He became conscious of 
its artistic value only when it was united with dramatic 
expression. When he on a Sunday dined with the prince, 
with Schinkel, Beuth, Wach, and Tieck, and single scenes 
from Goethe's " Faust " were given with only the accom- 
paniment of the piano and violoncello, Rauch remarked, 
" This true, noble beauty in such a simple setting has taken 
hold of me wonderfully." The new musical influence 
which came in with the romantic tendency of the young 
Mendelssohn went through circles with which Rauch had 
no affinity. It was the same in literature ; the new politi- 
cally colored romances had no attraction for him. Only 
Immermann was sympathetic to him, and that more from 
his personal acquaintance than from his writings. He 
sent his collected works to Rauch, which were allowed a 
place beside the translation of the romances of " Boz " 1 
in his library. Except these no romances had a charm 
for him. Goethe, Shakspeare, Burger, Korner ; and out of 
the antique world ^Eschylus, Sophocles, and Ovid, repre- 
sent the national literatures. History had its place in the 

i Dickens. 



196 LIFE OF CHRISTIAN DANIEL RAUCH 

collection, Plutarch's Lives, Becker's World History, and 
later Ranke's History and a number of special histories, 
particularly that of Prussia and her military affairs, found 
place. But science and archaeology were represented in 
illustrated works and innumerable maps, with more than 
a thousand sheets of illustrations of ancient and modern 
art, ornamentation, landscape, portraits, and anatomy, as 
well as a collection of original drawings. He also took a 
deep personal interest in the work of Franz Kugler in 
the history of art. 

Rauch's social life was rich and gay. His presence 
was very welcome at court, and he took part in all festiv- 
ities, and in theatricals and tableaux. He was interested 
in the representations of Wallenstein's camp, and the 
meeting of Richard and Saladin, with their rich costumes. 
All new works of art were freely discussed. Next per- 
haps to Schinkel, Rauch was the favorite of this circle. 
Science could not be neglected in a company of which 
Humboldt was a member ; and among many new discov- 
eries discussed was the newly invented daguerrotype, of 
which Humboldt gave a full explanation. In the summer 
months Rauch often visited the royal residences of Sans- 
Souci and Charlottenhof ; but, while he enjoyed this social 
gayety, he always returned with delight and fresh vigor to 
his school and his work. 

The old age of his master Schadow was duly honored. 
He had laid down the chisel, and as director of the acad- 
emy served the cause of art with his pen. Shortly be- 
fore his seventieth birthday his celebrated " Polyklet " 
was published ; and on that day, in May, 1834, Rauch 
greeted him in the name of the Academic Senate, and 
presented him with a medal. 

Four years later his fifty-years' connection with the 
academy was fitly celebrated. The venerable master re- 
ceived calls from seven o'clock in the morning, and was 
bright and happy at the evening feast. 



HOME AND FRIENDS. SCHOOL AND ATELIER 197 

Another of his oldest friends, the great architect Schin- 
kel, had been suddenly attacked with illness, accompa- 
nied with difficulty of speech, in 1838 ; but for two years, 
by occasional resort to curative baths, he had maintained 
his literary activity. On the tenth of September, 1841, 
he visited Rauch's atelier, two days after his return from 
a journey to a " Cur," apparently in better health than 
when he left Berlin. He complained only that he saw 
everything double, and in rainbow colors. As Rauch 
went to return his call on the eleventh, he learned to his 
dismay that he was speechless and senseless from palsy. 
Most feelingly Rauch notes in his diary the progress of 
the disease, and the close of the life of his true friend of 
forty years, whose course was so glorious for art, and 
who was unequalled as a man and a friend. 

The castle of Tegel, the residence of the minister 
Wilhelm von Humboldt, was always one of Rauch's 
happiest homes. It was built by Schinkel, and he him- 
self aided largely in its decoration. In a letter to Frau 
von Humboldt he says, "Tegel looks like a marble altar 
set in green." It was full of beautiful works of art, some 
of them antiques which Rauch had restored, and others 
of his own designs. He finished with his own hand the 
marble bust of the lovely grandchild, Therese von Biilow, 
who had died at twelve years of age. Frau von Humboldt 
was his dear and constant friend, looking after his physi- 
cal comfort when he was with her, and when he was ab- 
sent writing constantly to him, even from a sick-bed, and 
taking the deepest interest in all his artistic plans. 

Not less constant and friendly was his correspondence 
with her husband. Humboldt's letters are full of artistic 
news ; and from London he writes that the king wishes 
him to sit to Lawrence for his portrait, and he tells of the 
palaces that are building, and of the statues ordered from 
Westmacott, Bailey, Chantrey, and others. 

We can hardly imagine a happier and more beautiful 



198 LIFE OF CHRISTIAN DANIEL RAUCH 

life of art and culture than existed under this friendly 
roof. It was only saddened by the illness of its beloved 
mistress, "which brought general mourning into the 
house." 

Before this irreparable loss took place Rauch had al- 
ready formed a close friendship with the distinguished 
brother, Alexander von Humboldt. He had long been 
interested in Rauch, who had modelled his bust ; but when 
he returned from his celebrated journey to America, and 
took up his residence in Berlin, the intimacy grew closer, 
and the sculptor was included in that circle of the finest 
minds of Germany, to whom he expounded his grand views 
of the Cosmos. The delighted listeners wished to present 
to Humboldt a medal to "commemorate this feast of 
thought." It should, according to Leopold von Buch, 
"express that Humboldt had first brought a soul into the 
face of the world, and had exercised such beneficent in- 
fluence over the earth as no mortal had ever done before 
him, unveiling one half of the globe to the other half." 

On one side of the memorial was a spirited portrait in 
profile, with the inscription: 

ALEXANDER AB HUMBOLDT. 

executed by Tieck ; the reverse was an allegorical repre- 
sentation by Rauch. 

Apollo surrounded by beams of light comes with his 
four span out of the background towards the spectator. 
Under the horses is arched the zodiac with its signs : the 
land and the water are represented by two reclining fig- 
ures turned towards each other ; the one on the right a 
bearded man with an urn of water and an oar, and near 
him the head of a sea-monster ; and on the left a female 
figure with a horn of plenty, near which a lion rests. The 
circle of beams about Apollo is surmounted by the in- 
scription: 

ILLUSTRANS TOTUM RADIIS FULGENTIBUS ORBEM. 



HOME AND FRIENDS. SCHOOL AND ATELIER 199 

Humboldt expressed his thanks to Rauch in writing, 
adding, "After such a comparison there is nothing left but 
to die." 

Rauch often met Humboldt at Tegel, and he never for- 
got one beautiful Sunday morning in May. Wandering 
for hours in the open air with his friend, he listened to his 
speech with that feeling of perfect accord that we feel 
only in the enjoyment of nature with a kindred soul. 
Rauch writes in his journal, "Would I could give to every 
friend such enjoyment! I believe I could wish for them 
nothing more splendid than to hear the discourse of this 
man, who carries the creation of the world in his own 
mind, and has the talent to give it back to us all har- 
monized and made clear." Rauch assisted in the prepara- 
tion of the funeral monument for Frau von Humboldt, 
and during his visit in Rome he procured statues to fill 
the niches on the outside of the palace. Wilhelm von 
Humboldt's greatest pleasure seemed to lie in the com- 
pletion of his wife's favorite residence. When Rauch 
visited him in 1833 he found him visibly failing in health, 
and the next April he mourned the death of this friend of 
forty years. He describes his going to Tegel to visit his 
sick friend, accompanied by Wach : " On leaving we went," 
he says, "into the alley to walk to our carriages. Alex- 
ander went with us : from the height of the trellis they 
called to him, and we feared the worst. He wished to 
hasten, and he could not ; he must stand still to gain 
strength to take the next step. This was also a grief, 
to see this strong, vigorous body and mind bowed down. 
The minister Wilhelm von Humboldt departed at this 
moment, six o'clock in the evening. Earlier he was my 
dearest support, my all; later, the most sympathizing 
friend, even to the last." He then recalls how tenderly 
Humboldt always treated him, when he felt so keenly the 
deficiency of his early education, and was troubled to ap- 
proach so nearly to such an exalted personage. "Hum- 



2OO LIFE OF CHRISTIAN DANIEL RAUCH 

boldt was always friendly, indirectly forbearing, correcting; 
never did I experience a mortification from him. His 
brother came that summer with Parisian friends from 
America, and I remember my astonishment over every- 
thing which I saw and heard every hour ; in the room, as 
in the open air, in the collections, or on the old walls, and 
how much I wished to learn from it all, if my capacity of 
reception had allowed it. I enjoyed from that time even 
to the present, without interruption, the favor and friend- 
ship of this distinguished man and his family." 

It would be hard to imagine a greater blessing for a 
young student than the friendship of such a man as Wil- 
helm von Humboldt, and the privilege of sharing the 
home of such a woman as his wife. It is one of the most 
delightful pictures of noble public service combined with 
domestic happiness that we find in history. 

During the last year of his life Rauch's diary contains 
frequent notices of meetings with his friend Alexander 
von Humboldt, who survived him a year and a half. 

Wilhelm von Humboldt was never forgotten by Rauch, 
as he wrote to Rennenkampf in 1835, an d he loved to linger, 
about Tegel, where he had enjoyed such happy intercourse 
with him and his family. Two years later Alexander von 
Humboldt wrote him, inviting him to pass his sixty-eighth 
birthday with him, saying, "Since my brother's death you 
are to me the most refreshing, most charming presence 
in this world, which has now become almost a desert 
to me." 

Wilhelm's oldest daughter, Caroline, had retained her 
home at Tegel ; but after living there about two years, 
ill health obliged her to go to Berlin, where Rauch visited 
her, and when leaving her, he was struck with dismay by 
the emaciated hand which she reached to him from be- 
neath the beautiful silken covering. She saw his look, and 
smiling turned to a picture of the young Humboldt girls, 
saying, " Such was Fraulein Caroline's once plump hand, 



HOME AND FRIENDS. SCHOOL AND ATELIER 2OI 

and now she reaches it to you in this state." Two weeks 
later Rauch went with her uncle to Tegel to her burial. 

In its fourth decade, what may fitly be called the 
"Berlin school of plastic art" was still living. Dr. Eg- 
gers counts among the products of this school not only 
those artists who had grown immediately out of Rauch's 
school and his leadership, but also those who, although 
working independently, were yet inspired by his spirit, 
Tieck, Wichmann, and their followers ; for their nearness 
to Rauch, and the weight of his mind and character, 
had opened to them the same wide range in which he 
worked. 

It is not strange, however, that an artist of such a 
decided character, and so frank in his expression of both 
praise and blame, and at the same time so remarkably 
successful in his career, so favored by the court, as well 
as beloved by the people, and so prominently before the 
public, should have encountered some enmity, springing 
from rivalry and jealousy. The course of his life, as it 
has been traced for us from most ample sources in his 
private diary and letters, shows him to have been capable 
of the warmest friendship and most generous appreciation 
both for his compeers in art, and for those who sought his 
instruction. His life affords one of the most charming 
pictures of social life to be found in the history of artists ; 
but, 

" Be thou pure as ice, as chaste as snow, 
Thou shalt not escape calumny." 

Accordingly, murmurs arose of his engrossing an undue 
share of work and public fame, to the neglect of other 
artists of equal merit. Many of those whose talent he 
did not rate as high as their own estimate, and, still more 
strangely, some even of those whom he warmly appre- 
ciated, have thought that he stood in their way, instead of 
giving them assistance. The expression of this feeling 
has found its way into the artistic literature of his time 



2O2 LIFE OF CHRISTIAN DANIEL RAUCH 

and country. Let us look the charges fairly in the face, 
and see what ground we can find for them. 

Rauch, it is said, wished to bring all the work of his 
own time into his own atelier ; he seized it as much as 
possible for himself, even snatching it out of the hands of 
others. He did not suffer any one to come near him, and 
had not that friendliness with his scholars that Thorwald- 
sen had, who, without grudging, gave them his works to 
execute ; especially he was jealous of every budding 
genius, if it threatened to surpass his own. Such talent 
had appeared in his lifetime (and here before all Riet- 
schel is named), and the superiority became so un- 
questioned after his death, that his artistic position has 
to be considered as entirely surpassed by that of others. 

Dr. Eggers says, " So many complaints, so many errors 
about Rauch." The question about his final position in 
art he considers later ; now Rauch's personal relations to 
his school are to be considered. He has been compared 
disadvantageously with Thorwaldsen ; he might have been 
contrasted with Schwanthaler, whose greed and jealousy 
were notorious, yet interesting anecdotes can be given of 
Schwanthaler's generosity ; and Thorwaldsen took away 
the work on the Frauenkirche, even after the contract 
was made to secure it for his own pupils. In fact, the 
desire to secure great works for his own atelier is a 
natural one, by which all are influenced. Competition is 
a stimulus in art as well as in commerce. As Goethe 
said, " Mastership often passes for egotism." The mas- 
ter has a right to do what he can do better than others. 
True artists know the difference between this genuine 
effort for recognition and jealous envy of others' success. 
Surely, Rauch's whole relations with Thorwaldsen, Tieck, 
and especially Rietschel, show how far he was from any 
such mean jealousy, and how he rejoiced in their merit 
and success. We have Rietschel's own testimony in his 
youthful recollections. 



HOME AND FRIENDS. SCHOOL AND ATELIER 20$ 

Rauch's own letters and diaries are rilled with notices 
of his fellow artists and pupils. He writes of them to 
Wolff, to Rennenkampf, and specially to Rietschel, and 
keeps his distant friends acquainted with all the person- 
alities of his atelier. When he saw in Rome one of his 
most distinguished scholars, August Wredow, who was for 
thirty years in his atelier, he writes, " Wredow's statue 
of Ganymede is one of the finest and best-finished 
in Rome." He speaks in the same strain of high 
commendation of both Emil and Albert Wolff, of Kiss, 
Berges, and Drake. After speaking in praise of Kalide's 
work, he adds, " His moral purity makes me prize him 
still higher, both as a man and an artist." He mourns for 
Drake's sickness as involving the loss of such an excel- 
lent artist, a born sculptor, the only friend in the atelier 
whom I can trust and also find an answer from. Wredow 
is one whom he is accused of throwing into the shade ; 
but he writes, "Wredow's model of the Paris statue is 
one of the finest statues of the last thirty years. Neither 
Thorwalclsen nor Canova have made one equal to it." 
But why multiply instances of a disposition which is so 
evident in all his life ? 

But was there not some ground for this tradition ? 
Rauch did not lavish praise on crude, unfinished work, 
however promising ; he was exacting of thorough work 
from himself and from his pupils, and was equally ready 
to give full, appreciative criticism as soon as the pupil 
gave signs of capacity for real mastership in art. So he 
watched carefully the early work of Kiss, and gladly 
acknowledged his ability when he began to produce the 
works that have since given him fame. He speaks en- 
thusiastically of his " Amazon Tamer," even in the first 
sketch and model, and in his note-book he follows every 
step of its progress to the successful public exhibition, 
when it so pleased not only the artists but the public, that 
the Lagerhaus could not contain the numbers that flocked 
to see it. 



2O4 LIFE OF CHRISTIAN DANIEL RAUCH 

Five years before, Rauch had made a sketch of a 
fighting lion, which he now put into the hands of his 
pupil Albert Wolff, with whom he worked it over and 
sent it to the king, and finally, in 1849, after Wolff had 
made seven different sketches, he gave it wholly up to 
him. The king was not willing to give the execution to 
Wolff until he had again seen Rauch's original drawing ; 
but to Ranch's satisfaction he decided for Wolff's last 
sketch. 

Similar proof is given by Rauch's relations to Rietschel 
and Drake, for thirty years his dearest scholars. He was 
greatly interested in the commission to Rietschel for 
the monument to Moser in Osnabruck, and to the King 
Frederic Augustus for Dresden. By Rauch's advice 
Rietschel made his journey to Rome before beginning 
this work, he having a commission to make a new model 
of the king's statue under the eyes of the artists of 
Rome, especially Thorwaldsen. But Rauch counselled 
him during his short stay in Rome to make nothing new 
of his own, but to study the works of others, making 
sketches of what interested him ; and he advised him not 
to begin a new model of the king's statue, but only to 
make retouches on a cast, " In which I hope you will 
have the advantage of Thorwaldsen's counsel, and gladly 
remember it all in the life-sized model." He followed this 
work with a constant interest, which changed the pupil 
into an equal brother in art. 

Rietschel was soon after appointed professor in the 
Academy of Art in Dresden, and he writes freely to his 
old master of the difficulties he anticipates in his new 
position, and adds, " How gladly would I personally share 
my work with you, look at my work with your eyes, and 
hear strong blame and good counsel from your mouth ! " 
He dwells on his lack of good criticism, saying that of 
painters is the most useless of all. In this love of strict 
criticism we probably find the secret of Rauch's unpopu- 



HOME AND FRIENDS. SCHOOL AND ATELIER 2O5 

larity with pupils, so far as there is any truth in it. He 
was undoubtedly a strict and even severe master, and 
those who could not be as grateful for his strong blame 
as for his good counsel and generous praise turned away 
from him. 

Another charge against him is part of the heated con- 
troversy then going on between realists and classicists. 
It is said that he did not give sufficient detail in his 
drapery, but only generalized folds. His classic taste 
might well lead him in this direction, but he never fol- 
lowed it without careful study of his subject and of the 
material he intended to represent ; and if the realistic 
feeling of drapery is overlooked, it is because he is seek- 
ing to bring out more important meanings. He says, 

" Do away with all superfluous folds : marble cannot 
endure them, much less opaque bronze." He was much 
interested in bronze casting, and has high praise for the 
founder Fischer. 

Rauch counselled Rietschel not to accept the offers of 
King Ludwig, but to remain in his own country ; and 
experience confirmed the wisdom of his advice. Rietschel 
remained in Dresden, and its nearness to Berlin enabled 
the brother artists to have frequent personal communica- 
tion. Their correspondence shows how close their rela- 
tion was, and how deeply the elder sympathized with every 
joy and sorrow of his former pupil. He writes him most 
tenderly on the death of his cherished wife, yet tries to 
brace him up to seek consolation in work : " Since life is 
work alone, and this is the only joy in life, you will again 
be restored to health, and give undivided thanks to 
Heaven that you can look forward to so much more in 
this direction." 

Thus Rauch was the life of the workshop and school ; 
.judging strictly, inspiring others by his own creative 
work, and upholding them by counsel and sympathy. He 
had always in view not alone the production of his own 



2O6 LIFE OF CHRISTIAN DANIEL RAUCH 

conceptions, but the education of others, and the devel- 
opment of art in Germany ; and therefore he deserves to 
be considered as the founder of a school, and an epoch- 
making artist. 

He was always interested in the improvement of the 
reproductive arts, knowing that they are essential to a 
broad diffusion of artistic taste and knowledge. 

He had met the celebrated engravers Toschi and Ri- 
chomme in Paris in 1826, and had arranged with them to 
receive pupils, in order to build up a school of engraving 
in connection with the academy of Prussia. As his own 
master-works began to excite attention, not only in Ger- 
many, but in other lands, he felt an interest in engraving 
on his own account, that those who could not see the 
original statues might share in the knowledge of his work. 

By the command of the king lithographic reproductions 
had been made in 1824, by Luderitz, of the statues of the 
warriors Scharnhorst, Billow, and the two Bluchers ; but 
they were not very satisfactory. Rauch then considered 
the publication of engravings of his works, and took 
advantage of a brief correspondence with Boisseree in 
regard to the Goethe statue to ask his advice about it. 
Boisseree applied to Cotta in Stuttgart ; but he at first 
refused to undertake it, and Boisseree advised Rauch to 
print a first sheet at his own cost, as a feeler which might 
lead to the publication by Cotta. He had drawings 
made from seventeen subjects, and had eight of them 
engraved by Berger, the son of the professor of the Royal 
Academy. As he had to pay ten Friedrichs d'or for the 
engraving of each plate, the outlay had already grown to 
nearly seven hundred thalers, when he once more made 
an effort to find a publisher for the nine new plates which 
meanwhile had been engraved by Buchhorn, also a pro- 
fessor of the Berlin Academy. Many attempts failed. 
Of Roman engravings after Thorwaldsen only one hun- 
dred and thirty copies were sold. The house of Ger- 



HOME AND FRIENDS. SCHOOL AND ATELIER 2O/ 

stacker & Schenk finally undertook the commission. 
Waagen wrote the text for it. A French translation was 
so poor, that the state minister Ancillon, who undertook 
the revision of the proof-sheets, wrote to Rauch, " I know 
not what barbarian has ventured in this gibberish to make 
the pride of the fatherland known to strangers : I don't 
want to know him ; but it grieves me that your friendship 
did not trust me from the beginning with this work, and 
I willingly offer myself as a translator of the following 
sheets. Your name is a national possession, and it is the 
duty of every Prussian to bring it before foreigners in 
proper form." 

The result was not satisfactory. Rauch writes to Bois- 
seree commending the engravings to his attention, that 
he may see what is the condition of the art of engraving, 
for which the government is doing nothing. Sixty-six 
copies were sold in two years. 

Rauch was not discouraged, however, but had the 
Queen Louise monument and the higher reliefs of the 
Blucher statue engraved by Caspar, and the lower, the ex- 
pedition to France, by Eichens, who, as previously men- 
tioned, became by Rauch's recommendation the pupil of 
Toschi, the celebrated engraver of Correggio's works. 
But these engravings did not prove good, and now by 
Rietschel's advice he turned to Thaeter. 

This engraver has left valuable autobiographical notes 
and letters, from which his own interesting history and 
the story of his connection with Rauch can be learned. 
He was an early friend of Rietschel, and had a hard strug- 
gle in his artistic career.* He now came to Berlin, and 
engraved a plate from a drawing by Rietschel of Rauch's 
new monument to Francke, at Halle, to the satisfaction of 
Rauch. Thorwaldsen was also greatly pleased with it. 
Thaeter, however, left Berlin for want of employment, and 
in 1830 we hear of him in Munich, and then in Dresden, 
and again busied with work for Rauch, in drawings and 



2O8 LIFE OF CHRISTIAN DANIEL RAUCH 

engravings of the Max Joseph monument and the reliefs 
of the Bliicher monument. 

Rauch writes to Rietschel in 1830, praising his work 
highly, and then follow special directions for the improve- 
ment of the engravings of the Max Joseph monument. 
"But," he adds, "do not think that I wish to find any fault 
with you or Thaeter ; but it is always my desire to make 
the thing as good as possible. If I am wrong, that is my 
harm and shame." So careful was he in criticism ! To 
further expressions of praise and slight criticism Thaeter 
answers with expressions of thanks, January 2, 1831 : "I 
can never forget that the first day that I took hold of your 
work was the birthday of my good luck." The work con- 
tinued with frequent expressions of satisfaction and grati- 
tude on the part of the engraver for two years. But with 
all his admiration for the engraving, Rauch was not quite 
satisfied with the representation of his conception of the 
statues. He gives an instance of his meaning in regard 
to the statue of King Max. Perhaps an explanation of 
this want of comprehension of the statues may be found 
in a remark which Thaeter made in his diary when he 
first began to work for Schnorr. " I must confess, also, 
that the Rauch subjects, on which I worked constantly, 
wearied me more and more," and he gave practical expres- 
sion to this feeling ; for Rauch writes in 1837 to Rietschel, 
"I have seen or heard nothing of Thaeter since 1835, 
although he has yet a drawing of mine to engrave." He 
says also that the engravings have been rather severely 
criticised, which he fears Thaeter will not find pleasant ; 
and he has withdrawn several of the plates, and is inclined 
to withdraw them all, since he thinks they will not help 
his reputation ; and he will try to have only light sketches 
from Gropius. Rauch had written Thaeter four letters, 
asking him to make some changes in his work, before he 
received an answer. It was not a pleasant one. Thatter 
refused to make the desired changes, and asked that his 



HOME AND FRIENDS. SCHOOL AND ATELIER 209 

name be left off the plate if they were made by another. 
Rauch says, " I must, therefore, have the plates engraved 
as they are, and bear the injury ; but I can get this satis- 
faction out of it, that Thaeter now is a good engraver, and 
can serve others better than he has served me, on which 
account I am not sorry, and consign my deceived hopes 
with the plates to oblivion." l So ended Rauch's relations 
with Thaeter. 

But some writers in encyclopaedias have blamed Rauch 
for his treatment of Thaeter, and accused him of inviting 
the engraver to Berlin, and then neglecting him. Rauch's 
justification can easily be found in the autobiography and 
letters of Thaeter, and his own letters to Rietschel. 

Rauch made other experiments with different engrav- 
ers, but was discouraged to find that he was left with a 
balance of three thousand six hundred thalers against him, 
and he writes to Rietschel, "What shall I do?" He has 
been advised to try etching ; but as a last hope he gives a 
single sheet of the Durer statue to an art -house in Nurem- 
berg, and succeeds in getting back half of the cost. He 
mourns over his lost ideal of the noble German technique. 

However, he was correct in his predictions of the suc- 
cess of Thaeter, who profited by the criticisms he had 
received, and who became the foremost artist in what was 
called gezeichneten Knpferstitches, in opposition to. the 
farbiger Stitch, which strives after the effects of color. 2 

1 This recital of the difficulties which Rauch encountered in the effort to obtain a 
worthy reproduction of his works, gives us a vivid sense of gratitude for the invention 
of the daguerrotype and photograph, which have placed such ample means at the com- 
mand of the artist, and which instead of superseding the more permanent forms of 
engraving have proved themselves valuable allies. 

2 By his thorough study of drawing Thaeter did great service to the school of 
color, which has proved so successful in Germany ; and the greatest master of this 
school, William Unger, confesses that he owes much to the three-years' teaching of 
Thaeter ; and he is not the only one of his scholars who have become distinguished 
in the field of colored engravings. 



2IO LIFE OF CHRISTIAN DANIEL RAUCH 



CHAPTER XI 

PORTRAIT AND MISCELLANEOUS SCULPTURE 
1821-1844 

THE combination of a strong sense of personal charac- 
teristics in his subjects, united with an appreciation of 
ideal representation which he never lost sight of, especially 
fitted Rauch for portraiture ; and accordingly we find his 
work in that line, both in monumental statues and in 
busts of living men, of great interest and value. 

The sudden death of General Gneisenau from cholera 
stimulated the desire for a monument to this popular gen- 
eral, and Rauch was commissioned to make a statue. His 
second sketch was approved, and he confided the execu- 
tion of it to Drake. The marble was embarked on the 
brig Fortuna from Leghorn, which was stranded, and only 
the crew saved, thus giving Rauch the always coveted 
opportunity of improving upon his work. The pecuniary 
loss was only the insurance premium, and he went to work 
at once on a new sketch. The new design was simpler 
and more unpretending. The cast was sent to Carrara in 
1838, and was finished in January, 1841. It was unveiled 
with great festivities at Magdeburg, at which the king 
commanded the sculptor's attendance. 

I must pass over many projects of work, some of which 
were given up, and some only carried out at a later period, 
in order to speak of the busts which now occupied much 
of his time. This work was not entirely to Rauch's taste ; 
for he felt the expression of the whole figure, and was 
not contented with that of the head alone. 



PORTRAIT AND MISCELLANEOUS SCULPTURE 211 

He writes to Rietschel in warm praise of his bust of 
Prince John, saying that he has himself spent much time 
in such work, and he knows how much is needed, from 
the first blocking out of the clay to the last stroke of the 
chisel, in order to give satisfaction to one's self or the spec- 
tator. But fears arise in his mind that this success will 
lead to great business of this kind for Rietschel, instead 
of which he wishes him to turn to greater works. 

To Lund he calls the demands for likenesses an " ever- 
lasting plague," especially when he has to work from 
insufficient material, death-masks, or poor pictures; "al- 
ways new stuff for hypochondria and dark hours ; a work 
of necessity, of dislike, and without prospect of success, 
which is unfortunately unavoidable, and so often repeated 
and so burdensome that it makes me tired." This last 
expression in the diary refers to the bust of the minister 
of foreign affairs, Count von Bernstoff, which the king 
had commanded, and which he had to make from the 
death-mask. In spite of all difficulties he succeeded to the 
perfect satisfaction of the king. Among the many busts 
which he had to make from death-masks, we are interested 
in one taken of August Ernst, the Count Voss, who died 
in 1832, and who was the grandson of the well-known 
Countess Voss, who was sixty-nine years at the Prussian 
court, " eine Hofmeisterin, wie sie sein soil." The face 
of this count, scarcely entered into his sixtieth year, is of 
winning, friendly sweetness, and reminds one partly in the 
form, but still more in the expression, of the portrait of his 
grandmother, which is given in the " Remembrances of Her 
Life." Among these many busts, more or less wearisome, 
Rauch had genuine satisfaction in making one of Stage- 
mann, which was ordered by his friends for a festival com- 
memoration of his fifty years of official life. " I shall 
finish to-morrow," he writes, "the bust of the councillor 
Stagemann, in which no common face or form of head 
appears, but only a right living physiognomy seventy-five 



212 LIFE OF CHRISTIAN DANIEL RAUCH 

yours old ; what a work ! The splendid man is so dear to 
me that I am going to do this work gratis, as a memorial." 

Schadow prized Rauch's work in portrait busts very 
highly ; in no other branch does he praise him more fully. 
In 1810 he said of a bust by Thorwaldsen, "Just in this 
line he stands after our Professor Rauch." This judg- 
ment may be justified by comparing the busts by Ranch 
of Alexander von Humboldt and the children, Gustav and 
Louise, with the busts of Wilhelm von Humboldt and his 
wife, by Thorwaldsen. " Every one recognizes the feeling 
of a ' speaking likeness ' which we have in looking at a 
good portrait, even when we do not know the original ; 
but Thorwaldsen's busts gives us the impression of unlike- 
ness. Did Caroline von Humboldt look so ? asks one, 
doubting, and those who knew her aver that she did not. 
The effects seem labored, and the marble remains cold 
and impassive." This seems to me to point out by con- 
trast the especial technical merit of Rauch's busts, in the 
exquisite flexibility of the muscles, so that the face seems 
sensitive and ready to express any emotion, while it is full 
of present dignity and repose. 

Rauch continued to justify this favorable judgment of 
his old master in increasing measure. He never did any 
careless work. Even if he did not willingly undertake a 
bust, he gave the same conscientious attention to it as if it 
were his own choice ; and he always examined every copy 
of his often-repeated works in marble. His busts in 
marble seem to have been a favorite present from one 
prince to another. In May, 1821, Rauch modelled the 
Crown Prince Nicholas of Russia, who was then on a visit 
to Berlin. When he came again in 1829 as emperor, the 
bust was remodelled from nature, the face made some- 
what fuller, the hair of the head less abundant, and the 
beard stronger. 

1822 was a very busy year for busts. In February he 
finished the model of his daughter Agnes, begun in the 



PORTRAIT AND MISCELLANEOUS SCULPTURE 213 

previous November. He began putting it in marble in 
1837, and changed the style of hair to a wavy crown. I 
have not seen the criticism elsewhere, but it seems to me 
that Rauch was a little over-fond of this style of a crowned 
or wreathed head in his female busts, and that it gives an 
over-weight to the top of the head, which disturbs the 
symmetry and lessens the force of character. He contin- 
ued this work in 1844, and added an ivy wreath, whose ber- 
ries hung down on the side. In the following year he 
received the bust blocked out in Carrara marble by Sangui- 
netti ; but it was not finished until thirty years later, in 
1850, when only a little change of the mouth was needed. 

In 1826 the Duke of Wellington ordered the bust of 
King Friedrich Wilhelm III., which Rauch modelled in 
his full uniform. This bust was repeated, with changes 
in drapery, many times for distinguished princes and 
generals. 

In 1828, having no outside commissions for busts, he 
modelled one of himself. He made it without drapery, 
and slightly turned to the left ; and he says others thought 
the likeness good. This bust went to his friend Lund, in 
Copenhagen, who uncovered it on festal occasions. Caro- 
line von Fouque, the wife of the poet, writes enthusiasti- 
cally of it to Rauch, and concludes, " Of your clear, good 
eye, which shines out so life-like from the white plaster, 
and of the smiling mouth which trembles with a jest, and 
smiles within and without, I might say many things, and 
yet not say enough." In 1829 Rauch made a bust of 
his friend Schleiermacher. Schleiermacher had confirmed 
Rauch's daughters in their early years ; and now while 
his bust was in progress came the joyful espousal feast of 
the eldest daughter, Agnes, to Dr. Eduard d' Alton. The 
wedding was celebrated by Schleiermacher in a circle 
of friends of distinction, including Humboldt, Schinkel, 
Wach, Tieck, Bunsen, Schadow, Schlesinger, Rietschel, 
and many others. 



214 LIFE OF CHRISTIAN DANIEL RAUCH 

Schleiermacher's bust was put in marble by contribu- 
tions from members of his congregation and other friends. 
He is clothed in a preacher's gown ; the face is slightly 
turned to the left, and expresses the mild, eloquent charac- 
ter of the great preacher. The execution is masterly, and 
this is perhaps the best bust of that period. Since 1869 
it has stood in bronze at the foot of Lubeck's Height in 
Breslau, Schleiermacher's birthplace. The same summer 
Rauch modelled the young Prince Alexander, afterward 
Emperor of Russia, which was repeatedly copied in marble ; 
and finally he took in hand the portrait of Frederic the 
Great, begun two years before. 

The number of busts executed in ten years, between 
1819 and 1829, most of which are now in the Rauch Mu- 
seum, amounts to about forty. I condense slightly Dr. 
Egger's admirable account of Rauch's work in busts : 

"A comparison of the busts in their chronological order 
shows, besides an increasing care and skill in the execu- 
tion, a continual development of the master in recogniz- 
ing the demands the bust makes as a subject of plastic 
art. Originally Rauch was led by the feeling that the 
bust is the head of an imaginary statue. It was on this 
account placed in sympathetic action in position and ex- 
pression, even in excited action, since from such a point of 
view the head alone represents the action of the body and 
the limbs ; hence the energetic turn of the head, the 
expression of a determined thought in the countenance. 
This decided character shown in the Bliicher busts by the 
grim, decided turning to the left ; in the Scharnhorst by 
the inclination of the head turned sharply to the right, in the 
expression of energetic reflection turned to a single point, 
is decidedly weakened in the following period of ten years. 
The strong turning of the head appears only as a move- 
ment of a general character. We know only two heads 
strongly turned to the side ; those of the Count Ingen- 
heim and the Grand Duke Nicholas. In the latter it be- 



PORTRAIT AND MISCELLANEOUS SCULPTURE 215 

comes almost a profile view, and expresses very happily 
the quick, energetic character of the duke, without indi- 
cating any action of the moment. The decided turn has 
become a very slight inclination, so that the spectator 
does not see an entirely front face, in which the character- 
istic modelling of the forehead and nose are not so well 
shown as on the side. 

" In the expression of the bust, momentary action is 
less and less given, and the general character, the ideal 
content of expression, put in its place, as the model stat- 
ues of the antique teach us ; and as this has become a 
leading art principle with the old master Schadow, when 
he gives the rule, ' It is not wise to show the expression 
of emotions in a bust.' In keeping with these views 
Rauch generally puts the head on a pedestal without 
drapery, or, if he uses it, it is in the antique style ; the 
Ionic chiton for women, the toga for men. In rare cases 
he uses the military uniform or cloak, or the gown of a 
preacher, as in the case of Schleiermacher. 

" Opposed to this approach to the ideal stands the 
single realistic movement, to enliven the physiognomic 
expression by emphasizing the pupils of the eyes through 
depression, and a deepened circle to produce an effect 
like painting, a plastic untruth which (it must be mod- 
estly said, since Rauch did it), if it does not overpass the 
bounds of art, at least comes very near the edge." 

" Until the year 1822 only two busts, those of the Prin- 
cess Charlotte and of General Scharnhorst, are known 
with the indication of the pupil ; in the time from 1823 
to 1826 we find very many without this indication, and 
from that time till 1830 we see none of the busts with- 
out it, and after that only in special cases, in which this 
mark is left out for evident reasons." 

I may add here an account of the portrait statue of 
Friedrich Wilhelm I. at Gumbinnen. This royal ancestor 
was a great favorite of Friedrich Wilhelm III., who 



2l6 LIFE OF CHRISTIAN DANIEL KAUCH 

found in him the pacific virtues which he sought to emu- 
late, energy, order, and economy, with religious tolerance 
and the encouragement of industry, while he had also 
won military renown by the establishment of the Land- 
wehr and the extension of Prussian territory. He was 
protector of the Protestants, who were oppressed by Aus- 
tria. Nearly eighteen thousand of the citizens of the 
archbishopric of Salzburg left their old homes to accept 
those offered by Friedrich Wilhelm. The lands desolated 
by the plague offered room enough, and so Gumbinnen 
became a city. The king cared for this colony till his 
death. Six cities, over three hundred villages, and some 
six thousand houses were built up, and the impoverished 
land became blooming and prosperous. On the centen- 
nial anniversary of the founding of their city, the people 
of Gumbinnen were very anxious to erect a statue of 
their founder. Rauch was engaged to make a sketch. 
His first sketch pleased the king; but the execution of it 
was long delayed, waiting for Schinkel's plans for the 
pedestal. Many details then vexed the sculptor, such as 
questions in regard to the cost of the inscriptions, which 
now are left to the stone-cutter. 

The king saw the statue in 1838, at the same time as 
the second one of Queen Louise. He was satisfied on 
the whole, but made some criticisms on the buttons and 
ornaments, and thought the head too youthful. After 
some difficulties in the casting were overcome, Rauch was 
at last able to show the finished statue to the magistrates 
of Gumbinnen in 1830. 

But the placing of the statue was long delayed. The 
rising in Poland, the spread of the cholera, and finally a 
destructive fire, made it hard to pay the cost of the work, 
which was about fifteen hundred thalers ; and the king, 
in consequence of a petition from the city magistrates, 
finally paid it in 1835, so that on his birthday the unveil- 
ing could take place. It now stands in the marketplace 
at Gumbinnen. 



PORTRAIT AND MISCELLANEOUS SCULPTURE 2 1/ 

The representation of the king is excellent. The bear- 
ing is sturdy, corresponding to his simple, vigorous char- 
acter; and he has an earnest, benevolent expression. 
Being the first among the princes of Europe to wear the 
simple soldier's coat instead of a court-dress, he is clothed 
in the military dress of his time, in pointed boots, close- 
fitting trousers, long vest, and an open embroidered over- 
coat, with stiff collar and facings, out of which appear the 
ruffs and cuffs. The ermine cloak is closed on the right 
shoulder, and the right hand is raised as in blessing. The 
right side of the body is free, while the other side of the 
cloak is raised half way up the body by the left hand 
leaning on the sword. 

We have, fortunately, one fine specimen of the portrait 
bust in America, which will reward the study of those 
who have become interested in the work of the German 
sculptor. 

Rauch's bust of Alexander von Humboldt in the Cor- 
coran Gallery is a beautiful specimen of his portrait work. 
It was made especially for Mr. Corcoran, at Humboldt's 
request. The quality that most struck me was the ex- 
quisite flexibility of the muscles, which seemed to quiver 
with changes of thought, as seems very characteristic 
of the man. The whole expression is very tender and 
sweet, while the fine brow and clear outlook indicate his 
intellectual power. A man of affection and thought one 
would be inclined to say, rather than of extreme will- 
power, and yet he knew well how and when to act. The 
dimpling effect around the mouth gives a feminine beauty 
to the face ; but the fine modelling of the muscles of 
the neck shows that Rauch did not seek beauty at the 
expense of firmness. 

This bust is slightly changed in the turn of the head 
from the one for which Humboldt sat in 1851. This well- 
known early bust had ceased to resemble him, and, at the 
command of the king, Rauch, in four sittings, made the 



2l8 LIFE OF CHRISTIAN DANIEL RAUCH 

bust of the gray-haired author of the " Cosmos " which has 
become the typical likeness. It was given to the king in 
marble in 1854, and in 1856 it was repeated for Mr. 
Corcoran, it is said at the special request of Humboldt. 

In 1825 Rauch received a commission for a monument 
to August Hermann Francke, the founder of an orphan 
asylum in Halle. This was a happy departure from the 
old custom of raising statues only to princes and war- 
riors. Rauch felt that in this statue the beautiful, mod- 
est, humane spirit of the man was to be shown, and this 
could be done only in a group, and he placed Francke 
between two of his orphan boys. This design being pre- 
sented to the committee, Chancellor Nemeyer said, " In 
order to build a monument to the humane Francke, one 
must himself be a man as humane as the excellent 
Rauch." The sketches and casts were subjected to 
severe and even unfriendly criticism, and there was much 
dispute about a place for the statue ; but the contract was 
finally executed in July, 1826. The original design was 
changed by making one of the side figures a little girl, a 
happy idea, which must have touched Rauch's feelings. 
The children wear shoes, and are draped in sleeveless 
shirts, girded at the waists, an ideal costume, which 
unites well with the quiet handling of the spiritual robe. 
This happy idea of the children opened to Rauch a 
whole new plastic activity, which he repeated in marble 
and bronze, and which led to the later forms of children 
in which he personified Faith, Love, and Hope. 

In the monument of the Princess of Darmstadt, as in 
the Psyche image of Adelaide von Humboldt, Rauch 
found an opportunity for uniting ideal expression with 
portraiture. The reliefs connected with the portrait gave 
this opportunity, and Rauch could never feel satisfied 
with any work of art that did not unite these two charac- 
ters. At this same time he was engaged on the monument 
to Maximilian Joseph of Bavaria, the sides of which were 



PORTRAIT AND MISCELLANEOUS SCULPTURE 2 19 

to be ornamented with reliefs. " This was a busy time in 
his atelier, both busts and monumental works in various 
stages of relief being found there. Scarcely was the last 
touch put upon the reliefs of the Bliicher monument, 
when already the clay was being formed into sketches 
which in nine years grew into the colossal monument for 
the Bavarian capital ; and the immense figure of Friedrich 
Wilhelm I. was built up near the almost finished models 
of the three figures of the Francke monument. The 
marble dust flew under the chisel and file which were fin- 
ishing the evangelists and the baptismal font, the Cooper 
monument and the marble image of the Psyche. Daz- 
zling lights played on the deep-colored clay sketches of 
the Goethe statue, and the designs in antique style for 
Cassel ; while their progenitors, the muses Urania and 
Polyhymnia, looked earnestly at these followers ; for Rauch 
had given to these antique forms the head and face which 
an envious fate had hidden from their discoverers. What 
forms of creative fancy were here ! Along the walls, on 
ledges and stands they stood ready ; on tripods they 
awaited their final destiny ; while in a separate hidden 
work-room the hand of the master lightly raised the last 
veil from the second marble image of Queen Louise." 
From the queenly woman, Rauch passed to the represen- 
tation of a beautiful child, also in the sleep of death. In 
1821 the Princess Elizabeth, daughter of the Arch-Duke 
Ludwig of Bavaria, died in her sixth year. Moller, a 
celebrated architect, was commissioned to build a mauso- 
leum, for which Rauch was to model the sleeping child. 
He accepted the commission with such zeal that at the 
end of the week he sent three sketches, of which he 
recommended the last one. Only a slight change in hair 
and drapery was desired by the mother. He afterwards 
sent the cast, asking for further instructions. The prin- 
cess gave suggestions for improving the likeness, but was 
so pleased with the design that she begged Rauch to exe- 



22O LIFE OF CHRISTIAN DANIEL RAUCH 

cute it with his own hand, saying that she would willingly 
wait longer for his own work. Rauch needed no urging 
to do this work so dear to his feelings ; but he was unable 
to finish and send it until August, 1831. By Rauch's wish, 
Moller made some changes in the mausoleum, especially 
softening the contrasts of color by the use of giallo antico, 
and by having the window painted with flowers and leaves, 
so that the burial-place might appear like a summer bower 
lighted by the morning sun. 

The lovely child lies in slumber, the curly head turned 
to the right, the soft drapery leaving the arm and head 
bare, while the little foot and ankle are shod with a laced 
boot. The right hand holds an unfinished wreath, into 
which the loose flowers in the left hand were to have been 
woven. She has fallen asleep, weaving a garland for her 
young life. The mausoleum is no longer as Moller built 
it, and in 1878 a larger building was in progress, p under the 
direction of Professor Wagner of Darmstadt. 

He also received a commission for a funeral monument 
to the wife of Count Schulenburg. The plan was for a 
standing figure whose left hand, perhaps holding a tear- 
cloth, rests on an urn of ashes, while with the other she 
expresses thankfulness. It was to stand on an altar dec- 
orated with snakes, reversed torches, cypress branches, 
and other emblems of death. Rauch made several sketches, 
and this monument was finally completed and placed on 
the grave ; but there is some doubt as to the part which 
Rauch took in the execution. His interest in the work 
was not sufficient to make him anxious to finish every 
detail of the work himself, and the many allegorical acces- 
sories seemed to him too much in the expiring Rococo 
style. Dr. Eggers thinks it most probable that Tieck had 
a large share in the work. The statue itself is thoroughly 
classic in style, and reminds one " of that priestess who, 
banished to the altar of Diana in Tauris, stands long 
days on the shore, seeking the land of Greece with her 



PORTRAIT AND MISCELLANEOUS SCULPTURE 221 

soul. But the action of this hand and face points not to 
a land beyond the seas, but to another beyond, to which 
the soul is turned." 

Whether in connection with this work, or from other 
causes, we know not, but differences of temperament and 
methods of work brought about a little coolness of feeling 
between these two artists who had long worked so harmo- 
niously together. While Rauch was excessively methodi- 
cal and punctual, virtues or faults which are not apt to 
lessen with age, Tieck on the other hand had no consider- 
ation for time, and would linger over his books and his 
favorite studies far into the night, and unfit himself for 
work on the following day. His pecuniary affairs were 
also in disorder from his constantly lavishing money on his 
sister's family. Rauch writes to Humboldt in 1822 that 
it is hopeless, .since what can Tieck do when he works 
only to pay off debts ? Owing to these differences of 
habits the artists separated their households. But so soon 
as Rauch went away for a summer trip of a few weeks, 
Tieck resumed his old habit of writing constantly to him, 
and begins one of his letters, " Although it is no longer 
probable, dearest friend, that you can receive this letter, 
yet I cannot bring my heart to let the post-day go by, 
even although I have nothing to write." The little divis- 
ion of feeling was temporary, and although Tieck's pecun- 
iary embarrassments continued, Rauch did not weary in 
his efforts to procure him suitable work. It is quite prob- 
able that this motive led to his work on the Schulenburg 
monument. 

Another very interesting work of this period, about 1822, 
was the adaptation of the figures of the apostles of Peter 
Vischer from St. Sebald's Church at Nuremberg. In prepa- 
ration for the celebration of the three hundredth anni- 
versary of the Reformation, Schinkel was commissioned 
to prepare a new design in classical style to conceal the 
tasteless appearance of the old cathedral built by Frederic 



222 LIFE OF CHRISTIAN DANIEL RAUCH 

the Great in 1747. Before the high altar he arranged a 
screen, for which he designed a bronze grating. It opened 
through three doors ornamented with rich arabesques in 
Schinkel's style of Greek renaissance. Fluted pillars, 
with simply composed capitals, form the supports of the 
grating, and they are so far ^part that between each two 
is the statuette of an apostle, the adaptation of which was 
committed to Rauch. Schinkel had for this purpose de- 
termined on bronze casts of the celebrated twelve apostles 
of St. Sebald's monument by Peter Vischer, and he com- 
mitted to Rauch's atelier the restoration of the forms, 
with the necessary proportions, and also the revision of 
them to correct formal faults, in order that the technique 
might be brought into harmony with the style of Schinkel. 
Little change of this kind was needed, on account of the 
excellence of this work of the flowering time of German 
renaissance. 

The best of Vischer's figures are copied exactly, or 
with very slight variations. So the well-known Paul, the 
Thomas, the elder James, and Bartholomseus are un- 
changed. The robe of Peter is a little shortened, and 
with John and Philip the position of the right hand is some- 
what changed, and the same is the case with some fea- 
tures of Andrew and Matthew. All these changes which 
seemed necessary to the harmony of the general effect were 
carried out under Rauch's direction by his helper Peter 
Kaufmann. 

But he reserved for himself and Tieck two statues 
which seemed to require more essential changes. Tieck 
altered the awkward position of the left arm, stretched 
forwards with the book in Simon Xelotes, and changed 
somewhat the position of the saw and drapery. 

Rauch himself undertook what he thought to be the 
weakest figure, the Thaddeus. In the general position of 
the body, only the left leg is changed, so that it turns a 
little more to the left, with the foot turned outwards. He 



PORTRAIT AND MISCELLANEOUS SCULPTURE 223 

has also changed the left arm ; and the club which Vischer's 
figure held in a painful position, perpendicular to the body, 
he has placed on the ground near the left foot, so that it 
is easily supported by the arm. The drapery is entirely 
altered. In harmony with the other statues Rauch has 
given him an under-garment reaching to the ground, while 
Vischer left the lower half of the thigh bare, and covered 
the upper part with breeches. The cloak which Vischer 
had drawn smoothly about the body like an apron, Rauch 
has thrown like a toga over the shoulder, with beautiful 
folds under the left arm. The classic taste of the modern 
sculptor appears in strong contrast to the simple direct- 
ness of the old German art. Although I can readily be- 
lieve that Rauch's dignified and impressive figure is more 
in harmony with Schinkel's architecture than Vischer's own 
work would have been, I cannot think with complacency 
of thus using another artist's work. It seems like forcing 
on him a dress he might not willingly wear. 

Tieck also prepared the angels in copper for the niches, 
and Rauch presented the marble baptismal font, which was 
decorated with fishes and palms in a simple and pleasing 
manner. It was not wholly finished until 1831, which 
Rauch thinks was fortunate, as he executed it in a more 
thorough manner than he could have done before. 

Dr. Eggers makes an interesting comparison between 
the representations of the apostles by Thorwaldsen and 
by Vischer ; but I can only call attention to the superior 
robustness and energy of the latter. 

Rauch knew the statues of Vischer only by casts, until 
a short time before the work was completed ; but in the 
winter of 1828 he spent four weeks in a journey to Nurem- 
berg and Munich. He saw the statues in company with 
Reindel, the engraver in copper, and he says of them that 
all the figures are conceived with fine invention, and with 
especial boldness, character, and lightness. The heads 
are modelled and finished with great care. All the upper 



224 L1FE OF CHRISTIAN DANIEL RAUCH 

figures and groups are the most spirited sketches of mod- 
ern sculpture, and the heads are noble masterpieces in 
their position and expression. The children are beautiful 
in form, and certainly must have been modelled from ob- 
servation in a nursery. The architecture may be well 
conceived for the time, but it is rough in execution, and 
the reliefs are excellent in every respect. Each apostle 
weighs between sixty and eighty pounds. What a valu- 
able influence on Rauch this study of the genuine old 
German art must have had at a time when his tendency to 
classicism was so strong. 

The tender feeling shown by Rauch in the mausoleum 
of the queen led many to desire to have their beloved 
dead as beautifully portrayed, and many commissions came 
to him for monumental works. In 1823 he received one 
from the Duchess of Cumberland, the sister of Queen 
Louise, to make a reclining statue of a still-born child, of 
which Westmacott (the English sculptor) had made a 
death-mask. Rauch made a beautiful design of a portrait 
head with the little body fully draped resting on extended 
Psyche wings. It is an exquisite creation, which might 
suggest a soul so pure that it needed not the discipline of 
mortal life. 

A monument for the wife of Sir Edward Cooper occu- 
pied him many years. Sir Edward wished the harp of 
Erin and other emblems introduced, which conflicted with 
the taste of the sculptor, who had hard work to make 
his ideas conform to the exacting requirements of Sir 
Edward. He says it was a great test of his perseverance, 
and he did not get his usual vacation, which nearly brought 
on hypochondria. "The remembrance of such art," he 
says, "will make him turn with more delight to the work 
on the Victory for the Walhalla." The statue was suc- 
cessful in England. 

Rauch worked more cheerfully, we may believe, with 
Schinkel and Tieck on the monument to General Scharn- 



PORTRAIT AND MISCELLANEOUS SCULPTURE 22$ 

horst in the Invalid Church in Berlin. Tieck represented 
the life of the hero on the surface of the sarcophagus, 
while to Rauch was intrusted the modelling of the lions, 
which he studied first from the antique, and afterwards 
from nature, for which a menagerie at Berlin gave him 
opportunity. His attention being thus called to the study 
of lions, he did not rest until he had become able to rep- 
resent them according to his own thought. He has mod- 
elled not only the lion in deep sleep, but the lion in battle ; 
and in 1829 he designed the group of lion conquerors, 
which he executed thirty years later for the staircase of 
the museum. 

He gave similar careful study to the monarch of the 
air, the eagle. He carved it on the Bulow monument, 
both sitting and flying. In 1820 he attempted the heral- 
dic representation of the armorial eagle according to the 
arms of Friedrich I., which three years later was finely 
executed in cast iron, and placed on the gates of all the 
fortresses of the Prussian states. In 1823 he modelled a 
free-standing eagle with the crown for the gate-posts of 
Coblenz and Ehrenbreitstein. This standing eagle he 
has modelled again life-size after fresh studies from nature, 
and finally he has made it in smaller size, in order to have 
it cast in bronze for an ornament for a bookcase. Then 
in 1844 he modelled for the finance-minister an eagle in 
relief ; and even in the last year of his life he made that 
majestic eagle crowned with laurel which in the native 
land of the Prussian dynasty adorns the royal buildings 
in Sigmaringen. It is the same eagle that we have 
already met on the monuments of -Billow and Scharn- 
horst, but carried to the highest perfection by the con- 
tinual study of nature. 

In connection with these accounts of the lions and 
eagles, which have something of an allegorical character, 
I may mention the two life-sized stags ordered by the 
Grand Duke of Mecklenburg-Strelitz in 1827. The duke, 



226 LIFE OF CHRISTIAN DANIEL RAUCH 

who was a passionate hunter, wished for these stags as 
ornaments for the pillars at the entrance of his park. 
Rauch had little opportunity to make the necessary stud- 
ies, and was obliged to rely mainly on the engravings in 
the grand duke's library. The stags are represented as 
counterparts, the heads turned towards each other, and 
without essential differences. The duke was pleased, 
and Rauch was the only one dissatisfied ; for he always 
desired to make thorough work. As he visited New Strel- 
itz his dissatisfaction with the stags increased, and at last 
found expression. The duke promised him a stag's head, 
with its crown of horns ; and when he at last killed a stag 
of ten, he sent it to Rauch wrapped in a cloth dipped in 
brandy. Rauch writes September 21, 1835, "It came to 
me so promptly and so fresh that there were two nice 
roasting-pieces for the share of the moulders, who drank 
your highness's health in chorus, and thankfully sounded 
forth the merits of the fine present ; they loudest for the 
meat, and I, more inwardly, for the bones, each happy 
according to his taste. Before the banquet the head was 
modelled and cast in plaster, and the ' Royal Anatomy ' 
cared for the curing and bleaching of the bones." 

Rauch placed the cast and the whitened skeleton, with 
the antlers attached, in his atelier for his own instruction, 
and as a perpetual model to others, " so that in future in 
collections we may see the antlers suitably placed, and 
not stuck on like goats' horns." Rauch repeatedly re- 
ceived from his princely patron other parts of stags, which 
are now preserved in the collection of models at the Rauch 
Museum. But when the duke, many years later (in 1844), 
spoke of putting the stags on the castle in Strelitz, and 
the king also ordered them for himself, Rauch began the 
thorough revision of his model ; and he found that he had 
to change almost everything. The heads, the breasts, 
even to the withers, were to be made smaller, and the legs 
had to be remodelled. With the help of his assistant 



PORTRAIT AND MISCELLANEOUS SCULPTURE 227 

Devaranne, he finished the first model in February of 
that year, but not according to his wish ; and he worked 
two months longer on the careful touching up before he 
declared the model finished. Two years later they were 
cast in bronze, to guard the last entrance of the Wild 
Park in Potsdam. Casts of these stags are in many pri- 
vate grounds. 

A very pleasing design of Rauch's, which showed more 
sympathy with the romantic spirit of the time than he 
often yielded to, is the Yungfrau Lorenz and the stag. 
This pleasing legend relates that the maiden, being lost 
in a wood, prayed earnestly for deliverance, when a 
stag appeared, by whom she was carried to her home. 
This subject was partly suggested by an old carving in 
the church of Tangermunde representing the maiden 
hanging between the antlers of a stag. The religious 
expression of the subject harmonized with the feeling of 
the moment, when the people were praying for deliver- 
ance from the cholera. 

Rauch's religious feelings were direct and simple, and he 
loved this expression of confident trust. But as the ideal 
and real were always present in his mind, he also enjoyed 
the representation of the stag which he had formerly 
studied so carefully, when carving them for his friend the 
duke. Rauch's representation of the original as riding 
on the stag may have been taken from ancient coins. 
The ease with which she rides the wild creature gives a 
hint of the miraculous character of the event. This group 
was cast in bronze, and plaster casts were made and sold 
all over Europe ; for it gratified the longing of the people 
for romantic and sentimental devotion. 

Rauch was also very much interested in the art of 
relief in the stamping of coins and medallions. He tried 
to establish a school for this work, but did not receive 
much encouragement from the government. He suc- 
ceeded, however, in interesting Beuth of the Gemeinde 



228 LIFE OF CHRISTIAN DANIEL RAUCH 

Institute in the plan, and he secured the instruction of 
three pupils for three years in stone-cutting. As early 
as 1826 he had received a commission for a medallion to 
commemorate the introduction of vaccination. He has 
treated this somewhat prosaic subject with great sim- 
plicity and beauty. 

An old physician sits on a low bench, while a young 
mother brings her two babes for the protecting ministry, 
at which she looks with some awe. The older child, nearly 
nude, hardly shrinks from the touch, but looks with curi- 
osity on the operation, while the little one clings timidly 
to the mother's knees. The cow in the background adds 
to the picturesqueness of the group, while it suggests the 
meaning of the whole. 

A bass-relief of Christ crowned with thorns (I believe 
his only attempt at that subject) is full of health and 
sweetness, but it has hardly the depth of expression of 
Him who bore the sorrows of the world. 

Rauch's desire for ideal work had not as yet been satis- 
fied. As early as 1820 he had in his mind the concep- 
tion of a Danaid, and his day-book notes, " Modelled the 
sketches for a nymph for the long bridge." This work 
was never forgotten, although many interruptions and 
delays occurred in carrying out his conception. It is 
said that a very beautiful flower-girl, whom Rauch often 
saw sitting in an archway selling her flowers, was the 
model of his first sketch. Rauch was unwearied in the 
study of a subject that had seized on his imagination. 
He often felt as if his past work were fruitless, but this 
feeling stimulated him to fresh exertion ; for he was too 
broad and healthy to yield to despondency. 

But while at work on the Danaid, fortune had most wel- 
come commissions in store for him. The Count of Hohen- 
thal, at Priessnitz, ordered a marble statue of an Apollo 
Musagetes for the monument to his son ; and scarcely had 
he designed the sketch for this, when a commission came 



PORTRAIT AND MISCELLANEOUS SCULPTURE 229 

from the Countess Reichenbach to adorn the staircase of 
the Electoral palace with ten marble statues and candela- 
bra. The subjects were to be mythological, and of his 
own choice ; " By which," he writes to Lund, " the noblest 
nude shall be predominant. . . . Thou canst not feel," he 
says, " how this word strikes my ear, which for so many 
years has heard only pantaiono, and the which saw na- 
ture only en pantalon. I need not assure you how much 
more freely I shall design under these auspices." 

In September, 1826, he went to Cassel for an interview 
in regard to these works. Agnes accompanied him. He 
was received by the court director, the elector, and the 
countess, on the staircase he was to decorate ; and all the 
splendors of the palace and gardens were shown to him. 
The contract was made for ten marble statues, to be finished 
in five years, for forty thousand gulden ; and four groups, 
three feet high, for the ornament of the splendid fireplace. 
Rauch joyfully wrote to Lund that he was delighted with 
his reception. Lund replied to him, " I understand how 
joyfully you go to such work, and sansculottism is 
allowable in art ; but one who solved the hard riddle of 
representing modern clothing in plastic art so well as you 
have, must not be too hostile to pantaloons." In the 
winter of 1837 two sketches in clay of Hero and Leander, 
and one of Psyche, were finished, and preparations for 
placing them were already made, when political troubles 
prevented the elector from continuing the work. He left 
ungrateful Cassel in anger, and there was no more talk 
of the work for the palace. Even the sketches are lost, 
and nothing remains of that dream of a future of ideal 
creation. 

Although Rauch's taste inclined so strongly to the 
classic in art, and he did not enter fully into the romantic 
sentiment of his time and country, and besides was even 
somewhat severe in his manners, and strict in his discipline, 
he was yet full of affection and religious feeling. Early 



23O LIFE OF CHRISTIAN DANIEL RAUCH 

in life he had promised to give a work of art to the church 
in his native place, Arolsen ; and, being reminded of his 
promise in 1831, he sent sketches of three charming stat- 
ues of boys, representing Faith, Hope, and Love, for the 
use of the church. 

After some correspondence in regard to the placing of 
the statues, Rauch decided to revisit his native place, 
where he had not been for thirty-two years. He was re- 
ceived with the greatest enthusiasm by his fellow-towns- 
men, who were proud of his renown and grateful for the 
affection he had shown them. His own beautiful letter 
will give the best idea of his feelings in making this 
visit : 

AROLSEN, June 2, 1844. 

" Could I make a statue of the longing, as I have felt it for years, and now 
the joyful realization of seeing again Our dear native town, then could I paint 
to you, most worthy friend, the state of soul, and all that moved me at 
the side of our friend Schuhmacher, as mine eyes found again the wooded 
hills, the meadows, the whole view of the long-desired dear native town ; but 
the pen cannot do it, and so I must leave it to your own feelings to carry out 
these hints. And then in the neighborhood of the first houses, this unex- 
pected amphitheatre of images, welcomed by a crowd of every age, the nod- 
ding of groups and single men, that truly greeted me like a friend who had 
been absent only a day ! 

" How with wet cheek my heart beat in joyful gratitude he only can feel 
with me who, born in the quiet country, educated with narrow means, I must 
say it loud and clear, through God's blessing alone, has reached to that 
which blesses me. With torchlight procession and swelling song ended this 
joyful day of the welcome to art in the artist of the fatherland, so that I felt 
with true emotion that every shake of the hand was like a hoppity-skip to a 
child. All which love can offer I drained. I have on this evening given 
thanks aloud to Heaven. 

" And high honors were repeatedly given me, and even the city accepts me 
joyfully among her citizens. I, might assure you each one of my fulness of 
thanks for so many proofs of love on this joyful day in the fatherland, but 
I cannot speak it in words. Every one must be convinced that I shall keep 
gratefully these precious hours in my heart, as the most beautiful picture of 
my life." 

If he could not do it in words, he has most beautifully 
expressed it in these lovely childish figures, in which we 
feel his religious and affectionate nature so fully, and which 



PORTRAIT AND MISCELLANEOUS SCULPTURE 231 

have so entirely the simplicity of antique representation. 
They became exceedingly popular, and he repeated them 
in many ways. He made several sketches of the figures 
of Hope, one of which he designed for his own grave, and 
one for that of his brother. 

Kugler said of the statue of Love, " Who could refuse 
that boy anything ? " 

The praying maiden was another favorite subject of this 
class. Dr. Eggers says "that he for the first time in plas- 
tic art expressed the true spirit of the Protestant religion, 
and opened a path for art that has been only very rarely 
trodden since." This again was accomplished by his rare 
power of combining the ideal and the real ; for the best 
spirit of Protestantism blends fidelity to the duties of this 
world with the hope of the future. 

There is something very touching in the thought of this 
circle of youthful figures in which the gray-haired man 
has expressed the love and faith of his soul, after he had 
completed the grand monument of the stormy days of his 
youth, in which the conquests of the sword rather than 
of the spirit are celebrated. It shows how in passing 
on towards the kingdom of heaven he was becoming 
again as a little child in his love of tender and beautiful 
themes, yet losing nothing of his skill and expression. 

This class of work fitly began with the Francke monu- 
ment, and his progress is shown in the beautiful boy with 
the shell. It seemed as if the antique spirit, which does 
not seek to express an unreal sentimentality, but the natu- 
ral, healthy life of childhood, had again returned to us. 
The well-known antique group of the boy and goose is 
a happy instance of this feeling. The children of the 
Francke group are not wholly free from sentimentality, 
perhaps because they are charity children. But the " noble 
three " are fully in the Greek style. Rauch has given 
them only the simplest attributes, letting them tell their 
own story in attitude and expression. His Protestant sim- 



232 LIFE OF CHRISTIAN DANIEL RAUCH 

plicity is shown in this, and also in the fact that, instead 
of the cross, Faith holds the open Bible. Hope only is 
winged : she bears us upward. In one nude sketch the 
upraised arms alone express the outreaching to that which 
is beyond. 

These childlike expressions of great truths forcibly re- 
call to us William Blake's exquisitely simple verses, one of 
which might form a fitting motto for Ranch's statues : 

" For Mercy has a human heart, 

Pity a human face ; 
And Love the human form divine, 
And Peace the human dress." 



CONDITION OF ART IN GERMANY 233 



CHAPTER XII 

CONDITION OF ART IN GERMANY. WALHALLA AND 

VICTORIES 

1830-1857 

BEFORE continuing the account of Rauch's great works 
in sculpture, I must, under the lead of our accomplished 
guide, Dr. Eggers, take a brief survey of the conditions 
of politics, literature, and art in Germany and Europe. 
This will be the more interesting to us as we now come 
upon familiar ground, when German art began to attract 
attention in this country. 

Europe was in a state of great unrest. " The news of 
misfortunes in France press one upon another," wrote 
Rauch in his day-book on the fifth of August. At a tea- 
party at the house of the crown princess, at which Rauch 
was present, he heard the event of the Revolution of July, 
the dethronement of the king, the unfolding of the tri- 
color, and the appointment of the Duke of Orleans as 
lieutenant-general of the kingdom. 

The uneasiness in the higher circles increased, as the 
symptoms of excitement among the lower orders on that 
side of the Rhine might prove kindling sparks in Ger- 
many. Belgium at the same time had violently separated 
from Holland. Disturbances of the work-people were 
taking place, and the contagion was spreading over the 
German border. Even Berlin, on the seventeenth of Sep- 
tember, had its tailors' uproarious feast, in which the Field- 
Marshal Diebitsch-Sabalkanski, whose bust Rauch was 
then making for the Walhalla, with difficulty escaped the 



234 LIFE OF CHRISTIAN DANIEL RAUCH 

sabre blows of the armed crowd who went out of the palace 
yard, which he had unsuspiciously entered in common 
citizen's dress. 

There was a general uproar and fear throughout Ger- 
many and Europe. "The great states were in fear of 
a general war, and the little ones of a powerful inward 
convulsion." 

These events acted differently on the French and Ger- 
man minds. While the French sought to express their 
ideas in action, and an immediate change of institutions, 
the Germans found expression in songs, speeches, and pro- 
cessions ; working less violently, but quite as powerfully 
through all literature and life. "The struggle," says Dr. 
Eggers, "was less bloody, but not less bitter." Unlike the 
French the Germans delayed long between a decision and 
an action. Deeds of violence are not conformable to the 
spirit of the German people, and the July Revolution of 
France was re-echoed by May festivals and songs and 
shouts. 

Political feelings found their expression in national lit- 
erature, as it had already prepared the way for them. How 
rich was the French romance-writing of the epoch of 
the July Revolution which, indeed, such writers as Victor 
Hugo, George Sand, Dumas, Sue, and others had largely 
helped to produce. In Germany political events had not 
yet come to their ripeness, and much of the popular writ- 
ing was vague and formless. But one word came into 
prominence which was more than a whole book. Men 
began to talk about Young Germany ; and although the 
growing boy was often as noisy, inconsequent, and obstrep- 
erous as boys are apt to be, yet they are after all good 
stuff to make men of ; and it was from this new, young, rich 
life that a strong, manly national spirit might be hoped 
for. 

It is almost impossible to give in brief space an idea 
of the intense feeling between the romanticists and the 



CONDITION OF ART IN GERMANY 235 

classicists, which under differing forms now agitated the 
literary and artistic world. Rauch, whose temperament 
was calm and healthy, and whose great merit was the admi- 
rable balance of the spiritual and the natural in his thought, 
had not looked without interest on this new phase of art, 
and had even "paid tribute to it" in the statue of the 
"Jungfrau Lorenz." But he was shocked at the extrava- 
gances of the times, and especially at the suicide of Char- 
lotte Stieglitz, who killed herself in a fanciful belief that it 
would restore her husband's mental health. The husband 
appears to have been a countryman of Rauch, and he ex- 
claimed, "What a disgusting delusion!" But romanti- 
cism appeared in a better light in French art, in throwing 
off the dry classicism of David and his school for the fresh, 
vigorous life of Gericault, as shown in his great picture 
of "The Shipwreck of the Medusa." Escaping the worst 
extremes, the French romantic school in Delacroix took a 
new and noble direction in historic art. 

While the lyrical and subjective movement predomi- 
nated in German art, the French romanticists devoted 
themselves to portraying the real, passionate movements 
of human nature in the actual events of history and of 
life. 

We may date from Wilhelm von Schadow's appoint- 
ment as director of the Dusseldorf Academy the rise of 
that school which some years later aroused so much in- 
terest in America, and exercised an evident influence on 
our artists of that period. Eggers calls it " the turning- 
point whence the new German art began to unfold in all 
directions." He traces its birthplace to that room in 
Rome which Cornelius, Overbeck, Veit, and Schadow 
adorned with biblical frescos. At this time the move- 
ment was decidedly of a religious character, according to 
the general interpretation. Cornelius was ambitious of 
the title of Christian painter. And it is said that Veit, 
the director of the " Stadel Institute," resigned his office 



236 LIFE OF CHRISTIAN DANIEL RAUCH 

because the institute had bought Lessing's " Martyrdom 
of Huss." Cornelius was about to leave Munich, where 
he had some friction with Klenze, when the king again 
bound him there by the commission for the frescos of 
the Ludwig Church, which were in his own line. The 
royal patron, whose motto was, " The painter must know 
how to paint," cared for no particular school ; but he was 
anxious to have the decorations finished that year. Nu- 
merous helpers were engaged. Some of them united with 
Cornelius in thinking that only the ideal meaning of a 
picture was the true measure of its worth. So Schnorr 
von Carolsfelt, Kaulbach, Genelli, Schwind, and even 
Preller, worked with Cornelius, even if the personal re- 
lation was not close. Lund writes to Rauch "that he 
cannot think that Cornelius is in his true place as director 
of an academy ; that in which his superiority consists he 
cannot impart to others, and that which can be taught he 
does not understand thoroughly." On the other hand, 
Wilhelm Schadow valued correctness of drawing and color. 
" Schadow is not the hero," said Ranch; "but those he 
leads become so." 

With the increase of genre-painting, and the representa- 
tion of familiar scenes in life, a sense of humor came in, 
which helped to extend the influence of art in various 
ranks of life. Schrodter and Hasenclever became popular 
from this cause. Rauch speaks warmly of many of the 
new pictures as, "Sohn's ' Hylas with the Nymphs' 1 is one 
of the most beautiful late works I have seen." He praises 
Lessing's " Uhland's King," both for its grandeur and its 
technical excellence ; and he also speaks of the excellent 
landscapes of some of the Dusseldorf school. The French 
claimed the Dusseldorf school as French, and the German 
artists blamed the Schadowish works as "too French;" 
but they excited great interest in Berlin, and Rauch said 
of Begas, " I believe that nobody paints a better picture." 

1 In the Berlin Museum. 



CONDITION OF ART IN GERMANY 237 

To understand Rauch's work thoroughly, and the great 
service he rendered to modern, and especially plastic art, 
it is necessary to go a little way into the history and 
philosophy of this subject ; for it was his great merit that 
he united the true idealism, which he gained from his 
profound study of Greek art, with the genuine realism 
won from his keen eye for all natural beauty, and with 
his hearty sympathy with human life. His own healthy, 
manly nature expresses itself in his work, which is both 
robust and tender, full of the strength and joy of exist- 
ence, and yet not deformed by servile imitation, even of 
life. 

The terms idealism, realism, naturalism, etc., must be 
used ; a definition of them given by Dr. Eggers seems 
sufficient to guide us in our further study of Rauch's 
sculpture. 

" Realism can boast of very old recognition as the 
principle of art. No less men than Plato and Aristotle 
place the essential of art in imitation. Leaving aside 
the aesthetic worth of this principle, what interests us 
now is the main idea. Imitation is the determining 
point ; in as far as in an artistic creation somewhat is 
imitated, it is realistic ; in as far as something is added to 
it out of the creative fancy, it is idealistic ; but if we have 
the most exact copy conceivable of the naked fact, in- 
different whether it be beautiful or ugly, charming or disa- 
greeable, then we stand before naturalism." He goes on 
to illustrate this point by showing how realism and ideal- 
ism are combined in the works of Diarer, Paul Veronese, 
etc. He shows how their works are realistic in their 
treatment, and yet ideal in their conception ; and he con- 
cludes by saying, "We must not treat these ideas like 
drawers in which to sort out different men and schools ; 
but we must use them as measuring-rods to determine 
the aesthetic value of an artistic production." 

This controversy in art, which raged so wildly both in 



238 LIFE OF CHRISTIAN DANIEL RAUCH 

France and Germany, was coincident with, and indeed a 
part of, the great revolutionary struggle which ended the 
triumph of reaction and placed the citizen-king on the 
throne of France. Rauch was deeply interested in all 
these events. David d'Angiers was the great leader in 
modern French sculpture. An early prottgj of David, 
and a pensioner of the academy at Rome, his early course 
was in favor of classicism, and he was a strong opponent 
of realism. He could not escape the strong impulse of 
the time, however, and in 1830, for the first time, he con- 
sented to the use of the modern costume in sculpture. 
D'Angiers had known Rauch in the student days at 
Rome. In 1829, having heard that Goethe was beginning 
to grow old, D'Angiers hastened to Weimar to make a 
bust of the poet. He was thus brought into comparison 
with Rauch. D'Angiers himself had no doubt of his 
triumph, both as regards the likeness and the ideal con- 
ception of the work. This is the astonishing bust in the 
library at Weimar, of which the old master Gottfried 
Schadow said, " The high raised skull, and some other to 
us very strange handling of the features and of the hair, 
excited in us German artists more astonishment than ad- 
miration ; " and Rietschel said, " What has D'Angiers 
made out of this head ? It is hard to get free from the 
impression that it may not trouble one's nights." In 1833 
Rauch entered into new relations with D'Angiers, as he 
sent him his sketches for the monument of General Foy. 
Rauch was especially pleased with the idea of represent- 
ing the epoch by the individual forms of the general's 
friends, who were continually about him, even until his 
death. He afterwards used this plan in his monument 
to Frederic the Great. He asked D'Angiers to contribute 
to the Berlin Exhibition, and sent him his own reliefs 
for the Blticher monument, whose originality pleased the 
French artist so much, that he interested himself to 
get a representation of Ranch's work in the Paris Salon. 



CONDITION OF ART IN GERMANY 239 

" Der betende Knabe" was chosen for this purpose, and it 
was well placed in Madame Baudin's salon, which was con- 
secrated to his works. This was a marble reproduction 
of the praying child of the Francke monument. 

D'Angiers is astonished that Rauch does not put his 
name on his works. " Votre nom doit tenir une place trop 
honorable dans la memoire des hommes, pour en priver 
qiielques uns de vos ouvrages." A year later D'Angiers 
visited Berlin, and made a bust of Rauch, on which he 
spent eighteen hours out of his three weeks in Berlin. 1 
" It has very strong peculiarities, especially in the over- 
height of the brow, and in the corners* of the hair. The 
expression has something austere, which Rauch had not 
even in his most earnest moments." Rauch writes to 
Rietschel : " D'Angiers has to-day finished my bust : it is 
more than life-size ; like and characteristic, and of great 
interest to all of us. It is going to Paris to be executed 
in Pyrenean marble. I am really ashamed of this ; such a 
distinction from friends in a strange land I could not ex- 
pect. I think I have learned something from him about 
the working of the skin." D'Angiers makes free com- 
ment on all he sees in Berlin, and he wrote to Alexander 
von Humboldt : " Croyez moi pour reunir le style et r ex- 
pression de la vie, votre Ranch, je le dis partout, est bien 
superieur a Thorwaldsen" 

A correspondence of twenty years shows how much 
artistic sympathy there was between these two men ; yet 
however closely they agreed in their high aims, D' Angiers's 
manner of expression remained always foreign to Rauch, 
and had no other effect on him than to make him cling 
still closer to his own conception of the ideal in plastic art. 

The recognition of Rauch's merit by the French is 
shown not only by his election as associate member of the 
Academic Roy ale des Beaux Arts in 1830, and his full 

1 This interesting bust, given by Rauch by will to Prince George Victor of Waldeck, 
stands now in the princely library of the residence castle at Cassel. 

2 The so-called " poets' corner." 



240 LIFE OF CHRISTIAN DANIEL RAUCH 

election in 1883, but also by the fact that Ingres asks 
his judgment of his latest work, and that Lemaire, who 
had lately won the victory in a concurrence for the frieze 
of the Madeleine, thought it necessary to ask for Rauch's 
recommendation in order to secure his presentation to the 
membership made vacant by the death of Cortot. 

Another tendency in art which appeared at this time, 
and which was very distasteful to Rauch, was represented 
by Schwanthaler, who gained the name of " Fa-Presto " for 
his celerity in producing large works of sculpture. Rauch 
writes, " King Ludwig was the intellectual author of this 
style of plastigue, with whom the principal demand was, 
much and quick." Rauch could readily see how the de- 
sire to ornament his capital speedily should have led the 
king in this direction ; but he was thorough in his own 
work, and abhorred anything like slurring it over. He 
could not understand giving the marble entirely into 
strange hands. Thirty assistants were kept busy on the 
gable-ends of the Walhalla, and the work was almost en- 
tirely given up to them. Abundance of money spent in 
this way seemed only to hasten art in its downward course, 
while Rauch was carefully building up a school of young 
sculptors at Berlin, "who," says Dr. Eggers, "with their 
master, for more than a generation led not the German 
alone, but the finest plastic art of our times." 

The course of sculpture had been different from that 
of painting ; for under the lead of Thorwaldsen and Canova 
the influence of classicism was very strong. But it was 
impossible that such a great change in the political world 
should take place, such an uprising of the people and 
recognition of their life as of superior importance to that 
of thrones and dynasties, without affecting every art. 
This appeared in sculpture in the demand for the use of 
modern drapery instead of the old Greek costume, to 
which even Thorwaldsen had sometimes to yield. Rauch 
accepted the situation, although with some reluctance, 



CONDITION OF ART IN GERMANY 24! 

and devoted much thought to the solution of this problem, 
how to unite truth to history with grace and beauty. He 
thus became the creator of this school of national plastic 
art, which took its meaning from the national life, while 
its form retained the purity and beauty of the Greek art. 
The slow ripening of Rauch's own artistic powers had 
fitted him to meet the influences of the time without 
being carried away by them. He never lost his power 
of receiving new impressions and thoughts ; but he had 
learned to judge them wisely in the light of wide knowl- 
edge and long experience. While he shows very little of 
national prejudice against the French, and eagerly learns 
from their artists, whose great merit he often acknowl- 
edges, he was very little influenced by the French move- 
ments in art. His own direction became clear to him ; 
and, while he gathered from others, he never lost his own 
personality. On the other hand, the French artists gave 
him generous sympathy and appreciation. 

As little was he swept out of his course by the eager- 
ness of his early friend King Ludwig for rapid work. He 
could not understand Schwanthaler's willingness to make 
a new model for the Walhalla every six weeks, and then 
commit the execution entirely to others. 

In his atelier the law of moderation prevailed, and the 
most thorough execution was held to be essential to the 
true development of the ideal thought of a statue. 

At this period Rauch had arrived at a point in his art 
when his acknowledged successes in the works he had 
already made, his clear convictions of the true princi- 
ples of art which he had learned from his classic studies, 
and his wide acquaintance with the best work and life of 
his own time, fitted him for new achievements, for the 
grand circle of Victories with which he adorned the Wal- 
halla, and for many other noble works which add glory to 
his native land. 

Having lived through the disastrous period of the 



242 LIFE OF CHRISTIAN DANIEL RAUCH 

Napoleonic wars, and sympathized deeply with his king 
and his country, having entered with his whole soul 
into the war for freedom, and consecrated his best powers 
through middle-life to the commemoration of its great 
heroes, Rauch now had an opportunity of illustrating his 
beautiful faith, " that what one wishes in youth, one has 
the fulness of in old age," by the opportunity for a great 
work, which should combine his never-faltering love of 
classic art with his joy in the reviving life of his country. 
He found the expression of all this feeling in the ancient 
Nike, "the Victory which wakens the heroic spirit, en- 
courages the combatant, and gives wreaths and palms to 
the victor." 

But Rauch did not merely copy the Greek : he infused 
into this Greek form the modern spirit, and his Victories 
have the life of the great deliverance which his country 
had just passed through. He has used this form of rep- 
resentation more than thirty times, and especially fine are 
the splendid forms which adorn the German Temple of 
Fame, the Walhalla at Regensburg. 

With all his strong classical leanings, Rauch was not 
insensible to the spirit of the age in which he lived; and 
now he saw how he could unite the spirit of classic art 
with the reviving life of his country, which for a century 
had been dominated by foreign influences in literature, 
art, and even politics. 

Here Dr. Eggers finds the strong contrast with Thor- 
waldsen, whose mission was essentially to restore the spirit 
of Greek art. No strong national feeling gave him a new 
ideal, and love is the subject of his creative power from 
the beginning to the end of his career. As Thorwaldsen 
has given us more than sixty representations of Love, so 
Rauch, who found his inspiration in national feeling, has 
expressed this over and over again in his Victories, in 
reliefs, busts, and statues. 

As early as 1811 the young Prince of Bavaria had con- 



CONDITION OF ART IN GERMANY 243 

ceived the idea of the great national Temple of Fame, 
the Walhalla, and had given to Rauch a commission for 
a bust. When Ludwig became king, he wished to take 
Rauch into his service, and to establish a great school of 
plastic art in Munich ; but Rauch wisely preferred to re- 
main in Berlin. 

On Ranch's return from Italy, King Ludwig wished 
him to make six figures for the interior of the Walhalla, 
some partly sitting, some standing, which should be 
wholly his own work. But Rauch could not meet the 
eager wishes of the king, feeling obliged to return at 
once to Berlin. However, he had an interview with 
Klenze, the architect in Bologna, and agreed with him 
for the work he would do for the Walhalla. 

He agreed upon the style and design of the group 
for the front gable, so that it could be safely finished by 
younger men, also for the six marble statues, of which one 
was to be finished each year, and that the whole should 
be ready by October I, 1836. 

Rauch, who was full of delight at the idea of being able 
to express his ideal of womanly beauty in nude figures, 
made a sketch of a Victory, which he sent to the king. 
It was a sitting figure, almost entirely nude, and holding 
in her right hand a laurel wreath, and in her left a palm 
branch. But the king objected "that the nude, however 
it might suit antiquity, did not fit in here ; " and Klenze 
wished Rauch to consider the relation to the general 
architecture, and to the places designed for the statues. 
The details of the contract caused much discussion, and 
the king unwillingly consented to having the work done 
in Berlin, as he was in great haste to have it finished. 
Ranch began the work in 1831. The first sketch of the 
gable group, of which Rauch himself speaks with satisfac- 
tion, pleased the king. The principal figure is the Ger- 
man ia, with the throne and sword ; the side figures consist 
of two groups of warriors, representing Prussia and Han- 



244 LIFE OF CHRISTIAN DANIEL RAUCH 

nover, Austria, and Bavaria, swearing fealty to Germany, 
with female figures indicating the fortresses of Cologne, 
Luxembourg, Mainz, and Landau. Two other groups of 
sitting female figures represent Wiirtemberg on one side, 
and on the other, Hesse and the other small states. 

The king consented that the execution of the statues 
should be confided to Rietschel, on the condition that one 
of the groups should be made in Rauch's atelier. 

But the chamber of deputies objected to giving this 
important commission to a foreigner, and in the following 
year refused, by a large majority, to grant the money for 
the building of the Walhalla and the finishing of the 
Pinakothek. The king, however, was able to take the 
necessary sums from the civil list so that the work could 
go on. 

As Rauch proceeded with the modelling of the statues, 
there was much discussion in regard to the drapery and 
accessories. The fourth Victory was very much admired, 
and considered the finest yet made. It was draped except 
on the arm and breast, but the king objected even to this 
degree of nudity, and Rauch was almost in despair over 
his persistency on this point. Yet the king had the 
authority of Greek coins ; and even the coin of Terina, 
from which Rauch seems to have drawn the idea of his 
wreath-throwing Victory, is represented as fully draped. 
In 1834 the first sitting Victory is put into marble. The 
block for the second is brought to the workshop ; but while 
the marble is spotless, it has been cut away full six inches 
too much above the heel, so that there is not material 
enough for the limb, and Rauch is greatly troubled ; but 
by skilful management he makes up for the defect, and as 
usual is jubilant over a difficulty conquered. 

When King Friedrich Wilhelm visited the atelier in 
1835, Rauch was able to show him four Victories in dif- 
ferent stages of completion, and to tell him of their desti- 
nation for Munich. "That's a king," said the monarch 




VICTORY, VALHALLA 



CONDITION OF ART IN GERMANY 245 

jokingly, " that orders something that gets done." These 
winged marble figures fortunately made a pleasant im- 
pression on the king, which to Rauch's great joy brought 
similar orders from him. But for two years Rauch laid 
aside almost entirely the work for the Walhalla, because 
he was engaged on the Diirer monument ; but he took it 
up again in the year 1837. Klenze calls his attention to 
the wings of the Victories, which stand out too far from 
the wall and thus hurt the architectural effect. He also 
hints that a northern Victory should suggest the Walkyrie, 
and that the oak branch might be substituted for the 
palm. Rauch accepts this suggestion, and the next two 
Victories bear oak wreaths and branches. The king was 
constantly urging expedition in .completing the work, 
although Klenze said that such haste was not necessary, 
for the Walhalla could not be consecrated until October 
1 8, 1842. In July the six marble statues were exhibited 
in Berlin for three weeks, for the benefit of the restoration 
of the Cologne Cathedral ; and in August a load of marble 
weighing a hundred and seventy hundred-weight passed 
through the streets of Berlin towards Regensburg. 

On the first of September, Rauch, with his daughter 
Agnes and her husband, went to Donaustauf. In the 
afternoon they went to the Walhalla. Here they were 
received by the builder Estner, who had kept charge of 
the work for fifteen years ; and the splendid bronze doors 
were opened to them. Rauch says in his diary : " I found 
the six statues on their stagings near the place of erec- 
tion, all freed from the boxes, and not injured in the least. 
The impression of the whole on us was above all magnifi- 
cent, such as was never seen ; the novelty and beauty of 
the materials, the finished work, praising alike the builder 
and the architect, such as has never been accomplished in 
Germany in any time." 

" So, then," says Dr. Eggers, " the cycle of victory of 
the Walhalla remained as it was created in eleven years' 



246 LIFE OF CHRISTIAN DANIEL RAUCH 

work, not as it was formed out of the free thought of the 
artist's fancy, but bound by conditions which showed 
themselves in the results, not as fetters, but as fruitful 
elements of creative activity." This was truly working 
. in the Greek spirit, making limitations the sources of 
new power. His majesty was so well pleased with the 
statues that he wished no change in them. Rauch was 
unable to remain until the ceremony of dedication, which 
took place on the eighteenth of October. 

Rauch had wished for free creation, based indeed on 
Greek models, but infused with the national feeling. 
Klenze on the contrary wished only decorative figures 
in strict relation to the architecture. The king finally 
took a middle course. The bounds, which according 
to Klenze were prescribed by the laws of architecture, 
should not fetter, but guide the artist's fancy, and indeed 
should lead back to the antique, in which the master- 
pieces of plastic art were created. Hence, on the side 
of architecture, he demanded the repose of the figures, 
whether sitting or standing ; and he refused to permit 
nude figures, constantly demanding more drapery, and 
objecting to all characteristic attributes, except the gar- 
land and the laurel branch. 

The more Rauch was thus circumscribed in the outer 
form of his ideas, the more powerfully did he turn to the 
expression of the inner life ; and thus arose the forms 
of the Victory, mighty in their beauty, which " fill the 
temple with a grand hymn of victory, sung in strophes 
and antistrophes." 

The difficulties of the task were overcome in many 
ways. It was a question how to unite the wings with the 
draped figures. As the statues were seen only in front, 
or in profile, the wings appeared behind the figure as a 
symbol, and awakened no question of organic connection ; 
and where the statue was more fully seen, the folds were 
so arranged as not to interfere with the placing of the 
wings. 



CONDITION OF ART IN GERMANY 247 

He composed the statues without the wings, and could 
thus use each of his Victories among his wingless Nikes. 
He wrote to Lund, to whom he sent a cast of his wreath- 
throwing Victory : " I leave out the wings : they are only 
an embarrassment." 

It would seem almost impossible to make six repeti- 
tions of so simple a subject with so little variation in 
the accessories, without making them monotonous ; but 
these bright, lithe, graceful Victories have each their own 
charm, and it is difficult to prefer one to another. In the 
middle of the right wall sits the grand figure, with the 
legs lightly crossed, the drapery falling in long folds, and 
the head crowned with laurel, looking thoughtfully into 
the distance, while the light, elastic arm holds a laurel 
wreath. As Rauch said, " In her, waiting is expressed." 
The way to her is steep : she is ready to give the prize ; 
but the prize is costly, and she waits till the last struggle 
is over, and the brow is ready for the royal crown. 

Opposite sits the wreath-throwing sister, in whom 
" attentive looking down from the height into the imme- 
diate struggle is indicated." She has paused a moment 
in her flight, and alighted on a rock, while she follows the 
battle with her eyes, and is ready to throw* the wreath to 
the victor. She is a beautiful picture of joy in victory. 
The companion on the other side has flown down from 
Olympus, and has touched the ground with sure feet, 
stretching her right hand to the victor's brow. All is 
beauty, grace, and life. 

On the farthest side is that sister who has^ entered with 
slow step and sunken head. Her beautiful head is bent 
by the oak wreath. A budding oak twig rests against her 
right shoulder, and the left hand holds her drapery a little 
raised, to give freer motion. She appears to think of the 
sacrifice which the conquest has cost : it is a victory, but 
dearly bought. 

Opposite her, on the same wall, is the splendid form of 



248 LIFE OF CHRISTIAN DANIEL RAUCH 

the self-crowning Victory, who is putting the wreath on 
her own head, as if for joy in the conquest. 

On the left stands a more thoughtful sister. She has 
risen from her seat, and, holding the wreaths in both 
hands, she approaches the conqueror, a beautiful picture 
of victorious joy. 

These six models were used also on the gables of the 
Royal Opera House in Berlin, after the old house was 
burned, and the king wished to hurry on their restora- 
tion. Tragic masks were put in their hands, and they 
were made to serve as muses. They were also used with 
modifications for other buildings. 

In 1837 King Friedrich Wilhelm visited Rauch's atelier, 
and ordered two Victories in bronze for Charlottenburg. 
Rauch had freer play with these models than with those 
for the Walhalla. These statues were to be placed on 
high granite pillars. This position gave opportunity for 
more action, and the forms are not entirely draped. In 
1840 the king celebrated the twenty-fifth anniversary of 
the peace, and wishing to erect a monument on the 
" Belle Alliance Plats" in Berlin, he had the Victory cast 
in bronze. She is holding an olive branch outstretched 
towards the city. 

Again, in 1847, Rauch reproduced the Victories for the 
staircase of the Prince of Prussia ; but, with the welcome 
change of celebrating the victories of peace, he added to 
the laurel wreaths the olive and the horn of plenty. 

Finally, for the fourth time, the old master must make 
a crowning Victory, and this time it must be colossal, 
three metres high. The sixth army corps wished to erect 
a monument on the battle-field of Leuthen to the memory 
of Frederic the Great. It was to be placed on the only 
hillock on the plain, from which Frederic had watched 
the battle. A colossal image of Victory was chosen, and 
Friedrich Wilhelm IV. gave a granite pillar, from which 
the figure could be seen far and wide. The wreath was 



CONDITION OF ART IN GERMANY 249 

gilded. The statue has unfortunately suffered much, and 
needs restoration. 

The king had given a copy of the Victory to the Grand 
Duke of Mecklenburg-Strelitz, to be placed in the garden 
of Neu-Strelitz. It is touching to read the letter of the 
gray-haired prince to his still older artist friend, aged 
seventy-seven, who was then preparing for his visit to 
Rome. He begins : " You have by your Victory for the 
battle-field of Leuthen, given a proof to the rightly as- 
tonished world that even in your old age it is possible to 
make progress ; and since this is established, how can it 
be doubted that Rome will refresh and strengthen you 
anew, as a man growing old is refreshed by the breath of 
a young maiden ? " 

Rauch also prepared several marble busts of the Vic- 
tories. If his workers in Italian marble had nothing to 
do, he let them make a bust of Victory, which he finished 
with his own hands. He had no fear in regard to the 
disposition of them. In 1857 he sent a bust with his 
good wishes to his friend Strack on his forty-ninth birth- 
day, recalling the days when they had worked together, 
and acknowledging artistic obligations to him. Finally, 
America received her memorial of the great sculptor. 
The last notice of the completion of a work by his own 
hand is of a Victory. As he returned from his last jour- 
ney to Karlsbad, June 22, 1857, he wrote in his diary : " I 
found in the atelier the model of the statue of Kant in 
such good condition that I only had to go over it with 
Hagen. On the marble bust of Victory for Mr. Lenox 
I had more to do : it was finished on the eighteenth of 
July." 1 This is the last notice in the day-book of the 
completion of a work by his own hand. 

Rauch did not recover from the sickness which the last 
bath journey had caused. A few months later he passed 

1 This Victory is now in the Lenox Library in New York. It is a beautiful clas- 
sic head crowned with the oak wreath. 



250 LIFE OF CHRISTIAN DANIEL RAUCH 

to quiet rest. A Victory was the boundary stone of his 
earthly creations. His Victory remains a most charac- 
teristic and beautiful expression of the most poetic side 
of his nature. While the Queen Louise is at once a 
tribute of affection and a true portrait, it is also a beauti- 
ful ideal ; but the Victory is a pure conception of his joy 
in the regeneration of his country, which he has made a 
universal symbol of the grand conquests of life. 



MONUMENT TO FREDERIC THE GREAT 2$ I 



CHAPTER XIII 

MONUMENT TO FREDERIC THE GREAT 
1780-1850 

THE work by which Rauch is most generally known is 
the statue of Frederic the Great at Berlin, which is the 
grand conclusion of his long series of monuments to 
heroes and warriors. And yet this reveals to us far less 
of his thought and nature than the memorials of his be- 
loved queen and king with whom his whole life was asso- 
ciated, or the beautiful circle of Victories which were the 
joy of his heart. This great monument illustrates his 
sad remark to Bunsen that " two-thirds of all an artist 
thinks and executes is prescribed by the age he lives in." 
We shall see how much he had to contend with in this 
age. 

Dr. Eggers considers this statue as Rauch's greatest 
work. 

Rauch was only three years old when the proposition 
was first made to build a monument to Frederic II. In 
1779, after the close of the last campaign against the 
Kaiser Joseph, in response to the desire of the Prussian 
Army, General Mollendorf proposed the appropriation of 
two hundred thousand thalers for the purpose of erecting 
a monument to the king. But the king declared it to be 
improper to erect a monument to a commander who was 
still living. For sixty years this project was discussed, 
and not less than fifty-eight sketches for it made by 
various persons. 

After the death of Frederic it was proposed that not 



252 LIFE OF CHRISTIAN DANIEL RAUCH 

the army alone, but the whole people, should take part in 
the erection of this monument. In 1791 King Frederic 
William II. wished a concurrence of artists to make 
sketches, and he prescribed the general character of the 
statue, which was to be in Roman costume. The most 
extreme and bizarre sketches were offered, Chodowiecki 
sending his with the note : " I have placed a sun on the 
housings of the horse, to express the enlightenment 
he [Frederic the Great] has spread through the world." 
Many were very strenuous for the modern costume ; and 
it marks the spirit of the times that the argument was 
used that the antique costume would carry the king back 
a thousand years, to the time when the human race was 
divided into lords and slaves, while Frederic held fast the 
thought of the unity of the human race, and taught that 
kings exist for the good of the people. 

The fearful events of 1792 put a stop for a time to the 
discussions in regard to the monument, and they were 
not renewed until 1797. Afterwards, the death of the 
king delayed the execution o'f the plan, and on the acces- 
sion of Friedrich Wilhelm III. he did not at once find him- 
self in a position to carry on the work, of which, however, 
he did not lose sight. Both the king and queen held Scha- 
dow's views in regard to the costume, and now determined 
on a colossal equestrian statue, and Schadow received acorn- 
mission to make estimates for a bronze statue with a granite 
pedestal. Little did he think that in the queen's ante- 
chamber was the young man who was to carry the work into 
execution. But long years of political troubles lay between 
this plan and the final result. In 1822 notes from Rauch's 
diary refer to suggestions from Schinkel in regard to 
a renewal of the project. About 1829 the plan of a 
Trajan's pillar was much discussed, and, a general sub- 
scription being proposed, it was suggested that those prov- 
inces which had been conquered by Frederic might take 
part in it if they chose, but that no demand should be 
made upon them. 



MONUMENT TO FREDERIC THE GREAT 253 

At last, in 1830, the affair seemed to take a definite 
turn in a proposal to Schinkel ; but he objected on artistic 
grounds to the plan of a Trajan's pillar, saying that the 
extent of the bass-reliefs made it impossible to see the 
unity of the design, and that the statue of the hero him- 
self with his head one hundred and fourteen feet in the 
air could not impress the beholder with his personality in 
its finer traits. Schinkel offered several other designs, 
representing the hero on horseback or in a chariot. In 
February the king gave Schinkel a cabinet order direct- 
ing him to communicate with Rauch in regard to the 
details of the work, but he still adhered to the idea of the 
pillar, which was so unacceptable to Schinkel that he 
appealed to Rauch to help him in trying to effect a 
change. 

Rauch was then on his return from Italy. He did not 
answer Schinkel's letter for some time, hoping to find 
some one who would help him to influence the king. 

Rauch proposed a new plan for a monument, consisting 
of a statue of Frederic with six of his generals placed in 
a horizontal row below him, and of smaller size. But 
George of Mecklenburg objected to this, that as the great 
King Frederic was so immeasurably above all his subjects, 
they ought not to be represented on the same monument, 
even on a lower plane. 

The king was not moved by Rauch's objections, and 
postponed the decision until he should return. Rauch 
now proposed that the pillar should be crowned by a 
Victory, and that the statue of the king should be placed 
on a lower pedestal. Bunsen writes that it seems impos- 
sible to move the king from his determination, and that 
" it appears to be written in the stars that we shall have 
to see the great king on the top of a steeple." 

Rauch continued to make sketches for the monument, 
hoping that the king's plans might be changed by seeing 
them carried into execution. In 1835 the king began to 



254 LIFE OF CHRISTIAN DANIEL RAUCH 

weaken in his determination, and directed Rauch to make 
designs for a monument to Frederic, to be placed on a 
pillar or a pedestal. Soon after he sent to Rauch to make 
a drawing of an equestrian statue of the great king in 
his own costume, with royal mantle, staff of command, and 
even the hat. Rauch feared a new controversy, since he 
objected strongly to any covering of the head which would 
conceal the brow and shade the eyes. Duke George sup- 
ported him in this objection ; but the king neither wished 
to give up his own idea, nor to give an explicit order 
against the judgment of the sculptor and his artistic 
counsellor. 

Rauch then suggested a sitting statue of the great 
king as he sat on the well at Nienburg weaving together 
the torn threads of his fate, after the battle of Kollin. 
This called forth an admirable letter of criticism from the 
grand duke, showing that a great monarch should not be 
represented at the moment when his fate trembled in the 
balance, however nobly he rose from the depression, but 
in the hour of victory. He suggested that such a subject 
would only be appropriate in a cycle of bass-reliefs where 
it would be followed by victory, and the dissonance, as in 
music, would heighten the resulting harmony. Rauch 
carefully preserved this letter, and followed out its sug- 
gestions in the bass-reliefs of his monument. The king 
finally called a new commission to consider the subject, 
and they reported in favor of an equestrian statue, and 
against the pillar. March, 1836, the king gave Rauch an 
order to make a model for the equestrian statue. He 
went eagerly to work, and in two months produced a 
sketch of a statue with a rich pedestal. The bass-reliefs- 
form a succession, showing the progress of the conflict, 
from the first drawing of the sword to the final victory, 
and the peace and the joy of the citizens. 

He made a double model of the statue, with and with- 
out the head-covering, and was so well pleased with his 



MONUMENT TO FREDERIC THE GREAT 255 

own work as to hope that he might carry it into execu- 
tion. Although the duke, Humboldt, and other connois- 
seurs warmly received and praised these sketches, the 
king kept the artist waiting for two months without a 
word as to his opinion, or the final acceptance of the 
designs, while the excitement of the sculptor was such as 
to unfit him for work or enjoyment. At the end of that 
time the king criticised the representations of the gener- 
als, and wished allegorical figures substituted for them. 
Encouraged by the duke, Rauch patiently went to work 
again, and designed a circle of allegorical figures. Still 
the king delayed, and Rauch notes that he visited the 
atelier many times without saying a word about the 
monument. But Rauch had not been idly waiting during 
these years, and finally it was with surprise that he re- 
ceived an order from the king to go on with the statue. 
Congratulations came to him from all sides, and he felt 
that he was to give his best and his last powers to the 
work. Finally the order was given to him in the most 
flattering terms, December 8, 1839. 

Now began the difficulties of the execution. He was 
obliged to enlarge his atelier to accommodate all the work. 
Next came the study of the horse, which must not be a 
typical Arab or Greek horse, but one of the sturdy Eng- 
lish breed which Frederic actually used. Rauch used for 
a model an old horse of this race named Talbot, which 
was said to resemble strongly Frederic's favorite horse 
Conde. He also made journeys to various places to study 
the characteristics of different races and breeds of horses. 
Grave questions arose among critics even as to the repre- 
sentation of the horse's tail, and Rauch corresponded 
with the English sculptors Westmacott and Wyatt on 
the subject. His visit to Russia afforded him opportuni- 
ties which he eagerly seized upon for further study. 
Many were the difficulties in modelling the horse and his 
rider of corresponding size, and it was only after five 



256 LIFE OF CHRISTIAN DANIEL RAUCH 

years' labor that the artist could put his model into the 
hands of the founder for casting. 

Rauch had never been satisfied with the allegorical fig- 
ures which Friedrich Wilhelm III. had suggested in the 
place of the heroes whom he had designed to surround 
the king ; and now he arranged a modification of these 
groups, in the earnest hope that his successor, Friedrich 
Wilhelm IV., might see the appropriateness of his original 
idea. 

It was an anxious day for Rauch when the king visited 
the atelier to view the completed model ; and when at last 
he expressed his entire concurrence in Rauch's new plan, 
it seemed to the artist the culminating joy of his life. He 
must pour out his soul to his friends. The grand duke, 
although plunged into sudden grief by the death of his 
daughter, gave him the warmest sympathy. 

But his joy was not complete until Rietschel shared 
it. He writes to him March 27, 1842 : " You can clearly 
imagine with what other and new courage I now put my 
hand to the execution of the whole, than if the duty of 
moulding the allegorical forms in their insipidity were laid 
upon me. This day was, if not the happiest, one of the 
very happiest of my life. Praying God my former health 
and strength may keep fresh ten years more, I am yet 
modest, and really mean only half that time." This 
prayer was not dispersed in empty air. Rauch had still 
much difficulty in the choice of the generals and com- 
panions of Frederic who were to be represented on the 
monument, and also in arranging the names to be placed 
on it, so as to meet the king's wishes, and suit all parties, 
without violating his own artistic taste. He was obliged 
to change field-officers and generals about, as if he were 
manoeuvring an army. " You hardly realize," he wrote to 
Rietschel, " how hard it is to represent these personalities 
as hussars, all with the same number of curls arranged 
over the ears by the same barber, and with no other attri- 
butes than the dagger and sword." 



MONUMENT TO FREDERIC THE GREAT 2$J 

It was refreshing to change to the civic side and 
model the citizen's dress. But this side brought out al- 
most greater difficulties in the choice of subjects. Each 
critic had his word to say, and when Preuss had proposed 
his idea of the representation of classes, everybody was 
suggested, from Voltaire and the Marquis D'Argens to the 
opera-singers Salimbeni and the Barberina. 

It is difficult in brief space to give an idea of the vari- 
ety and richness of the whole work. 

On the lower part of the pedestal the events of Fred- 
eric's life were represented. The longer side was di- 
vided into three fields of nearly equal size ; those on the 
south side were to be consecrated to his birth and child- 
hood, and his instruction in history and science and the 
forging of arms. As the lower part of this pedestal was 
decorated with the knights and officers and heroic deeds 
of Frederic's military career, it was enough to represent 
him as a warrior led by victory. The other three great 
fields represent him after the war was over, as the promo- 
ter of industry, the protector of art, and the philosopher 
of Sans-Souci. On the reverse was his apotheosis beyond 
the bounds of earthly life. 

His childhood is represented on the fourth side. Two 
angels in long clothes, one swinging a palm branch, the 
other holding the little babe in its arms, bring him down 
to the royal pair, the mother holding out her arms to 
receive him, while the king's hands are folded in prayer. 
In the left corner is the rush-crowned nymph of the 
Spree with her swan, leaning on an urn. In the second 
field at a table sits Duhan, the instructor of Frederic, a 
book in his right hand ; before him stands the royal boy, 
and behind him a globe. 

By Rietschel's advice he changed his first sketches, in 
order to bring them into greater unity with the rest of 
the work, by substituting allegorical figures ; so he put 
the muse of history in the place of Duhan, while the 



258 LIFE OF CHRISTIAN DANIEL RAUCH 

globe and a lighted candelabrum make a school of science. 
In the third field the teacher is replaced by a helmeted 
Minerva, who offers a sword to the youthful hero. 

Indeed, he made so many changes in his designs that I 
will not attempt to give them. The bass-reliefs can now 
be studied in their final form on the finished monument, 
or more conveniently in the casts at the Rauch Museum. 
The general effect is very rich and animated. 

After the completion of the model, the preparation 
for the casting in bronze and its erection caused yet 
another year's delay. Rauch had indeed made prepara- 
tions for the casting six years before, when he sum- 
moned to Berlin, Friebel, who had shown himself a skilful 
founder for the Polish kings in the cathedral at Posen. 
He came to Berlin in 1845, an d established his workshop 
in the new mint. With the erection of this foundry, 
Rauch did not escape the usual struggle for the means of 
existence. He had already spent more than five thousand 
thalers for the necessary preparations ; but the minister 
of finance would not repay him, because the administra- 
tion of the mint belonged to the department of religious 
worship and instruction ; and the minister of religious 
worship also refused, because the outlay was made for the 
monument to Frederic. Rauch, already threatened with 
legal measures, declared to the king that under these con- 
ditions he could no longer work with cheerfulness. Then 
a cabinet order on the minister of finance, with a draft 
on the monument funds, freed him from his unpleasant 
position. Kings are convenient sometimes to cut knots. 

The process of casting is as interesting as it is diffi- 
cult, and at times Rauch was very anxious about the 
result ; but, as he gratefully tells his assistants, it was 
happily accomplished through their skill. But to Rauch 
himself his work did not seem a success, for the horse 
appeared too short in the trunk, and too long-legged "no 
comforting sight." He was never reconciled to those 





FREDERICK THE GREAT, BERLIN 



MONUMENT TO FREDERIC THE GREAT 259 

long, or rather slender legs, as we learn from a letter 
which, many years after the monument was erected, he 
addressed to Councillor Scholl at Weimar. This letter is 
full of instruction to the technical sculptor, but is too 
long to insert here. 

New discussions arose in regard to the inscription, and 
Rauch appealed to Preuss, who wished for one in German. 
But the king appointed a commission to decide the mat- 
ter. The inscription is enclosed in a deep setting deco- 
rated with palms, on which are the king's crown, sword, 
sceptre, and imperial globe, and a cross, with laurel and 
palm branches. 

FRIEDRICH DEM GROSSEN, 
FRIEDRICH WILHELM DER DRITTE 

MDCCCXXXX. 

VOLLENDET UNTER FRIEDRICH WILHELM DEM VIERTEN. 

MDCCCLI. 

The colossal granite pedestal was also a great work, 
consisting of thirty-two blocks. Rauch wrote to Riet- 
schel : " No time of work has been harder to me than this 
delay in finding these granite blocks. These will stand, 
the sure monument of Frederic the Great, when time 
shall have melted the bronze." 

On the fifteenth of May began the moving of the 
great statue out of the foundry over the Haakschen Markt, 
the Spandau bridge, the new Friedrichs bridge, by the 
cathedral, to the booth before the destined station. Forty 
carpenters accomplished this removal on rollers in twice 
twenty-four hours. 

Then the walls of the scaffoldings were taken down ; 
and Rauch now saw the statue in the early morning of 
the twenty-fifth of May on a level with the height of the 
pedestal, raising itself towards the free heaven, and ris- 
ing high over the highest lindens. It gave to him an 
unexpected impression of powerful effect. 



26O LIFE OF CHRISTIAN DANIEL RAUCH 

Great preparations were made for the unveiling of the 
monument. All Rauch's own family were present, his 
daughters and grandchildren. As guests of the royal fam- 
ily came the young nephew Friedrich Franz of Mecklen- 
burg-Schwerin, and the venerable Uncle George of 
Strelitz, who arrived on the twenty-eighth "because he 
had no peace at home ;" the Dukes of Braunschweig and of 
Genoa, and the young nobility of Saxony, Schwarzburg, 
and Wiirtemberg, and finally the whole of Prussia in 
countless deputations of all ranks and classes from every 
province in the kingdom. There came also merchants and 
mechanics, and representatives of art and science, and 
above all of the Prussian Army. Two of her veterans, old 
men of one hundred and six and one hundred and two 
years, appeared, as well as a hussar eighty-five years old, 
in his genuine old uniform. Besides these, came the future 
promise of the army, the young figures of the cadet corps. 

On a warm spring day, May 31, 1851, the one hundred 
and eleventh anniversary of Frederic's ascension of the 
throne, the splendid procession passed through the files of 
soldiers drawn up like living walls along the streets. 

Foremost appeared the great master, Rauch, adorned 
with the order of civil service, to which had been added 
the night before the star of the Red Order of the Eagle. 
He was preceded by the commission of unveiling, and 
surrounded by the artists, head workmen, and helpers who 
had been engaged in the great work. Dr. Eggers says, 
" None of the thousands whom Berlin assembled to this 
feast will ever forget the moment when the old artist, in 
all his majestic beauty, stepped on the broad square at the 
head of this festal train. The joyful greeting of those 
nearest him swelled into a jubilant cry of the countless 
multitude which surrounded the square like mountain 
walls." 

The Prince of Prussia rode up to the artist, giving him 
his hand in greeting, and the ladies of the court came out 



MONUMENT TO FREDERIC THE GREAT 26l 

on the balcony of the palace. The square being cleared, 
the march of Frederic the Great announced the arrival of 
the king. He came on horseback at the head of an im- 
mense crowd. Halting before the monument, after listen- 
ing to a short speech from the president, he drew his 
sword and commanded the troops to present arms. Im- 
mediately thousands of voices, the thunder of artillery, 
the lowering of standards, the clang of bells, and the swell 
of the Hohenfriedberger March greeted the statue un- 
veiled in the glorious sunlight of the day. A sacred silence 
followed the outburst of joy and astonishment ; then from 
behind the statue sounded the clear voices of the choir of 
.the cathedral, accompanied by the sonorous swell of the 
trumpets in the grand old choral, "Nun danket alle Gott" 

At the close of the song the king spoke to the army, 
and then to the burgomasters of the city. He then turned 
to Master Rauch, whose hand he repeatedly pressed, and 
gave him three memorial coins, struck in gold, silver, and 
bronze, from his own designs, in memory of the unveiling 
of the statue. 

Festivities were continued through the week ; but none 
could have been more grateful to the artist's feelings than 
the social meeting in the old Lagerhaus, followed by a 
feast given by the artists of the Royal Academy. Rauch 
was greeted by the festal hymn written by Kopisch and 
composed by Meyerbeer : 

" Steht auf und empfangt mit Feiergesang 
Lobpreisend den Mann der die Stadt, der das Land 

Durch belebtes Gebild 
In Erz wie in Marmor verherrlicht." 

The vice-director of the academy, Professor Herberg, 
said, " The day before belonged to the fatherland, but this 
hour is ours ; the companions in art greet the artist, and 
are proud to name him theirs." 

Music specially composed for the occasion filled the 
evening ; a medal was given to Rauch, and the king kissed 



262 LIFE OF CHRISTIAN DANIEL RAUCH 

him amid the applause of the company, who felt "that no 
favor was too great for him who had been able to speak 
out of his soul in enduring brass to the souls of all." 

Finally the festivities closed with a grand reunion of 
artists, with tableaux and dramatic representations. Many 
of the greatest artists of the time were present, among 
whom his old friends Kaulbach of Munich, Bendemann of 
Dresden, Felsing of Darmstadt, and Scholl of Weimar, 
are probably the best known to us. The press teemed 
with poems in honor of the artist and the work. When 
after a few weeks the temporary supports were taken away, 
the whole beauty of the monument was revealed. Then 
was recognized the architect Rauch in the whole structure ; 
the painter in the composition of the groups ; the poet in 
the conception of the whole, and in the character of the 
details ; and, above all, the sculptor in the fashioning of 
all the portraits, so that the greater part of them with few 
changes were available for single statues, as was actually 
the case with that of Kant. The whole cost of the monu- 
ment was, in round numbers, two hundred and fifty 
thousand thalers. Rauch made a copy one-fourth of the 
size of the original for the Emperor of Russia. 

I must refer my readers to Dr. Eggers for a full analy- 
sis of the artistic qualities of this great work. It is cer- 
tainly one of the finest large monumental statues of 
modern times, and resumes in itself Rauch's life-long 
studies in this direction. 

An incident of a more private nature may close the 
history of this great undertaking. Rauch had long wished 
to present to the church of Arolsen casts of the four 
cardinal virtues, from the designs on the Frederic monu- 
ment. He communicated his intention to his friend 
August Speyer, and made his preparations quietly for the 
execution of the statues. The place for the casts was 
selected, and the work was going on well, when Rauch 
received through Speier the intelligence that the placing 



MONUMENT TO FREDERIC THE GREAT 263 

of the four cardinal virtues in the church would not be 
agreeable to the consistorium, since they did not conform 
to the Christian standpoint, and would give offence to 
orthodox minds, and at this time such a conflict was 
especially to be avoided. 

Ranch replied that this unexpected and unreasonable 
refusal of his gift had wounded him very deeply, and he 
begged that there might be no further mention of the sub- 
ject in any way, as he did not wish to be reminded of it. 

But afterwards Rauch received an address signed by 
nearly a hundred of the citizens of Arolsen, deeply mourn- 
ing the decision of the ecclesiastical authorities, and ex- 
pressing the hope that he would not blame his native city 
for this event. 

Three years later Rauch heard that the magistrates of 
Arolsen had purchased his birthplace on a perpetual foun- 
dation, as a refuge for worthy citizens. Rauch sent to this 
establishment a gift of five hundred thalers, but at the same 
time gave the casts of the four virtues, for his castle, to the 
prince, who received the gift in the most friendly manner. 

The mother of the prince commissioned Speier "to 
say to my dear Rauch, with a thousand greetings, how 
much I rejoice in his continued goodness; but especially 
tell him how I, as an old woman, am pleased to hear that 
his old home has become an asylum for aged women, and 
that he has given to this noble charity such a noteworthy 
gift. Express this all properly ! " 

In 1841 Rauch received a commission from King 
Friedrich Wilhelm IV., which must have been most wel- 
come to him, to prepare for the mausoleum at Charlotten- 
burg a companion monument to the " king of blessed 
memory," the husband of Queen Louise, to be placed 
beside her. The king wished the costume to be very 
simple, to correspond with that of the queen, and sug- 
gested the military cloak instead of the ermine mantle. 
Rauch made four different sketches. At first he endeav- 



264 LIFE OF CHRISTIAN DANIEL RAUCH 

ored to make the position of the figure balance that of 
the queen by the arrangement of the hands and feet ; but 
he abandoned that idea, and placed the king in a simple 
horizontal position. By the wish of Friedrich Wilhelm 
IV., many little orders were added, and the cloak was 
thrown back to show the epaulets. 

In the summer of 1846, on the birthday of the dead 
king, the whole monument was finished in marble ; and 
Rauch writes to Rietschel : " I intend to place the grave- 
statue of the king for a couple of days in the first of 
August in the atelier in a good light, before it goes into 
the worst light I ever saw. Nobody could do worse for 
me than to build such a miserable building for this work." 

When the monument was placed in the mausoleum, 
Rauch was almost frantic over the injury to his work. 
The light came in on both sides, and destroyed the effect 
of the modelling. Friedrich Wilhelm IV. consented to 
darken one side of the room, and finally the trees as they 
grew up contributed to the same effect. 

Great as was the success of the statue of Queen Louise, 
made more than thirty years before, now that this monu- 
ment of the king was placed by its side, Rauch's progress 
in art was evident. 

"The king lies stretched out in an almost stiff position, 
suggesting the death-sleep as well as the simple, soldierly 
character of the king, whose expression is of mild ear- 
nestness. Still more his artistic progress is shown in the 
fine lines which control the general form and give it a 
monumental character Only in comparison with this 
later work was it seen how much the grand lines in the 
statue of the queen were broken up by the genre-like 
details of the drapery. One need only compare the bier- 
cloths to feel this contrast in all its sharpness." 

I fully indorse this view given by Dr. Eggers. The 
exquisite charm of beauty and sentiment prevents one 
from remarking these defects in the statue of the queen; 



MONUMENT TO FREDERIC THE GREAT 265 

but when the comparison is made, one might almost say 
that one is the work of a young lover of art, as well as of 
his subject, and the other is the achievement of a master. 
Herein Ranch did a great service to the royal family, 
who were to become so important to Germany, by bring- 
ing out the ideal of a king, even in this likeness of a mon- 
arch of whom the country had little reason to be proud. 

Rauch also modelled for the King of Hanover a statue 
of his lately deceased wife, a sister of Queen Louise. 

Rauch enjoyed very much his visits to Hanover to wit- 
ness the placing of the statue ; not only because of his 
friendly reception, but because of the frankness with which 
the king, Ernst August, spoke with him on the exciting 
politics of the times. The calling of the united Landtages 
did not please him at all, especially within the royal pal- 
ace. " Without giving room in it to such churls, he 
believed that he could make his subjects perfectly happy 
and contented : such representative assemblies should 
never rule, especially in Germany ! " However little 
Rauch shared the political opinions of the king, who 
was obliged within a year to recall his words, he yet felt 
sympathy with the energetic, tense character of the man, 
and the unreserved openness of his speech. 

When Ernst August died in November, 1851, and Rauch, 
according to his express wish, was asked to make his 
statue, these peculiarities came to his mind. He wrote 
to Fran von Bernstoff, " Although a dead form can afford 
little charm to the sculptor, yet the ' character-man ' of 
our day, with his splendidly formed head, has something 
interesting in the highest degree, and calls out full in- 
terest for this monument." Already, when making the 
statue of the queen, Rauch had taken the exact measure 
of the king, in preparation for a later day ; and the time 
came when King George, in December, 1851, commanded 
the companion to the monument of the queen. These 
two monuments rank with the best of Rauch's portrait 
statues. 



266 LIFE OF CHRISTIAN DANIEL RAUCH 



CHAPTER XIV 

POLITICAL CHANGES. VISITS TO ST. PETERSBURG, 1 COPEN- 
HAGEN, ANTWERP, AND LONDON 

1840-1852 

NOTHING could have given Rauch more delight than 
the commission from the Emperor of Russia, through 
the hands of his friend Humboldt, whose letter is full 
of the warmest expressions of admiration and friendship. 
It was dated February 3, 1830. Humboldt says, "On 
my return from the Caspian Sea, and in the first days of 
the convalescence of the beloved emperor, he has com- 
missioned me to procure from Professor Rauch, as a proof 
of the high regard which such a talent merits, a marble 
mythological statue, nude, of the size of the Apollo Belvi- 
dere, or, if he prefers it, somewhat smaller. You shall 

1 My German authority calls this city Petersburg only, and the same form is found 
in many, but not all, German books. As this fact has caused discussion, I have tried 
to obtain decided authority for one or the other expression. The report of the 
" Petersburger Gesellschaft " uses Petersburg only, even when speaking of the court, 
while the catalogue of the Berlin Exhibition uses the prefix St. Some English writers 
use both forms indiscriminately, but the earliest authority that I have found, "A History 
of Peter the Great by John Motley of London," published in 1703, never gives the pre- 
fix, although he fully describes the building of the city. A Russian friend has, however, 
made special inquiry for me in Russia, and gives the following statement, which seems 
to set the question at rest, as showing that the city was named for the Apostle rather 
than the King: 

" When Peter the Great took possession of the river Neva in 1703 he decided to build 
a fort and a city there. On the sixteenth of May of the same year, foundation was laid 
for the city, and he named it St. Petersburg, in honor of the Apostle Peter, whose day 
with the Greek Church is on the sixteenth of May. Peter himself was christened after 
the Apostle, and that was another reason why he named the city after his patron saint. 



POLITICAL CHANGES 26/ 

choose the subject freely, a male or female figure. If I 
said mythological, I wished only to express that all be- 
longing to modern times is excluded." In 1831 is found 
an entry in the diary, " Sketches for a statue of Narcissus 
begun." This was probably a suggestion for the emper- 
or's statue. In the end of the year Rauch notes that he 
has finished the sketches of a statue of a Danaid and a 
sitting Eurydice. The following year he sends both to 
the minister of the imperial house. He names the second 
sketch, " Expectations in the form of Eurydice at the 
moment when she listens to the distant tone of Orpheus, 
who is lulling Cerberus to sleep." Rauch had long before 
taken an interest in the idea of the Danaid, as express- 
ing unsatisfied longing ; but the thought of Eurydice was 
much nearer to him, as indicating the triumph of art. He 
says that he chooses this subject because the whole form 
is capable of a determined expression which, especially in 
the head, can be brought out in a charming manner. 
Goethe had suggested this subject to David d'Angiers, 
" because the cause and effect would be easily seized, as 
in the Laocoon." In the sketch in the Rauch Museum, 
Rauch has represented the Eurydice sitting on a rock, in 
whose hollow at her left lies the Cerberus watching her. 
She hears the song of Orpheus from that side, and looks 
thither, full of expectation. We cannot help regretting 
that this sketch, which seems full of promise, was not 
carried out. 

The Danaid sketch represents the maiden as she empties 
the sieve with both hands* 

Rather against Rauch's wishes the emperor at once 
chose the Danaid as pleasanter for a room. Rauch him- 
self worked on the clay model, and made a special study 
for the head from Mademoiselle Louise Engel, who was 
celebrated for her beauty. But he could not get the real 
Danaid expression into the beautiful head, and he changed 
it into a Flora, which he sent to the empress as a fore- 



268 LIFE OF CHRISTIAN DANIEL RAUCH 

runner of the great work. A ring of diamonds with the 
cipher of the empress was sent him in recognition of this 
gift. After many disappointments in the quality of the 
marble, and other hindrances, the work was finished in 
1839. Rauch saw many details which he felt he could 
improve, but the spectators were fully satisfied. The 
model received great applause for years, and Kugler wrote 
this pointed epigram upon it : 

" Traurig blickest Du her, der endlos wahrenden Arbeit 

Suchst Du lange ein Ziel : nimmer doch gehe zur Rast, 
Setze den Fuss nicht ab von Stein und erhebe den Krug nicht ! 
Denn gleich lieblich wie jetzt warest Du nimmer zu schau'n." 

King Friedrich Wilhelm was so much pleased with the 
statue that he commanded a replica in marble. In 1840 
the emperor came to Berlin at the time of the death of 
the king, and renewed his invitation of ten years' standing 
to Rauch to visit St. Petersburg and see his statue placed 
in the beautiful palace of the empress. The emperor not 
only paid him five thousand thalers, but gave him the 
insignia of the Wladimir Order, Fourth Class, and a com- 
mission for a second female statue of the same size. 

A note in the day-book may refer to this commission : 
" The sketches for the Danaid, executed for the Emperor 
of Russia, changed to a nymph of Bacchus, with the young 
Bacchus on her knee." Both these sketches are now in 
the Rauch Museum, and are reproduced in the fifth vol- 
ume of Dr. Eggers's book; and it is interesting to compare 
them, and see how much difference of meaning and effect 
can be produced by slight changes. The attitude and 
position of the body and the leg remain the same in the 
nymph as in the Danaid. On the right hip, instead of the 
water-jug, rests the young Bacchus, throwing his arms and 
legs about in childish pleasure, while in the left hand he 
holds a bunch of grapes. The position of the arms is 
only just so far changed as the difference of the object 
supported, in the one case an urn, in the other a child, 



POLITICAL CHANGES 269 

makes necessary. The head of the nymph is turned to 
the right, looking kindly at the child, while the Danaid 
looks sadly at the opening of the jug ; the drapery, which 
covered only the right hip and forearm of the Danaid, is 
drawn away from the arm of the nymph, and gathered into 
a knot in her lap. The difference in the clothing, the 
opposite turn of the head, and the slight change in the 
hands, are sufficient to change the whole figure from a 
Danaid into a very opposite subject, full of the expression 
of joy. 

The repetition of the Danaid was not yet begun when 
the king died, but his successor renewed the commission, 
and after long delays it was finished in 1852, and was one 
of the last great works in marble by the master. It now 
stands in an excellent position in the Orangery, where the 
whole beauty of the statue appears. She stands in her 
full beauty, between girlhood and womanhood, with her 
bowed head, emptying the unhappy urn. The delicate 
head and the deep sadness of the face mark the Danaid. 
The companion of the Danaid, the Eurydice, had also a life- 
history of ten years. In 1836 Ranch received a commission 
for two statues for the Duke of Orleans, to be placed in 
the Tuileries. As the Duke of Orleans a few weeks later 
stopped in Berlin on his bridal-tour, he came to Rauch's 
atelier, and remained three-quarters of an hour carefully 
examining the works. The duke chose for his own room 
a sketch of a sitting Eurydice, to be executed life-size in 
marble, and ordered it with the most flattering expres- 
sions of hope of a speedy execution. In 1839 Rauch 
worked on the clay model which Blaser had prepared. 
It remained, however, until 1843, almost fifteen months 
after the violent death of the Duke of Orleans, when at 
Rietschel's entreaty Rauch had the model again brought 
into the lower workroom, in order to continue the work. 
" Grace a Dieu et Mitsching" he writes to Rietschel, "that 
it is not fallen to pieces." Mitsching, the true servant of 



2/0 LIFE OF CHRISTIAN DANIEL RAUCH 

the atelier, had taken so much pleasure in the model 
found abandoned in the upper workshop, that with his 
own hand he had kept the clay moist all these years. 
" All the woodwork, even the pegs in the tripod (as a nat- 
ural consequence), were rotted away, and yet the figure 
was preserved, although in fact only the iron and the clay 
remained ; and she now stands screwed into a new plinth, 
as if she were imprisoned." Once Rauch set his hand 
to the continuance of the work. But since Mitsching 
dared no longer continue his peculiar method of preserva- 
tion under the eyes of the master of the atelier, Eurydice 
succumbed to her fate, and was one day found fallen into 
dust. 

When Rauch returned from the glorious unveiling of 
the Diirer monument at Nuremberg, he found preparations 
making for the ceremony of laying the corner-stone of the 
monument to Frederic the Great, of which I have spoken 
already. The king was so sick that he could only look 
out of the window in his night-robe for five minutes at the 
pageant, with which he expressed his satisfaction. Rauch 
writes in his diary : " It was an exciting, poetic, tragic 
moment as the conclusion of the good king's life. From 
this hour until that of his decease, the surrounding of 
his dwelling by sympathizing friends only ceased when 
the body was taken to Charlottenburg to its last rest." 
There, thirty years before, at the king's command, Rauch 
had awakened his lost queen to life in marble, and there- 
with laid the foundation of his artist's fame. 

We can imagine how deeply the parting with the king, 
who had been so generous and kind a master to the young 
artist, affected the old sculptor. History is severe upon 
Wilhelm Friedrich III. It is good, therefore, to have seen 
him in his private relations, and know him as Lessing 
says God does : 

"Der du allein den Menschen nicht 
Nach seinen Thaten brauchst zu richten, die 
So selten seine Thaten sind, O Gott ! " 



POLITICAL CHANGES 271 

King Wilhelm IV. mounted the Prussian throne, and not 
only Prussia, but all Germany, turned its eyes to him with 
earnest desire and expectation. Rauch remarks in his 
diary, " Friedrich Wilhelm IV. can mark the beginning of 
his reign by no finer act than by the publication of two 
documents which were given to him on the day of his 
father's death." These were the last will of the dead 
king, and his admonition to his "dear Fritz in undertak- 
ing the office of ruling, with the whole weight of its re- 
sponsibility." 

I cannot follow out the history of the stormy times 
after the ascent of Friedrich Wilhelm IV. to the throne. 
The people were in a ferment of hope and expectation 
that the new reign was to bring all they desired of free- 
dom and prosperity, and every form of wild scheme and 
visionary plan found enthusiastic followers. The king 
shared many of the feelings of the time, but he had not 
the wisdom and strength needed to lead the country. 
We may now see how the noblest feeling and thought of 
that time was striving to bring about national unity and 
constitutional freedom ; but in the midst of the struggle 
it was not always easy to recognize what was the wisest 
and truest statesmanship. I shall only try to show how 
Rauch was affected by the changes. 

While he certainly was not a bigoted opponent of prog- 
ress, and always belonged to the people in sympathy of 
feeling, he had yet been brought up, and lived, we may 
say, all his life in affectionate relations with royalty. He 
loved peace and order ; and if he were an idealist in his 
love of beauty in art, he was not an extremist in his devo- 
tion to theory in politics. He loved his country as an 
actual personality, and was, as we have seen, thrilled by 
her danger, and most happy in her salvation ; but he was 
not a statesman with far-reaching views of her future des- 
tiny. The confusion in church and state, arising from the 
half-way measures and weak action of the government, was 



2/2 'LIFE OF CHRISTIAN DANIEL RAUCH 

distressing to him. He writes to Rietschel, " How irri- 
tating is this drift of events ! " and asks him if it is the 
same in Dresden. He cannot be enthusiastic even for 
the gift of the constitution, longed for since 1815, and 
now called Landtag, which was established on thor- 
oughly stable grounds in 1847 : the artists were not rep- 
resented, even at the opening of the Landtag, at which 
only the outward appearance, the extraordinary display in 
the church and the " White Hall," seem to him worthy 
of mention. 

Sooner than was expected the constitution was over- 
thrown in that fearful night of March, 1848, whose hor- 
rors in the immediate neighborhood of the Lagerhaus he 
lived through with his people. What troubled him most in 
this fierce outbreak of political passion was the deliberate 
conspiracy in imitation of the Parisians. The seventy-one 
years' veteran did not withdraw from active participation 
in the measures taken to calm the raging waves : he 
helped in the organization of the artist troop to join the 
Burgerwehr and the student-corps ; and he writes to his 
Rietschel, "A wee'k of distress, of uncertainty, in which 
we spent our nights, is indeed over, but not the impression 
of what we have lived through, and what is before us in 
the near future. Who could have believed this move- 
ment to be so colossal, and the downfall of the existing 
conditions so irresistible ? Where is counsel, where is an 
outlet to good to be found?" The only comfort to him 
and his people is, " that the worst has not happened : our 
king lived, and was active in all that the event demanded 
of him. God can now help further. What the govern- 
ment have delayed to do for three and thirty years will 
now arise in a new form for Germany. The Hohen- 
staufens desired it : may we live to see it ! " 

He feared that the worst excesses of communism would 
prevail, if the good sense of the burghers and land-holders 
did not hold them back from the abyss of a German re- 



POLITICAL CHANGES 2/3 

public, to which the eloquence of all sorts of vagrants 
seemed to be driving them. He believes that future gen- 
erations will see better days, but that first of all princes 
and people will be lost in distress and rudeness, through 
the "trinity of universal arming of the people, direct suf- 
frage, and free press." If these expressions seem extrav- 
agant to us, we must remember the excitement of the 
times; that Rauch's politics were very much matters of 
feeling, and that in a diary and familiar letters one does 
not always choose his words very carefully. 

Towards the end of the year he indeed saw guaranties 
of a more hopeful future in the calling back of the Berlin 
garrison under Wrangel, in the disarming of the Burger- 
wehr, and breaking up of the state of siege ; and on the sixth 
of December he wrote in his diary: "The news of the day 
brings great joy to all right-thinking people, on account of 
the constitution long desired from the king, which the na- 
tion has been kept out of through the most infamous hin- 
drances, caused by the deputies themselves, until no hope 
was felt of its realization ; and now at last the king him- 
self has made an end to the matter. God bless him ! " 

This was indeed the crowning glory of poor Friedrich 
Wilhelm IV.'s reign, by which alone he holds a place in 
history. 

Rauch now took again a lively interest in politics, seek- 
ing to promote the election of conservative delegates. 
He had already joined thePrettssen Verein, and stood with 
his whole soul on the Prussian side of the great question : 
" Shall Germany disappear in Prussia, or Prussia in Ger- 
many ?" 

He felt very deeply about all the questions of the rela- 
tions with Austria, and thought a great opportunity for 
Germany was lost by the refusal of the king to accept the 
role of emperor. 

But whatever bitter feelings Rauch had towards the 
king's public policy, they did not disturb their private re- 



2/4 LIFE OF CHRISTIAN DANIEL RAUCH 

lations. Ranch's personal dependence on, even his admi- 
ration for the king, increased as he recognized the industry, 
the patience, the depth of good-will which he brought to 
the solution of these problems, which not the call of his 
heart, but of his position, put before him in away that 
stirred the depths of his nature. His hope was to lead 
his people by the way of peace and ideal creation to 
higher civilization. For that he felt a royal vocation and 
enduring power. But the movement of the times de- 
manded struggles, especially on the political field, which 
the king had been obliged to enter, and indeed with many 
far-working happy results, but without his ever finding in- 
ward satisfaction and peace in them. 

The king could see the importance of the encouragement 
of art, especially of architecture, to the full development 
of the nation, and herein he felt at home in the exercise 
of his royal functions. He was always in close relation 
with Rauch ; and in the midst of the stormiest days of 
1848 he sent for the sculptor, to talk with him of artistic 
subjects, or to discourse of ancient Babylon with Hum- 
boldt. Sometimes he was called away from his harmless 
enjoyment of such discourse, to trying business of state; 
but he either seized the first opportunity to return to 
artistic or literary conversation, or he took up the pencil 
himself to sketch a plan and divert his mind from painful 
topics. 

Believing that a long and peaceful reign was before him, 
the king at once began to consult Rauch about great pro- 
jects for filling the vacant places with statues, and espe- 
cially for carrying out the idea of the great equestrian 
statue of Frederic the Great. Schinkel's incurable sick- 
ness was a great trial to him, for in his classic tenden- 
cies he found a refreshing counterpoise to the prevailing 
romanticism. 

Rauch at this time took a warm interest in the devel- 
opment of German painting. When the frescos of the 



POLITICAL CHANGES 2/5 

museum were unveiled in 1844, he wrote in his diary: "I 
never experienced such a powerful impression from a work 
of art as from this. God bless the artists and princes 
through whom arise such genuine works of art for the joy 
and satisfaction of the present and the future ! " 

He writes also to Rietschel very warmly of two Belgian 
painters who exhibited their work in Berlin. "What will 
you, what will the painters say when they see the two Bel- 
gian painters? So I think should colors, stuffs, so also 
the light and shadows, so also the flesh be painted on a 
flat surface, what dead paints does Dusseldorf give us 
on the contrary!" He also speaks in high praise of Cor- 
nelius's powerful cartoon of the Apocalyptic Horse. He 
recognizes Kaulbach's merit, and speaks of one of his pic- 
tures as "thoroughly beautiful in spiritual meaning, as 
well as in finished art." He calls Kaulbach spirited as a 
composer, draughtsman, and painter, and hopes from him 
the desired leadership of art in Berlin. 

Rauch always regarded art in its widest relations, and 
was not fettered by any school or form of art, however 
strong his own preferences might have been. The awak- 
ened mind of Germany was then expressing itself nobly 
in painting, architecture, and music, and Rauch rejoiced in 
it all; but, as Dr. Eggers says, "The plastic art of that 
time was in Rauch and his school." 

The change in the Prussian throne, so important to 
Rauch, happened in a summer otherwise full of interest- 
ing events. He had long ago been invited by the czar to 
visit St. Petersburg, and he now decided to undertake the 
journey. He embarked for the city in 1840, on the steam- 
ship Hercules, with his statue of the Danaid, and he ar- 
rived there July 4. The voyage was made pleasant by 
the society of Russian officers, and although he could not 
forget his experience of sea-sickness in 1804, yet the sight 
of the Russian fleet brought back more inspiring recollec- 
tions, of which he says, "An indescribable youthful im- 



2/6 LIFE OF CHRISTIAN DANIEL RAUCH 

pression was that which, in the year 1804, on my voyage 
to Italy, I felt in the roadstead of Toulon, where the 
French fleet was stationed which was beaten under Ad- 
miral Villeneuve by Nelson at Trafalgar. From the 
admiral's ship on a Sunday morning I enjoyed this novel 
and wonderful scene with the Count Karl von Sandrecki." 
His first impression of St. Petersburg was bewildering. He 
says, "About six o'clock in the evening I went with Captain 
Mertens and a young Dessauer Gartner to St. Petersburg, 
whose splendid appearance with the ferries on the Newa 
filled me with astonishment; but yet more, as before 
the statue of Peter the Great I looked over the immensity 
of the splendid square, even to the Alexander pillar with 
its wonderfully bold, rich architecture ; my mind was so 
stunned I could not take it in, and I had a feeling of being 
overpowered that I never experienced before, and that I 
felt again more or less every time I took a walk there." 
Four weeks passed away in rich artistic enjoyment. He 
was especially interested in the equestrian sculpture of 
Baron von Clodt, the most distinguished artist in that line 
in Europe, "whose talent," he says, "after centuries has 
given us the form of the horse, as perhaps the Greek art 
fashioned it, and as they could bring forth only by severe 
study of nature." This interest had a very practical side 
for Rauch, as he was already engaged in modelling the 
equestrian statue of Frederic the Great. He spent much 
time in Clodt's atelier, and was constantly excited to ad- 
miration by his thorough knowledge of his subject. He 
bought casts of different parts of the horse, as well as of 
Clodt's newest works. These casts are in universal use 
at the present day as material for the study of horses. 
He also saw in Clodt's studio the original model in wax of 
the horse-tamers, designed for the pavilion at Peterhof. 
Clodt brought repetitions of this group to Berlin, as a gift 
for Friedrich Wilhelm IV. Rauch says, " Here before the 
castle, placed eight feet high, they have gained in size and 



POLITICAL CHANGES 277 

life, and give this terrace a beautiful appearance. The 
model of the Tscherkess horse which Clodt sent to the 
academy, Herr von Olfers has had cast for the museum. 
The whole front of this horse is the finest which the art 
has brought forth for a thousand years. All my paths 
now lead through the castle in order to enjoy it." Rauch 
modelled Clodt's bust while he was in Berlin. 

But this was not the only pleasure that St. Petersburg 
gave him. While Rauch was staying as his guest at Peter- 
hof, the emperor ordered from him a bust of the Princess 
Marie, Duchess of Leuchtenberg. 

At one of the sittings the Emperor Nicholas sat at the 
same time to Madame Robertson for a full-sized portrait. 
What a stimulating artistic pleasure was this rivalry ! 
Another time it did not work so well. The sitting was 
delayed about an hour ; Rauch was out of tune from* the 
long waiting, and the model sat very uneasily. " Besides," 
says the diary, " we had the company of many persons, 
and a French reader with a resonant voice, who read 
Victor Hugo's 'Louis XI.' in his best pathos. I believed 
my last hour had come, and about half-past four I was in 
a condition that I cannot describe." Yet, in spite of all 
this annoyance, the bust was a very beautiful work. It 
was finished on the day of his departure, and immediately 
ordered to be put in marble. 

The emperor took pleasure in accompanying Rauch to 
the beautiful villas and palaces, but he enjoyed most of all 
the fine collections of works of art. On the birthday of 
the emperor, at the Cathedral of the Mother of God at 
Kasan, he heard for the first time the celebrated Russian 
church song, which may be fitly compared with the 
Miserere at Rome. "A song of the highest edification." 

Largely enriched, not only in experiences referring to 
his own art, but in the fuller acquaintance with all art and 
history, Rauch took a regretful leave of the city and all 
the friends he had made there. He thought St. Petersburg, 



2/8 LIFE OF CHRISTIAN DANIEL RAUCH 

as an art station, equally if not more important than 
Munich, Vienna, Dresden, or Berlin. The Duke and 
Duchess of Leuchtenberg urgently invited him to spend 
a year with them, as a guide to art, in Italy. The empress 
expressed a similar wish some years later, but Rauch could 
not leave his accumulated work. The emperor ordered a 
four-foot-high knightly statue of the blessed king, as well 
as a similar representation of the Frederic monument in 
bronze. " If I were only a forty-year-old," cried Rauch, 
" what might I not now begin ? But such an old dry 
stick ! " The emperor, after urgent invitations to renew 
his visit, took an affectionate leave of him, and on the 
first of August he again stepped on board the Hercules ; 
and, after a pleasant voyage and a short visit at Herings- 
dorf by the way, he arrived in Berlin on Sunday, the 
eighth of August, and on Monday morning, with fresh 
courage, he began to set up his St. Petersburg study of 
horses at the atelier. 

For the next five years he made no more journeys, but 
found his recreation in visiting his daughter and her 
increasing family at Halle. The family festivals of birth- 
days, baptisms, etc., frequently tempted him thither. The 
introduction of railroads at this time brought a great 
increase of activity in all the large German cities, and 
Rauch exclaims with delight : " To Halle in five and a half 
hours ! " It had been a two-days' journey. But Rauch 
had a lively desire for a yet closer union with his family, 
to secure which a professorship in the Berlin University 
was desired for Professor D'Alton. All difficulties seemed 
to have been smoothed away, for the king himself con- 
gratulated him on the prospect of having his son-in-law so 
near him, that the old artist might gain refreshment daily 
in the family circle, and rejoice in the sunshine of old age. 
But a few weeks later these hopes were shattered by the 
opposition of the medical faculty. " A very dark, critical, 
decisive day." A few years later and a yet darker day 



POLITICAL CHANGES 2/9 

brought the desired living together, but with a most pain- 
ful void. It was in the summer of 1854. Rauch had just 
returned from his last Roman journey, on which we have 
yet to accompany him, when fourteen days later the tele- 
graph brought the unexpected news of his son-in-law's 
death. -Ranch took his final journey to the much-beloved 
homestead which he had created for his family. The 
estate was settled, house and garden sold, 1 and the wid- 
owed daughter went with her children back to Berlin. 

Rauch still enjoyed his visits to his friend Rietschel, 
who was his companion on many a journey of business or 
pleasure. Rietschel was invited to accompany him when 
he wished to show his younger daughter, Doris, the beau- 
ties of Saxon Switzerland. He was very anxious to bring 
Rietschel to Berlin, as his successor at the academy, since 
he thought no one so well fitted for the place ; but Riet- 
schel was already first at Dresden, which was not a village, 
and he did not care to change, to be second at Berlin, 
which was hardly Rome. Rauch was delighted at the 
many and important works in which Rietschel was en- 
gaged, and he thus prettily congratulates him : " Never 
have I taken in hand with greater joy the little pine-tree 
(the water-mark of the paper) sheet and pen than at this 
moment when I rejoice with you, my dearest friend, on 
the good taste and friendly will of our dear king, who has 
given to you the execution of the group of the Pieta, for 
the Friedenskirche in Sans-Souci. 

Rietschel also refused a call to Vienna ; but Rauch 
never ceased to urge him to come to Berlin. He urged 
him on the ground of the great field opened for religious 
sculpture, which he alone was well fitted to occupy. He 
calls Rietschel his "master;" "for," he says, "I often 
stand in the greatest admiration before your model of 
Lessing, and especially before the Giotto, and call for 
your counsel and help." 

1 It passed into the possession of the well-known historian Dummler. 



28O LIFE OF CHRISTIAN DANIEL RAUCH 

The king rewarded Ranch's loyal affection with every 
mark of confidence and honor. Ranch notes in his diary 
of May 31, 1842 : " Morning, six o'clock. To my great sur- 
prise, and without the least suspicion, I received through 
the general-order commission the insignia and the order 
of the statute of peace, l pour le nitrite] from his majesty 
the king." In the Jasper Hall, at Sans-Souci, nineteen 
knights of the order were on that day, for the first time, 
received and regaled by the king, who, in honor of the 
hundred and second anniversary of the death of the great 
king, had established this order of peace for science and 
art. For native knights he had elected : Cornelius, Les- 
sing, Mendelssohn, Bartholdy, Meyerbeer, Rauch, Schadow, 
Schnorr von Karolsfeld, and Schwanthaler. Rauch was 
present at the banquet, and Dr. Eggers says, " He was 
distinguished in this circle, not only as the first sculptor 
in all Germany, but for his own statuesque beauty of per- 
son and his courtly grace of manner." He felt, indeed, 
the claims which society now made upon him as a severe 
tax on his time and strength, and he asks Rietschel 
whether it had been as bad in Dresden this winter as in 
Berlin, and he says, " It is hastening my end, and is phys- 
ically and morally destructive to the rest of my life, which 
is fast growing old" He notes in his diary the names 
of many titled visitors to his atelier, sometimes with an 
affectionate word of comment ; but dearest of all to him 
are the visits of artists, among which that of the Nestor 
of sculpture, Thorwaldsen, is especially welcome. 

In his diary he gives an account of the festivities of his 
seventieth birthday, January i, 1847. After giving a full 
account of the music, speeches, etc., he wrote, " This was 
the most beautiful day of my life ; " and adds, to com- 
plete his felicity he had the hope of his daughter's family 
being reunited to him in Berlin. We have seen how sad 
was the fulfilment of this hope. 

On his eightieth birthday the king received him with a 



POLITICAL CHANGES 28l 

hearty embrace at Potsdam, as the only guest at the mid- 
day meal of the royal pair, his majesty drinking his health, 
and giving him the highest class-ribbon and order of the 
red eagle. 

It may be pleasant to know that the dinner-cards for 
the birthday feast were etched by Menzel. In the fore- 
ground were a number of Victories in a row, dancing with 
Blucher, Diirer, and the Polish princes ; in the middle 
ground were the old Fritz with Seidlitz and Zieten, while 
the Queen Louise in the background floated down from 
the monument on the Kreuzberg. 

Another joy was added to the family life. This was the 
marriage of his first grandchild, Eugenie d' Alton, to Felix 
Schadow, the youngest son of his old friend Gottfried 
Schadow, an excellent historical painter. Rauch wished 
the ceremony to be performed in the Lagerhaus, on the 
same spot where twenty-two years before Schleiermacher 
had held her at the baptismal font. The marriage was 
happy but short-lived, for the bridegroom survived his 
father-in-law only a few years. The birth of a great- 
grandson increased his joy, a Gottfried Schadow, who, 
at eleven months, was already, delighted with the Christ- 
mas-tree and what hung upon it ! 

Travelling had always been one of Ranch's great pleas- 
ures. His habits of quick and careful observation, and 
his deep interest both in the world of nature and in all 
that concerns the life of man, were constant sources of 
novelty and entertainment. Although an ardent patriot, 
he was cosmopolitan in his tastes and feelings, and could 
enjoy a good thing wherever he found it. In the summer, 
Ranch's desire to visit Copenhagen was quickened by the 
offer of delightful companionship ; for the general director 
of the museum, Von Olfers, and his young friend Strack, 
wished to visit Copenhagen and the Thorwaldsen Museum. 
He could no longer see his dear old friend, for a year had 
passed since he had written sadly of the death of Thor- 



282 LIFE OF CHRISTIAN DANIEL RAUCH 

waldsen ; but he recalls the fourteen years which he had 
passed under the same roof with him, and he writes, 
"Thorwaldsen's vicinity, his activity, his teaching, formed 
the basis of my later culture ; and through this I have to 
thank him for the success of my life." 

The thought of Thorwaldsen's death may have urged 
him to delay no longer the fulfilment of his plan to see his 
friend Lund once more, and to make a closer acquaintance 
with Copenhagen, which he considered one of the impor- 
tant art-stations. They arrived in Copenhagen August 2, 
and took Lund by surprise. Under his intelligent guid- 
ance the travellers saw all that was interesting in art and 
archaeology in the city, and among other things one of 
the earliest of Rauch's busts, modelled when he was in 
Naples. 

His deepest emotions were called forth by seeing the 
works of his friend brought together in the Thorwaldsen 
Museum. At the reception given at the royal court to the 
distinguished guests, Rauch learned to know the splendid 
young poet Andersen, who presented to him, on the fol- 
lowing day, his biography of Thorwaldsen. This was the 
last time that he ever saw his friend Lund. He left him 
happy in doing good work, and in the most affectionate 
family relations ; and their correspondence lasted ten years 
longer. 

In 1846 Rauch went only to Halle, but in 1847 ne went 
on a journey of technical interest. He had long had 
an earnest desire to find in his native country marble 
that would be suitable for sculpture. Prince Albert of 
Prussia, the owner of Castle Camenz and larger territories 
in the earlship of Glatz, had communicated with him in 
May, 1844, in regard to his efforts to make the marble 
found in the Seitenberger Valley profitable. Rauch gave 
him advice as to plans for quarrying it, and in 1847 he 
decided on a visit to Dresden, to extend his journey and 
examine the spot for himself. He was warmly received, 



POLITICAL CHANGES 283 

and saw the quarries. He found one vein of marble of a 
fine crystallization, equal to the best Greek ; but it was 
only in thin sheets, two to three feet broad, and two to 
three inches thick. He hoped, however, that on going 
deeper it might be found in larger blocks, and he thought 
that it would be very suitable for the restoration of the 
antiques. 

Rauch did not lose his interest in the mechanical prog- 
ress of his art, and he continued his work in the academy. 
As a teacher for many years he was punctual at the hour, 
in order to pose the model. Even in the year of his death 
this activity continued ; he notes in his diary, July 27, 
"The model placed in the Art Saal. Great heat." 
Schadow notes how for a month Rauch worked on a 
model in presence of his scholars, and he says, " It were 
much to be wished that all professors and teachers would 
work thus, since nothing is better for pupils than to 
watch the work of the master." 

For academic instruction Rauch laid all the stress on 
the elements, on the instruction in technique, as we have 
seen in his treatment of Albert Wolff, and he wished all 
other academic studies to be kept only for Sunday en- 
joyment. He always gave his vote in this direction 
when questions of academic reform came up in the coun- 
cil. In 1838 he was a member of three unions for secur- 
ing the rights of property in works of art, and preventing 
unauthorized copying. 

With the ascent of the throne by Friedrich Wilhelm IV. 
the plans for completing the cathedral of Cologne began. 
The Dombau Vcrein was formed, of which the king was 
patron ; and a committee was appointed, of which Rauch, 
Beuth, Stiiler, Von Olfers, Krausnick, and the two 
preachers Ehrenberg and Strauss were chosen members. 
The king's speech at the laying of the corner-stone of the 
south portal in 1842 met the liveliest response from the 
whole German people, who united in the popular refrain : 



284 LIFE OF CHRISTIAN DANIEL RAUCH 

" Was will des Teufels Witz und Spott ? 
Es kehret schon der rechte Gott 

Auch bei den Deutschen ein; 
Nur frisch, Gesellen, frisch zur Hand ! 
Macht Platz fur's ganze Vaterland 
Im Dom zu Koln am Rhein." 

The six hundredth jubilee of the cathedral gave occa- 
sion to fresh expression of the longing for German unity. 
Rauch and Von Olfers went as delegates to the Cologne 
Festival, which lasted two days. 

He was tempted to go on to Belgium, and enjoyed its 
many works of art, especially with Verboeckhoven, who 
accompanied him. He was very much interested in the 
great feast at the unveiling of Simon's equestrian statue 
of Godfrey de Bouillon, the first great work of the artist, 
good in its totality, but less so in plastic correctness. He 
rejoices with the happy Brusselers over the promise in it. 

In company with Gallait, the painter of " The Last Mo- 
ments of Egmont," he visited the exhibition, where he found 
all the richness of the Belgian, Dutch, French, and German 
schools, of which he " never saw a finer, more character- 
istic collection." He admires the boldness of the sculp- 
ture, and the freedom and beauty of costume, to which, 
he says, "the neighborhood of Paris may have con- 
tributed." 

By Mechlin, Ghent, and Bruges, he went to the sea at 
Ostend, and then back to Bruges, in the company of his 
old friend Prince Peter of Ahremberg. He saw all the 
works of the Van Eycks and Memling, in which he found 
no end of enjoyment. At last he reached Antwerp, and 
had the fulfilment of his life-long wish, as in the earliest 
morning he saw "the greatest, most beautiful master- 
piece of Rubens, the ' Taking Down from the Cross,' " and 
once more by evening light, at the song of the vespers. 
Writing to Rietschel, he says he is like a dry plant re- 
freshed with the dew, and he longs to go again to Ant- 
werp in the company of this dear friend. 



POLITICAL CHANGES 285 

But one longing still remained unsatisfied. The Elgin 
marbles had roused his soul's desire thirty years ago, and 
the more he studied the casts, the more earnest he was to 
see the originals, for he had important questions to ask 
them. 

As far back as 1838 he had bought an English gram- 
mar, to learn enough of this tongue for the cooks and the 
coachmen ; and, as the grammar alone was not sufficient, he 
notes, January 31, 1838, " Received the first. lesson in Eng- 
lish from Professor Buckhardt." But it was not until the 
year 1850, when he was seventy-three years old, that he 
was at last able to take what we may well call his " student 
journey." As soon as he reached London, where he was 
warmly welcomed by his friend Bunsen and others, he 
hastened to see the great masterpieces of Greek art, the 
Elgin marbles. 

He writes in his diary only : " Towards evening, in the 
company of Bunsen and Dr. Meyer, the private physician 
to his highness Prince Albert, I visited the first wonder- 
works of antique sculpture at the British Museum, the 
Elgin marbles, taking but flying notice of the other art 
treasures." His friends seem to have done their duty 
most thoroughly in showing him all the sights of London, 
including also visits to Oxford and the Isle of Wight, 
where he saw Prince Albert, Queen Victoria, and Bar- 
clay's brewery. He speaks of many artists, and specially 
of Chantrey and Westmacott. It is impossible to recount 
all the interesting places he visited, and the works of art 
he mentions ; but he was most deeply stirred when he 
stood with the Duke of Wellington before the marble 
statue of Napoleon, which he had seen Canova model in 
clay when Bonaparte was at the height of his glory. He 
saw it executed in marble and sent to Paris, and now he 
found it at the foot of the staircase of his great conqueror, 
shown as a trophy, and surrounded by his own busts 
of Friedrich Wilhelm III., the Emperors Alexander and 
Nicholas, and Prince Blucher. 



286 LIFE OF CHRISTIAN DANIEL RAUCH 

In the harbor of Portsmouth he saw the ship Victory 
on which Nelson met his death-wound. The British 
Museum was his constant study, and he consecrated his 
last as his first day to the Elgin marbles. 

The son of Chevalier Bunsen, Herr George von Bunsen 
of Berlin, has most kindly written for me an account of 
two very interesting incidents of this memorable visit, 
which make us feel almost as if we stood in the sculp- 
tor's presence. He says, "In 1851 Rauch was invited 
by my father, with Francis Lieber and many another 
friend of his younger days, to spend some time at the 
Prussian Legation in London during the first great exhi- 
bition. I had the honor of being appointed his cicerone. 
Insolently critical, according to the fashion of that age, I 
presumed to speak disrespectfully of many a work of art 
among the monuments in Westminster Abbey. Contrary 
to his habit, for Rauch was a ready converser, he remained 
absolutely silent, except to draw my attention to some 
finely carved arm or telling attitude. Before we quitted the 
Abbey, however, he expatiated to me on the life of bond- 
age peculiar to artists. ' Two-thirds of all an artist thinks 
and executes,' such was, I think, the substance of what he 
said, ' is prescribed by the age he lives in. We may ask the 
question, What has he added of his own ? We may admire 
the subtle diversities which raise him above his age.' 

" During that same visit to London he was one day 
taken by me to the medal room of the British Museum. 
I well remember the eagerness with which Mr. Vaux and 
his colleagues complied with my request that Rauch 
should be shown not necessarily the rarest, but the most 
beautiful specimens of Greek coins. He looked at each 
lovingly. He praised with eloquence. Then of a sudden 
he became silent, and I could observe tears running down 
his cheeks. * It was not until he was outside that wonder- 
ful museum that Rauch opened his mouth. 'You must 
have wondered,' he said meekly. ' But all my life have 



POLITICAL CHANGES 28/ 

I hoped against hope that the boon might be bestowed on 
me of seeing a great work of Greek art in the state in 
which the artist left it. This day the blessing was con- 
ferred. It was too much for me.' ' 

Herr von Bunsen thinks it may be needful to remind 
us of the more emotional nature of the German to ex- 
plain these tears ; but if I have been successful in making 
my readers feel the sensibility to the sacredness of art 
that distinguished Rauch, and at the same time his strong 
desire for completeness and perfection in all its works, 
I think they will sympathize with the old artist, who 
was at last brought face to face with the dream of his 
youth. 

He returned home with only a brief stay at Bonn, and 
with his family at Halle. 

Under a picture of his atelier drawn by Ludwig Pietsch 
he wrote, " Meine Werkstatt, meine Heimath" He was 
yet to send forth from it the crowning works of his life. 



288 



CHAPTER XV 

LAST JOURNEYS AND LAST WORKS 
I8S3-I857 

AFTER the finishing of the monument to Frederic the 
Great, only a few works remained in commission, such as 
the statues of York and Gneisenau, the group of Moses 
in prayer, and the projected Thaer monument for Berlin. 
This comparative leisure awakened a desire for travelling, 
and on the fourth of August, 1853, in company with his 
daughter Doris, his granddaughter Marie, and a servant, 
Rauch started for a journey to the Rhine and Switzer- 
land. 

He is full of delight at everything ; the finished cathe- 
dral at Freiburg, the noble one at Basel, and the fine 
pictures of Holbein. He enjoys all the works of art, 
and the meeting with old friends, as keenly as he does 
the beautiful scenery of Switzerland. He writes to Riet- 
schel that the three subjects of art which through their 
magnificence have most filled and blessed his journey, are 
the Lion at Lucerne, many cartoons of Veit at Carlsruhe, 
and the eight study-heads of the apostles, by Leonardo, 
at Weimar, as living and impressive as the Vindication of 
Huss, by Lessing, at Frankfort. Every step on this jour- 
ney appears to have offered either new objects of interest, 
or sweet reminiscences of the time when he saw these 
places in the company of dear friends forty-nine years 
before. The following year brought a yet more delight- 
ful journey. By the marriage of his granddaughter 
Eugenie with Felix Schadow, the son of his old master and 



LAST JOURNEYS AND LAST WORKS 289 

friend, the union of the families of the two greatest Ger- 
man sculptors was happily completed, and Rauch decided 
in the evening of his artistic life to go again to Rome 
with his young friends in their morning of joy. He 
began the journey May i, going by Leipzig, Bamberg, 
and Nuremberg, to Spliigen and the Italian lakes. On 
the ninth of May they reached Milan. Here, on a rainy 
day, he saw the beautiful cathedral, which made even more 
impression on him than ever before ; and he was also 
deeply interested in the cartoon of Raphael's school of 
Athens. At Genoa he admires the beauty of the city by 
sea and land, and then he goes through a wonderfully 
rich valley to his old work-place at Carrara, which he 
found greatly changed but full of life and business. 
Here he spent four days in visiting the workshops. He 
saw and admired the work of many modern sculptors, as 
Tenerani, Franco Franchia and his son Giacomin. An 
interesting day was spent at Siena, and at last, on the 
twenty-seventh of May, the travellers arrived at Rome, and 
took up their quarters at the Grand Hotel d'Ame'rique in 
Strada Babuino. The next day very early came many 
visits to friends. He went through the rain to the Secre- 
tary Von Arnim's and other places, and dined at Wolff's 
with the sculptor Wittig from Dresden. " In the after- 
noon to St. Peter's through the sacristy. Vespers in the 
Chapel of the Canons. Rained all day." 

Another day Tenerani was his guide. We are specially 
interested in his visit to the studio of Crawford. He is 
severe on the equestrian model of Washington, which he 
calls "frivolous, without form, without truth," but likes his 
reclining children " much better." He mentions also four 
clay models for an allegorical group for Boston. May 31, 
among other places, he visits the studio of the English 
sculptor Gibson. He names some of his works, especially 
a beautiful Venus in marble polychromatic, but does not 
give his opinion of the use of color. He dtids to this 



LIFE OF CHRISTIAN DANIEL RAUCH 

account of the English master, " Works of the American 
Miss Hosmer, twenty-two years old, a prodigy for sculp- 
ture, very fine heads and sketches for a Magdalene." 
Many visits to sculptors and to painters (including Corne- 
lius and Overbeck) are noted, and then a visit to the 
Quirinal, lately put in order by Pius IX., and decorated 
with the Italian colors, red, green, and white. After all 
these visits the old man went through the Columbaria, the 
circus of Maxentius, and to the monument of Cecelia 
Metella. On June n, after he had spent the morning 
in the usual manner in visiting studios, he attended a 
feast made in his honor by the artists at the Villa Free- 
born, the home of the English consul, opposite Ponte 
Molle. English, Belgians, Americans, Dutch, and Italians 
were all present. He returned home at eight o'clock. 

But what gave him most delight was to compare the 
present with the past half a century before, and to recog- 
nize the great progress that had been made. " To see 
this again in its whole circle, and to enjoy the new with 
it, surpassed in exciting reality even the most ideal pic- 
tures which twenty-five years of longing had painted, and 
it cannot be told in words." He gladly recognized the 
improvement in the city. " Rome is more cheerful, re- 
newed by cleaner streets and squares." He notes the 
improvements at every step of the way, and speaks of 
the delightful afternoon passed with his friend coming 
across the Campagna back to Rome. " What never-im- 
agined precious moments inspired my grateful heart and 
soul with the feelings of the present, and the memories of 
the earlier time. I dwelt in the same room of the Casa 
Buti as fifty years ago, heard the rush of the fountain of 
Trevi. Even the same chimneys smoked as then ; but 
Signora Laura looked no more out of the Zoega window." 
But all joys must end. On the sixteenth of June a rich 
company of artists accompanied the departing guest out 
of Porta del Popolo. The diary briefly notes the summer 



LAST JOURNEYS AND LAST WORKS 29! 

beauty, the oak woods of Nepi and Narni, the cypress 
wood behind Foligno, and, oh, anti-climax ! the sorrows 
of the hot season, " Fleas, fleas, and everywhere fleas ! " 
Of his three-days' residence in Florence I note his few 
words of our own Powers : " A pretty statue of a woman, 
Washington, modern, a dreary work in marble ; very inter- 
esting in the mechanism, key and spatula of gutta-percha." 
Of Dupre he says only, " A model bust in clay, in French 
allongt periwig, handled with much taste." 

Fortunately we have in Dupre's own memoirs an ac- 
count of this visit, which gives us a vivid sketch of our 
hero : 

" One morning a gentleman came to my studio, who said 
he wished to see me. He was tall of person, dignified 
and benevolent of aspect ; his eyes were blue, and over 
his handsome forehead his white hair was parted and 
carried behind the ear in two masses, which fell over the 
collar of his coat. He extended his hand to me, and 
said, 

" ' For some time I have heard you much spoken of ; 
but as fame is frequently mendacious, in coming to Flor- 
ence I wished, first of all, to verify by an examination of 
your works the truth of all I have heard of you ; and as I 
find them not inferior to your high reputation, I wish 
to have the pleasure of shaking your hand,' and he then 
took both my hands in his. 

" ' You are an artist ? ' I asked. 

" ' Yes,' he replied ; ' a sculptor.' 

" I wondered who he could be. He spoke Italian admi- 
rably, but with a slight foreign accent. ' Excuse me, are 
you living in Rome ? ' 

" ' Oh, no,' he answered ; ' I lived there thirty years ago, 
but now for some time I have been in Berlin. I am 
Rauch.' 

" I bowed to him, and he embraced me and kissed me, 
and accompanying me into my private room, we sat down. 



2Q2 LIFE OF CHRISTIAN DANIEL RAUCH 

I shall never forget his quiet conversation, which was 
calm and full of benevolence. While he was speaking I 
went over in my memory the beautiful works of this great 
German artist, his fine monument to Frederic the Great, 
his remarkable statue of Victory, and many others. I 
recalled the sharp passages between him and Bartolini, 
and, without knowing why, I could not help contrasting 
his gentleness with the caustic vivacity of our master. 
Their disagreements have long been over : the peace of 
the tomb has united them ; and now the busts of both 
stand opposite to each other in the drawing-room of my 
villa of Lampeggi." Dupre then gives at length their dis- 
cussion in regard to the proposed removal of the David 
of Michael Angelo to the Loggia. Rauch used his influ- 
ence with the grand duke so effectually that he sent for 
Dupre, and said to him : " Rauch is entirely of your opinion 
in regard to the David, and he is a man who, on such a 
ground, deserves entire confidence ; and I wish to say this 
to you, because it ought to give you pleasure, and because 
it proves that you were right." 

Rauch wrote from Berlin expressing his pleasure at 
this decision, and urging the arrangement of a proper 
place for the group of Ajax and Patroclus, '"to receive 
worthily this work of sculpture, divinely composed, and 
executed by Greek hands." 

Rauch continued his way to Bologna, Mantua, Verona, 
Triest, and Innspruck to Munich, which he reached on 
July 4. He had not seen Munich for twenty years, and he 
visited all the monuments with the zeal of a young man. 
Many were quite new to him. A friend writes from 
Munich : " How have we rejoiced in his blooming health 
and youthful, glowing soul ! " He was greatly interested 
in visiting the foundry established by himself, where 
among other works he found Crawford's statues of Henry 
and Jefferson. The same day he visited Herr von Klenze 
in the glass-house, saw the front of the Propylean by 



LAST JOURNEYS AND LAST WORKS 293 

Schwanthaler, went to Schwanthaler's atelier, of which 
he notes only " much indifferent," and then went to see 
the Bavaria. 

The next day Frau von Kaulbach, whose husband was 
then in Berlin, invited him to a feast, at which many 
artists were present, and the evening was closed at the 
artists' beer-house in a select circle of artists and their 
companions. 

From Munich he went by Bamberg and Wiirzburg and 
Halle towards Berlin, " which I entered about eleven 
o'clock, and all, glad and well, welcomed me." He writes to 
Rietschel : " A thousand times I thought of you on my truly 
refreshing, beautiful journey. I have enjoyed two spring 
months, May and June, as I never enjoyed these spring- 
days in my life ; and were a repetition of such enjoyment 
with you, dearest friend, possible, I would willingly give 
a good bit of the remains of my life to make it actual. 
Felix was my loving, splendid companion, and we enjoyed 
each other immensely ; but with a good sculptor friend 
one enjoys one's self on common ground differently." 
Thus successful and happy was this last journey of the 
silver-haired man to the land of his youthful dreams: it 
shows the perennial youth of his soul, that he found it 
richer and dearer than ever before. 

Yet a few more works remain to be briefly noted. 
Even as early as 1831 it was suggested that statues of 
two other generals should be placed on either side of the 
Bliicher monument, and in 1842 Rauch writes in his diary : 
"The king again recalls the sketches of the statues for 
the two sides of the proud Bliicher ; one of the always 
forward General Gneisenau on the right, and the other 
of the always morose, opposing, but yet boldly acting, 
General York on the left." Rauch did not finally begin 
the statues until 1844. Both were ready in 1845. Ranch 
had designed them smaller than Blucher, but the king 
thought it more fitting that they should be of the same 



294 LIFE OF CHRISTIAN DANIEL RAUCH 

size. In April, 1855, after a delay of six years, the king 
ordered them to be carried out. Various changes were 
made in the representation, but the differing character of 
the two men was preserved. In 1852 preparations were 
begun for the bass-reliefs of the pedestals. It was finally 
decided to make them of plain granite, the reverse side 
showing the arms of the heroes, while Victories with 
writing-tablets were to be placed on the front. 

These monuments were given to the city of Berlin in 
a festive ceremony, with a brilliant show of military. 

In the summer of 1853 Rauch received from Professor 
Hagen in Konigsberg a commission for a statue of Kant 
eight feet high, and requests for an estimate of the cost. 
The place designated for the statue was the so-called 
Philosophendamm, on which Kant was accustomed to 
take his daily walk. The great model was begun in March, 
1855, and Rauch again experienced the old difficulties 
about costume. He complains to Rietschel of the natu- 
ralistic ideas of costume which have come into the 
life of art. There was also a change in the location, 
as the telegraph poles would interfere with it on the 
proposed walk, and it would also be dangerously exposed 
in war. 

Rauch expressed himself well satisfied with Gladenbeck's 
cast, but did not live to see the completion of the work. 
It was not unveiled until 1862, after the consecration of 
the new university building at Konigsberg. Its final place 
was near the northwest corner of the palace, in the square 
since then named Kant Place, a few steps from Kant's 
former dwelling-place in Prinzenstrasse. 

The last work of portrait sculpture, at the very close 
of his career, is a noble statue of Thaer for Berlin. Far 
back in the twenties, when Rauch had first achieved the 
degree of mastership with his military statues, and was, in 
consequence, besieged by commissions on all sides, he 
wrote to Caroline von Humboldt, then in London (June 



LAST JOURNEYS AND LAST WORKS 295 

28, 1828), that he had been asked in reference to a pub- 
lic monument to the States-councillor Thaer, then living, 
which should be erected in Berlin, and should consist of 
his statue and many bass-reliefs. It is considered one of 
his grandest conceptions. Alexander von Humboldt writes 
of it in his enthusiastic style, " that he had no idea that such 
naturalism could so bring the worth of the man and his 
employment into harmony with the demands of art ; " and 
he adds in his glowing panegyric : " A quarto volume might 
be written over the possibility that it was given to one 
spirit to create the Victories, the Sleeping Queen, Fred- 
eric the Great, Moses, Kant, and Thaer. Vous nous expli- 
querez tout ce la, Mr. Schadow, Mr. Kugler, Mr. Giorgio 
Vasari ! " This confusion of tongues seems to be neces- 
sary to the cosmopolitan Humboldt to express his feelings. 

While we cannot withhold our tribute of admiration to 
the long series of Rauch's military portrait statues, on 
which he labored with a heart full of patriotic devotion, 
and which have undoubtedly contributed much to that 
growth of national feeling which has been the new life of 
his country, we may yet rejoice that his very last works 
were in that province of ideal and religious art which he 
most deeply loved. He had already made beautiful ex- 
pressions of his religious feeling in the statues for Arolsen, 
and he had said that " the future of German sculpture 
would lie on the religious ground, and that Rietschel 
would be its pioneer." This was said after the comple- 
tion of Rietschel's Pieta, and Rauch was already busy 
with his group of Moses. 

Rauch had also received a commission from Sulpice 
Boisseree for a funeral monument with a head of Christ on 
it. But as Boisseree had suggested the Christ of Memling 
as a model, Dr. Eggers thinks that Rauch was somewhat 
fettered by the old German manner, and that this Christ 
is not so satisfactory as that on the monument of Niebuhr. 

Rauch's best-known and greatest work in religious art 



296 LIKE OF CHRISTIAN DANIEL RAUCH 

is the group of Moses and his friends, in Potsdam. Fortu- 
nately this is placed in the vestibule of the Friedens- 
kirche, and is easily accessible to strangers. The group 
illustrates the well-known passage which tells that while 
Moses held up his hands in prayer, the battle went in 
favor of Israel, but, when they sank from weariness, 
Amalek prevailed. Therefore Aaron and Hur held up 
his hands on either side, until the victory was won. 
Moses has the typical emblems of the two bundles of rays 
about his head, and the veil falling back, and he holds in 
the left hand the rod which the Lord had commanded 
him to take. The costume is biblical, a lower skirt with 
talus-like overdress with short sleeves. Aaron kneeling 
at the left of Moses, and looking up at him, has a mantle 
thrown over his dress, and supports Moses' left arm with 
his own right. Besides the mantle, Hur wears a leathern 
collar, or breast protector, and, while looking down at the 
battle, he supports Moses' right arm with both his hands. 

Rauch found great difficulties in the treatment of this 
subject, and it has been subjected to many and various 
criticisms more severe than any of the works of his youth 
encountered. It may be questioned whether the subject 
is fitted for historic representation in sculpture, as the 
battle, the cause of the action, does not appear. Others 
have considered it purely as a symbolic expression of the 
power of prayer, or an allegoric treatment of the thought 
that the army and church are the support of the state. 
He himself calls it his " swan-song," and says it "goes out 
in sighs." He tells of the long, weary winter nights when 
he lay sleepless from two o'clock, and thought over this 
work, and closes, " Aelter werden, und schaffend arbeiten, 
gcht nicht." 

In spite of all the criticisms, Eggers finds " in this 
statue wonderful life and harmony in the movement, in 
the drapery, and in the contrasting expressions of Hur 
and Aaron ; everywhere the repose of beauty and sculp- 
ture." 



LAST JOURNEYS AND LAST WORKS 297 

It is certainly an earnest and noble expression of that 
mingling of patriotic and religious feeling which makes 
the peculiar power of Hebrew history, and which Rauch 
was so well fitted to understand and express. 

While Rauch was engaged on this great work, he 
turned again to the early conception of the child, the 
Hope, which in 1848 he had modelled for the church of 
his native city. This was carefully executed as a nude 
figure, and then draped and winged for the final work in 
marble. At the end of the year 1854 Rauch allowed 
Medem, a pupil of Rietschel, who had lately come to his 
atelier, to begin a model in clay of this nude figure. The 
action was a little changed, and the hand held a lotus bud. 
A toga-like dress w#s laid on, and Ranch worked with his 
own hand on the clay model. The lotus flower was full 
of meaning to Rauch. The bud was the essential thing 
with him. " What miracles," he said, " are there not 
within the closed flower-cup ! " It was the emblem of 
hope. 

This was recreative work to him. The whole fashioning 
of the charming child, the significance of the action, and, 
above all, the soulful, confident expression of the coun- 
tenance, make this one of the most beautiful forms which 
this master has left us. 

Rauch had destined the Hope for the grave in the 
churchyard at Potsdam of his brother Friedrich, whose 
death almost sixty years before had opened the way 
which, seeming to lead him at first away from art, had 
brought him later to its highest summit. But before 
the model was put in permanent material, and the sixty 
years were fulfilled, the master himself was committed to 
earth, and the Hope cast in bronze now crowns the tomb 
of brown-red granite which marks his resting-place in the 
Dorothy city churchyard in Berlin. 

The last work which Rauch finished, four months before 
his death, and after which no new work is mentioned in 



298 LIFE OF CHRISTIAN DANIEL RAUCH 

his diary, is the eagle, in high relief, destined for the 
ornament of the government building in Sigmaringen. 
It resembles the eagle with the lightnings and the wide- 
open wings, but this one, folding the wings more to rest, 
sits on two laurel twigs that close behind him in a wreath. 
" So fate has willed that the master of the plastic art of 
his time has stamped the last work of his creative hand 
with a symbol of his mortal pilgrimage, the eagle rests 
on the conquered laurel." 



THE CLOSE OF LIFE 299 



CHAPTER XVI 

THE CLOSE OF LIFE 
1857 

ALTHOUGH Rauch in the later years often refers to 
feeling old and weary, he really retained his vigor wonder- 
fully, and in his last years his health was better than it 
had been at an earlier period when he suffered from head- 
ache and sciatica. 

"As he remained young, so also was he still beautiful. 
Nothing could be more impressive and venerable, and at 
the same time more truly friendly, than his bodily pres- 
ence. His healthy countenance, his clear blue eyes, full 
of earnestness, goodness, and majesty, his silver hair flow- 
ing about his head, reminded one of Olympian Jove." 
Even to the last he was constantly to be seen in his ate- 
lier, clad in his dark clay-colored loose coat and fine white 
cravat. Somebody called him a "wandering work of art." 
He would listen to no urgency of friends to lessen his 
work when symptoms of old trouble reappeared. Work 
seemed to him the indispensable companion of his daily 
existence, his comforter, friend, and teacher ; how could 
it hurt him ? He attributed his strength to the fact that 
his daily work called out so much physical force. He 
used no bodily exercises, neither danced, rode, nor prac- 
tised gymnastics, and rarely took a walk. These things 
seemed to him idleness. He never sat at his work, so 
that in his old age his feet were sore from standing. The 
only refreshment taken during his hours of labor was a 
glass of water, which Mitsching, the servant of the atelier, 
would often hand him, saying, " Quite fresh, Herr Pro- 



3<DO LIFE OF CHRISTIAN DANIEL RAUCH 

fessor." When he was much hurried in the atelier, and 
came to dinner quite exhausted, he took a half glass of 
wine. He would smell of it, and say, " Divine and refresh- 
ing," and later drink it, and feel his spirits revive. 

From the royal table he would go at once to the atelier, 
take his working-garment from the servant, and give him 
his court-suit. " Work was his life ; he prized nothing 
but beauty more highly." 

His constant interchange of thought and feeling with 
his friends kept his spirits always fresh, and he had the 
rare power of gathering the results of others' investiga- 
tions and making them his own. His conversation was 
lively and attractive, and, although not a learned man, he 
stood at the height of the culture of his time. In his 
diary he once wrote, " Humboldt said of Welcher, ' He 
writes too much and too diffusely ; one sees that he does 
not think until he writes,' which frightened me very much, 
since I often find myself in the same case with my work." 

He always wished to give the last touches even to 
copies of his work, and objected to bronze, because he 
had to leave the finishing to another. In 1855 he went 
to Karlsbad with his daughter, and after the treatment, 
to Dresden to visit his granddaughter, Marie d'Alton, 
and to see Rietschel and Bendemann. Accompanied by 
these and other artists he visited the new museum, all 
parts of which the king ordered to be opened to him, and 
where he was delighted to see the old works in their new 
position. The young artists gave him a brilliant recep- 
tion. He saw the model of Rietschel's group of Schiller 
and Goethe, and the frescos of Bendemann in the dan- 
cing-hall of the royal palace. 

He was very much interested in building a summer 
residence at Charlottenburg, and had the happiness of 
passing Whitsuntide therewith his family. -His love of 
nature was still a continual source of pleasure. He notes 
all the aspects of the weather, and the earth and sky, and 



THE CLOSE OF LIFE 30 1 

rejoices at waking at three o'clock in the morning to see 
Venus in her beauty very near to the earth. He delights 
in animals, and yet more in the human form, and says of 
Madame Schroder-Devrient as Romeo, " What a wonder 
of genuine artistic representation combined with truth 
and grace ! " 

Through the union by marriage of his family and 
Schadow's, it came about that he kept his birthday in 
1853 in his old master's dwelling-house, in which festival 
the Bendemann family joined. 

Ranch kept his eightieth anniversary quietly with his 
beloved daughter Agnes, and in the evening had a great 
feast with his pupils and workmen. Rietschel came to 
the feast, and modelled his friend's bust. His diary, faith- 
fully kept, gives us brief notes of his last year of life. It 
contains affectionate mention of his old friends Humboldt 
and Rietschel; speaks of social enjoyments and kind atten- 
tions from the king, and of short excursions for health 
and pleasure. On the fourteenth of October his diary 
closes. A few letters followed of a later date. By the 
advice of physicians Rauch decided to submit to an opera- 
tion. He went to the Hotel de Rome in Dresden for this 
purpose, and Agnes d' Alton and her daughter followed him 
thither. The anxious friends waited a week for further 
intelligence. An acute attack threatened his life, but it 
passed off without fatal results, and the operation was 
delayed. His physicians objecting to a hotel, he was re- 
moved to a private dwelling. f Here he revived so much as 
to be able to take short walks in the garden with his grand- 
daughter. Every day he wished to hear from his atelier in 
Berlin, and he gave orders about the Moses group. Dr. 
Carus gave them hope that his strong constitution would 
yet triumph over disease. His careful daughter Doris was 
earnest to have him return home, but she was invited to 
Dresden to see for herself that it was better for him to 
remain where he was. Before she arrived an attack of 



3O2 LIFE OF CHRISTIAN DANIEL RAUCH 

Bright's disease reduced him very much. It was very 
hard for him to keep patient in his inactive state. In the 
sleepless nights he missed the clock of the parish church, 
which he was wont to hear from the Lagerhaus, and a 
striking clock was procured for him. In the morning he 
liked to watch the kindling of the light in a baker's shop 
opposite, showing that the active day was beginning. It 
was hard to yield day by day, to rise later, and go from 
bed to couch only, and even to sleep in the daytime. 
There was a lessening of the fever and slight improve- 
ment when Doris came ; but the attacks soon returned, 
the brain was affected, and illusions spread over the clear 
consciousness. These clung around the block for the 
Moses. He directed its raising and moving, when he 
meant his own body weighted with pain. The physicians 
had no longer hope. Felix Schadow came on the twenty- 
fifth of November, but did not feel sure that Rauch 
recognized him. 

A moment of returning consciousness reawakened hope, 
and Rauch said, " I must try my strength ; " but it soon 
passed away. The next day fatal symptoms appeared ; 
but, supported by Felix Schadow, he was able to speak 
with clear sense. Almost the last words which he spoke 
were, "O my Saviour, must I then die here?" Then 
his senses darkened. The third of December, 1857, a de- 
spatch was sent : " This morning toward seven o'clock 
softly slumbered. The last forty-eight hours without pain 
or clear consciousness." 

His earthly course was ended. In the Lagerhaus, 
which had been so long his true home, where he lived the 
life of work that he loved, his friends and fellow-workers 
silently awaited his lifeless remains, the statue-like image 
of the soul ; and here most fitly were the funeral rites cel- 
ebrated. Not the funereal hangings, but the unfinished 
works around, spoke most eloquently of what was to be 
no more. 



THE CLOSE OF LIFE 303 

His coffin was surrounded by all classes of men, from 
the Prince of Prussia, the royal household, the ministers, 
the members of the Royal Academy of Art, the associates 
of the university, the artists, the city magistrates, and the 
troop of pupils and friends, among whom might be seen 
the bowed form of Alexander von Humboldt, coming to 
take leave of his friend. 

After the service of the church, the preacher, Doctor 
Jonas, unrolled the picture of his life and work, and Men- 
delssohn's song of "Sckeiden und Wiedersehen " was sung, 
and the procession moved over the Konigsstrasse and 
the Schlossplatz, and then took the same way that we saw 
Rauch tread in the height of his glory to the great monu- 
ment of Frederic. Loving hands had covered his statues 
with wreaths, and the Prince and Princess of Prussia 
waited at their residence, as before, to greet the master. 
But now the train moved on to the place of peace, where 
his old beloved teacher Schadow and so many friends 
rested, the church-yard before the Oranienburgh gate. 

" But before the laurels and palms thrown by reverent 
hands mingled with the earth, Lieutenant-General von 
Weber, the old gray warrior, after giving the military 
benediction, 1 prayed for the fatherland, that it may have 
men and heroes worthy to be immortalized in stone 
and bronze, and artists who may know how to do it as 
Rauch has done. So the heroes live through him, and so 
lives Rauch." 

In the spring of the following year the academy held a 
solemn memorial feast on the twentieth of March. It be- 
gan at midday, daylight being excluded, and a clear candle- 
light shining on the brilliant company. The highest rank 

1 " Den Kugelsegen nach." We may well imagine the old general standing 
by the grave of the artist who had immortalized in stone so many of his old 
masters and companions in arms, moved to the deepest excitement, and feel- 
ing that no blessing could be so fitting as the salute of cannon that he had 
so often heard ring over the graves of heroes. 



304 LIFE OF CHRISTIAN DANIEL RAUCH 

of scientific and artistic culture was present. In the back- 
ground were the busts of both kings under whom he had 
worked, and in the foreground his own life-size statue by 
Drake. A beautiful adagio opened the festival. The 
memorial speech of the secretary of the academy, Coun- 
cillor Tolken, reminded his hearers that this was not the 
festival of the dead, but of the immortal; and he drew a 
sketch of the great artist's life. It was followed by a 
poem by Dr. Eggers, set to music by Taubert, which 
resounded festally through the hall in prayer and thanks- 
giving : 

" Die Briicke zwischen beiden Welten, 

O Herr lass aufgerichtet steh'n, 
Zum Trost, wenn deine Auserwahlten 

Den Weg zu dir zuriicke geh'n ; 
Du gabst ihn, er bezeugte Dich, 
Du nahmst ihn, wir verehren Dich ! " 

" So was the close of the earthly career of the master 
fitly sealed, and Rauch given over to history." 

Occupying an important social position as Rauch did 
for so many years, and living in the closest intimacy with 
most of the best artists of his time, as well as possessing a 
remarkably handsome face and figure, it is not surprising 
that a large number of portraits of him remain, taken at 
all periods of his life, and in many various styles. I can 
mention only the most important. 

One of the last items in his diary, January 12, 1857, 
speaks of the feast which he gave to his scholars and 
workmen, to which Rietschel came from Dresden, "and 
it became a right pleasant supper. With my daughters 
and grandchildren there were thirty-eight covers at 
table." 

" Thirteenth. Rietschel, making use of a rough plan of 
my earlier bust, began to model the new bust after 
life." 



THE CLOSE OF LIFE 



305 



"January 25, and to-day has finished it in masterly exe- 
cution." 

This is the beautiful bust of which there is a cast in the 
Rauch Museum, which, executed in marble in Rietschel's 
splendid manner, adorned the jubilee exhibition in 1886. 
The finished cast was sent to Rauch the second day of 
the Easter festival, April 1 3, and was placed in the red 
chamber before breakfast, to surprise him. He wrote 
to Rietschel : " Your hand prepared a second feast full 
of admiration and gratitude, including all our common 
friends, who delighted in your skill, and rejoiced with me 
in this work for immortality. It was a great festival ! 

" A chorus of our academic colleagues sounded yester- 
day a note of applause of the likeness, of the splendid 
handling of the whole, from the base even to the crown of 
the head, and the harmony of the single parts with the 
general effect." 

This bust gives the most perfect representation of the 
beautiful artist head, whose traits will always be remem- 
bered, since it was taken at the highest period of his life, 
the loveliest, the most spiritual ; and a descent from this 
height was never perceptible. As Rietschel laid, " Rauch 
always remained young because he began every work with 
fresh enterprise and zeal, as if he had never accomplished 
anything before." 

His friend Drake has also preserved this power of youth 
in his statue of the master. On the day after the unveil- 
ing of the Frederic monument, Olfers wrote to Rauch : " I 
have just come from Potsdam, and have to tell you that 
the king, our master, wishes to see your statue by Drake 
carried out in marble. It is of no use to object to it." 
In November of the next year Rauch writes to Rietschel : 
" Drake has to-day finished the model of my unworthy 
self v/ith spiritual and technical artistic ability, in which 
you may see the "most excellent work of art, as very few 
have been able to create such an iconic statue.** The crit- 



306 LIFE OF CHRISTIAN DANIEL RAUCH 

ics of that day fully indorsed this praise, and especially 
ten years later by placing it in the hall of the institution 
for which Rauch worked so long and lovingly, the Museum 
of Art. Drake also made a profile likeness of Rauch in a 
barret-cap, which was cast in bronze and placed in the 
home at Halle. 

Bruges made a colossal bust in 1852, and Vischer a 
round profile for the medallion for the unveiling of the 
Frederic monument, and Afinger one for a circle of heads 
of Cornelius, Humboldt, and Kaulbach. Gustav Richter 
made use of this fora colossal medallion, and H\ibner for 
a drawing published in Wilhelm von Schadow's " Der 
Moderne Vasari" and also engraved by Fr. Wagner. In 
1859, after his death, Wolff modelled a profile of Rauch, 
which was set in his monument in the Dorothy Church at 
Berlin, as well as on a cenotaph in the church at Arolsen. 
Later a tablet of black marble, with the profile inlaid, was 
given by Doris Rauch, and placed on the right side of the 
church, not far from her father's statue of Faith. The 
portraits painted in his last days are less satisfactory. 

Emma Gaggiotti, who was much admired by Alexander 
von Humboldt, painted an oil portrait, which hung in the 
villa at Halle ; but Dr. Eggers thinks it is only decorative, 
and does not give truly either the outward appearance or 
the inward character of the artist. A life-sized drawing 
made by Gigoux for David d'Angiers is in the David Mu- 
seum at Angiers. The representation of Rauch as a 
sculptor, by Kaulbach, in the fresco at Munich, as well as 
the one on the staircase at Berlin, is hardly intended as a 
portrait. Representing an earlier period is an excellent 
bust by Tieck, made in 1827. From this bust a medallion 
was cut for Rauch's sixty-third birthday, on the reverse of 
which was the wreath-throwing Victory, with the inscrip- 
tion in Greek, which I translate, " O majestic Victory, 
thou wilt never cease to crown him ! " Rauch was sur- 



THE CLOSE OF LIFE 307 

prised and touched by this honor, and praises the medal 
and the likeness very highly, as well as the idea of the 
Victory, and the motto from Euripides. 

But the execution of the Victory did not satisfy him, 
and he thinks it was engraved from a poor drawing of the 
statue, so that when he wishes to make a present of it to 
his friend Rennenkampf, he has it set as a paper-weight, 
so that the reverse does not show. Other statuettes were 
made by Drake, Blaser, and others. 

An oil portrait was painted by Magnus in 1831, and one 
half-size by Senf. A pencil drawing was made by Gott- 
fried Schadow in 1812, and engraved by Caspar in 1830, 
and also as a wood-cut for the first volume of Dr. Eggers's 
biography, from which it has been reproduced for this vol- 
ume. Many others were made by different persons, of 
which we will only name two little portrait medallions in 
bronze by Vischer, which the fond father had set in gold 
bracelets for his two daughters, and a drawing in black 
and white chalk by Schneller for Goethe's album of his 
friends, taken during his visit to Weimar in 1834. Ed- 
ward Bendemann also painted him in 1838. 

In the last years photography gave us a faithful repre- 
sentation of Rauch's person ; but as visiting-cards were 
not then in fashion, these pictures are usually of large size, 
and only one copy was taken. Three excellent pictures 
were taken by Schmidt of Berlin a few months before 
Rauch's death, and are in the possession of his grand- 
daughters Eugenie Schadow and Bertha Bunsen, and two 
also taken in Munich by Haufstagl belong to his grand- 
sons Eduard and Alfred d'Alton Rauch. 

At earlier dates, 1845 an< ^ l %47> are excellent daguerro- 
types, and a drawing by L'Allemand has been lithographed 
and widely circulated. There is also a painting by Karl 
Begas in the Hohenzollern Museum. 

After his death his statue was modelled several times 



308 LIFE OF CHRISTIAN DANIEL RAUCH 

among those of distinguished sculptors, as ornaments for 
galleries, and finally, as late as 1882, his bust was painted 
in a lunette in the hall of the ministry of Cultus at Berlin, 
in correspondence with those of Goethe, Beethoven, and 
Diirer, representing poetry, music, painting, and sculp- 
ture. 

A noble company in which to preserve an earthly im- 
mortality ! 



RAUCH S SCHOOL AND INFLUENCE ON MODERN ART 309 



CHAPTER XVII. 
RAUCH'S SCHOOL AND INFLUENCE ON MODERN ART. 

WHEN two decades after Rauch's death the centenary 
of his birth arrived in 1877, the Academy of Art called his 
friends to a new festival of remembrance. It took place 
in the Cornelius Hall of the National Gallery. The rep- 
resentatives of the highest ranks of the state were pres- 
ent, the Emperor and Empress of Germany at their head. 
The bust of Cornelius gave place to Drake's statue of 
Rauch, surrounded by golden flowers ; and the relations 
of Rauch who were still living, and his friends of the 
old time, and of the younger generation, filled the room. 
A sonata of old Giovanni Gabrielli, and a thanksgiving 
of Haydn, preceded the oration of Professor Dobbert, who 
with a full brush painted him as "the great artist who 
opened new paths for the plastic art of the century ; 
but before all as the historian of the royal house of 
Brandenburg in marble and brass, singer of the freedom 
of Germany in the monuments of Queen Louise and the 
generals of that time, and by the creation of the forms of 
Victory, as the ideals of German popular spirit." 

This naturally leads to the consideration of Rauch's po- 
sition in art. In the last half of the eighteenth century 
monumental art, which had found a grand but solitary 
representation in Schliiter, had sunk to mere meaning- 
less decoration, in which it mirrored the life of the time. 
A change was inevitable. It took place on the other 
side of the Alps through Canova ; on the German side 
through Dannecker ; in France through Houdon and 



3IO LIFE OF CHRISTIAN DANIEL RAUCH 

Chaudet. It reached its climax in Thorwaldsen, Scha- 
dow, and Rauch. Thorwaldsen developed the classic side ; 
Schadow brought out a noble realism ; while Rauch, as 
we have seen, united these two influences in their best 
development on the realistic side by his monumental 
statues, on the ideal by his circle of Victories, and in 
rich combination in his statues of Queen Louise, the 
Polish princes, the Albert Durer, and many minor works. 
He followed the path opened by Thorwaldsen in the use 
of bass-reliefs, and developed the true principles of real- 
istic expression in this important branch. 

To this service Rauch added great value by introdu- 
cing into Germany the skill in the casting of bronze, 
which was then flourishing in France, through which was 
directly established the foundery in Munich, and, by the 
interest and rivalry thus excited, those in Nuremberg, 
Berlin, and Lauchhammer. The wholesome competition 
thus aroused led to an improvement in this industry, 
which has made great strides in half a century. 

Ranch's art was a continual progress upward, and the de- 
scent did not appear in his time. It was a constant devel- 
opment, free from all greed for originality, that "search for 
the new which appears as the first sign of decay in art." 
Ranch's activity was in constant relation with that which 
was around him, with the ideas of the national history, as 
well as of those of art and culture, in which the first half of 
our century was rich, a genuine son of his time, and that 
with full consciousness. When in 1845 ne learned that 
Rietschel had finished the clay model of Thaer, he expressed 
the wish that he could see it before it was cast, and added, 
" That which has arisen living before us can only, yes only, 
strengthen us to new life-power; every creation has the 
atmosphere of its day. Ours can only live in that which 
surrounds us." 

Dr. Eggers relates that when in Rome he heard of 
Rauch's death, an Italian sculptor asked, "Who will now 



RAUCH S SCHOOL AND INFLUENCE ON MODERN ART 31 I 

make your statues ?" for the feeling was strong that no 
one could continue his work. 

A sense of the importance of a collection of his works, 
wherein artists could study his principles, was strongly 
felt. Kugler wrote, " Not because Copenhagen has its 
Thorwaldsen, and Munich its Schvvanthaler Museum, but 
because Rauch's great artistic activity demands it of 
itself, it appears to me time that the foundation of a 
Rauch. Museum should be projected." This wish was 
stimulated by the remembrande that Rauch himself had 
deeply regretted the want of a collection of the works of 
the former masters, Schliiter, Tassaert, and Schadow. 

This purpose has been well carried out, and the Rauch 
Museum now affords even the hasty traveller an oppor- 
tunity to study this master. 1 

To few artists can the term founder of a school be 
more truly applied than to Rauch, for he actually created 
a great atelier, into which came students from north, south, 
east, and west, an.d even from beyond the bounds of Ger- 
many. He was the teacher as well as the exemplar, a strict 
master, and yet one who developed the individuality of 
his pupils ; as Dr. Eggers says, " An educated soul, 2 which 
knew how to be a master among disciples and a disciple 
among masters." 

Among Rauch's pupils Rietschel stands at the head. 
We cannot speak of these two in connection without re- 
calling the tender affection, the entire trust, the profound 
respect, and the delight in each other's work, which they 
constantly manifested, without ever trenching on each 
other's individuality. Perhaps I have sufficiently cele- 
brated this relation in the course of my narrative ; but I 

1 It is hoped that at some future time Rauch's wishes will be fulfilled by adding 
to this museum the works of his predecessors, Schliiter. Tassaert, and Schadow, 
as far as they can now be procured. A collection of his pupil Drake's works is already 
in possession of the government, and will be placed near those of his master. 

2 \Vho will give us a good English word for gebildete ? Did Paul have the same 
thought in " fashioned in his likeness " ? 



312 LIFE OF CHRISTIAN DANIEL RAUCH 

must add this word of Rietschel's, written to Rauch kn 
1 854. " I hav.e seen with admiration Merten's work on the 
small reliefs. 1 That is, indeed, the finest thing that has 
been done in art, and must afford you the highest satisfac- 
tion. Above all, how much excellent work has been done 
here ! how great is the number of skilled pupils ! What a 
reward for you ! to be the founder of such an artistic devel- 
opment of sculpture, and, which is equally important, even 
of the industrial progress. What a rich fruit of your spirit 
and your activity ! " Whe"n these two artists first met, 
Rauch was already forty-nine years of age, and Rietschel 
but twenty-two ; but they recognized each other at once, 
and the relation of master and pupil soon changed to that of 
friendship. Within a few days of Rietschel's entrance to 
the atelier, Rauch wrote in substance, " I have received 
young Rietschel into the atelier, although there was really 
no vacant place ; for his beautiful drawings from the nude 
pleased me so much that I must make a place for him. 
If he learns to make half as good studies in clay, he will 
be a skilful sculptor, and I do not doubt that he will suc- 
ceed. I beg His Excellency to leave him three years with 
me." Six months later he regrets that Rietschel had 
not had earlier acquaintance with work in stone, and adds, 
" Dresden will be proud of this man." 2 A year later he 
is moved almost to tears by Rietschel's success, and adds, 
" When so much geniality and quick, active perception, 
united with high morality, shine in him, how much may 
we not expect from him ! " And again, in 1837, in speak- 
ing of his bust of Prince Johann, Ranch writes, " After 
such a work I must call you no longer pupil, but master ; " 
saying that Rietschel surpasses him "on one ground, and 
that the highest, religious sculpture." 

Yet Rietschel gladly acknowledged everywhere the 

1 On the Frederic monument. 

2 The noble Rietschel Gallery, which I unfortunately saw only amid the confusion 
of cleaning, testifies how proud his city is of her promising boy. 



RAUCH S SCHOOL AND INFLUENCE ON MODERN ART 313 

influence of Rauch, which saved him from the extrava- 
gances of the Nazarene school, and led him to that recog- 
nition of antiquity which has given the repose and beauty 
of the Greek to works full of Christian feeling. He re- 
lates that he once entered the atelier without noticing a 
beautiful Niobe which had just arrived, when Rauch 
called out somewhat sharply, " Have you nothing to say?" 
" About what ? " I asked. " Have you not then seen the 
beautiful Niobe out there ?" asked Rauch in excitement. 
" If it had been a Madonna would it not have charmed 
your eyes ? " This incident gave the young man an im- 
pulse to the closer study of the antique. 

Rauch's teaching was always directed to developing the 
individuality of his pupils, rather than to impressing his 
own methods upon them ; and the effect is most evident 
in the work of Rietschel. Constant as was the intimacy 
between them, each speaks his own thoughts in his own 
language. It is indeed difficult to analyze the difference 
between them, but it is easily felt. If we are tempted to 
say that there is a more delicate grace, a sweeter religious 
feeling, a greater depth of soul, in Rietschel, the statues of 
Faith, Hope, and Love, the heavenly calmness of the Queen 
Louise, the tender protecting care in the Francke, the 
bright joy of the Victories, rise up in rebuke against us ; 
if we would ascribe more boldness, freedom, and historic 
life to the monumental works of Rauch, the majesty of 
Rietschel's Luther, 1 and the vitality of his " Goethe and 
Schiller," make us hesitate to utter our thought ; and 
yet the difference exists, and we have a true double star, 
differing more in color than in glory. 

Dr. Eggers mentions many other sculptors who were 
pupils both of Rauch and of Rietschel ; but as their works 
are not known to myself or the American public I pass 
them by. 

1 Ranch did not live to see the crowning work of Rietschel's art, the Luther, 
which might be considered the finest fruit of his school ; and even Rietschel did not 
see the whole monument finished. 



314 LIFE OF CHRISTIAN DANIEL RAUCH 

Next to Rietschel in Rauch's affections was Albert 
Wolff. As he was nearly forty years younger than Rauch, 
and the son of an old friend, the elder artist's relation was 
a fatherly one. 

Wolff was introduced to Rauch by George von Strelitz ; 
and Rauch took a constant interest in his studies, and care- 
fully prepared him to profit by his journey to Rome. He 
prepared for him a guide to everything best worth studying 
in Italy, and also proposed many subjects which he wished 
him to investigate for him, such as the process of oxyda- 
tion in bronze casting, or the material of the pillars in the 
dome at Genoa, or the succession of frescos in the Campo 
Santo at Pisa. Reworked on many of the most important 
statues, and has followed Rauch's methods very closely. 

Drake is the third of Rauch's pupils. He was a fellow- 
countryman, born in 1805, and he entered the atelier at 
the age of twenty-two. He worked on the Max Joseph 
monument ; and his own beautiful Schlossbriicken group of 
"Victory crowning the Conqueror" was declared by Rauch 
to be a most original and well-executed work. Rauch fre- 
quently praises him, and finally writes in his diary, March 
26, 1853, " Professor Drake sent me the portrait statue in 
plaster of the poet Scheerenberg, a plastic wonder of origi- 
nality which I place higher in this line than anything 
which has appeared before." l 

Bredow, who was three years in Rauch's atelier, was also 
very dear to Rauch. He sympathized with the younger 
sculptor in his classic taste, and says that he has solved 
the difficult Homeric problem of blending in the represen- 
tation of Paris the voluptuary and the hero, in a way which 
neither Canova nor Thorwaldsen, and still less any other 
sculptor, has succeeded in. 

1 Drake has produced a number of masterly statuettes of Humboldt, Schiller, 
Rauch, Schinkel. Beethoven. A group of singing and playing children for the portal 
of the Castle Church in Wittenberg, and the lovely statuette of the butterfly-catcher, 
which was exhibited in the Jubilee Exhibition of the year 1886, are spoken of as among 
his most charming works. 



RAUCH'S SCHOOL AND INFLUENCE ON MODERN ART 315 

/ 

Kiss, Blaser, and Afinger were also highly prized pupils 

of the master. The statue of Ernst Moritz Arndt in 
Bonn, by Afinger, takes a very high rank. Blaser excelled 
in historic portrait sculpture. He helped Rauch on the 
Diarer statue, on that of the Polish kings, and on the 
Frederic monument. Many excellent portraits of his 
are well-known, while the ideal figure of Hospitality in 
the National Gallery proves him a worthy disciple of 
the master. Finally Kiss, who was twenty-two years in 
Rauch's atelier, has won European fame by his group of 
the "Amazon struggling with the Tiger." Kiss represents 
the sculpture of animals in Rauch's school, in which the 
master himself took great delight. 

Many other names, even, as Dr. Eggers says, to the half- 
hundred, might be given of Rauch's scholars who have 
taken an honorable part in the development of German 
sculpture ; but instead of attempting to name them all, I 
will rather speak of a few who were more his companions 
than his pupils, and yet .who are properly considered as 
representatives of the Berlin school. 

Emil Wolff, when twenty-one years old, came to Rome 
just as his cousin Rudolf Schadow died after a short ill- 
ness, and entered into the inheritance of his activity, and 
worked earnestly with Rauch for the museum. In 1878 
he was still working at Rome in a vigorous old age. 

The brothers Karl and Ludwig Wichmann, one two years 
older, and the other seven years younger, than Rauch, 
were pupils of Schadow, and fellow-students with Rauch in 
Rome. Their merit was chiefly in portrait busts. Wich- 
mann made eight of the twelve statues for the Kreuz- 
berg : two after Rauch's designs, two after Tieck's, and 
four from his own. 

But I must especially name Frederic Tieck, who, if 
Rauch's intentions had been carried out, would have become 
with him truly a founder of the school. He died on the 
twelfth of May, 1851. In Rauch's day-book we find, " On 



316 LIFE OF CHRISTIAN DANIEL RAUCH 

Monday evening at half-past eleven o'clock ended, in the 
peculiar weakness which has for a year made him incapa- 
ble of work, the life of the friend of many years and com- 
panion of my workshop, Professor F. Tieck, a life thor- 
oughly devoted to art and science. From the year 1812, 
when I learned to know him in Rome, and again when 
after many years I found him again at Carrara, I shared 
my workshop with him, according to my changing resi- 
dence, until July, 1818. Then I came to Berlin, where I 
made a place for him in the royal atelier, and also gave up 
to him the works of the new opera house under Schinkel. 
He was always to me a true, dear friend. What his indo- 
lence, dislike of work, and pressure of debt made of him in 
the last years, when he ended his days in every kind of 
increasing degradation of outward need and poverty, I 
leave to the reflection and explanation of the clear judg- 
ment of others." The explanation is easily given. Tieck 
was the victim of his weakness of character and his ex- 
treme good nature. Inconsiderate relations used him and 
his credit in such a manner that all personal assistance to 
him became impossible. On this weakness was shattered 
the plan of a common atelier. Rauch recognized his 
superiority not less in scientific training than in the tech- 
nique of art. He divided with him his work on the can- 
delabra for the queen's monument and for La Vendee, and 
on the monument at Kreuzberg ; and they worked to- 
gether on the monument to Scharnhorst, and the me- 
dallions of Humboldt and Goethe. But Rauch was the 
driving power, and Tieck the one continually driven ; and 
so the desired co-operation was not established. Rauch 
soon surpassed him in skill as a sculptor. The work on 
the theatre, and that on the fifteen half statuettes for the 
crown princess, show him at his best in art. 

Without entering into further details we may accept 
Dr. Eggers's statement that the first half of our century 
witnessed a real advance in art, the greatest since the 



RAL'CIl's SCHOOL AND INFLUENCE ON MODERN ART 317 

Italian renaissance. " If it was one-sided and violent in its 
action, its energy surpassing its technical ability ; if the 
new wine was put into old sacks which spoilt the taste of 
the wine, and the present has done wisely to turn its 
attention to making new sacks ; still we must remember 
that the sack is one thing and the wine is another, and if 
a wine is yet produced out of this fermentation of art 
theories and art execution, its grapes will have to be 
ripened by the same old sun of Homer, which brought out 
the bloom of the renaissance of art after a thousand 
years' sleep, and roused the spirit of Germany in the be- 
ginning of the century, and which is destined to lead the 
spirit of the German nation towards its ideal. 

"And if the quickening sunbeams shall arouse again the 
sense of plastic art, above all in her monumental creations, 
it may again bind itself to Rauch, and may strive towards 
its highest aim on the way of Rauch and his school." 

One final word of the man Rauch, and the character 
that he builded through his life and work. The first thing 
that strikes us is his rare good fortune. I have had no 
thrilling tale to tell of the struggle with poverty, enmity, 
and, worst of all, neglect, which has made dreary the lives 
of so many artists. His career seemed one of almost 
constant progress, for he had the wonderful alchemy 
which could turn difficulties into triumphs, and failures 
into success. 

He was well-born, beautiful in form and feature, vigor- 
ous and healthy. Reared in humble circumstances, he 
never lost his sympathy with the people, but looked upon 
work as his birthright, and a good workman as his com- 
panion and friend. Withal, he had the great blessing of a 
decided vocation, which was clear to him from his earliest 
years, and in which his nature could find full expression. 

His first trials, the death of his father and brother, 
seemed to cut him off from his work, and force him through 
filial duty into the life of the court. A weaker nature 



318 LIFE OF CHRISTIAN DANIEL RAUCH 

would have succumbed to its temptations, and in later life 
lamented his talents wasted, and longings unfulfilled; but 
while faithfully performing the duties of a servant in the 
queen's antechamber, he was laying the foundations of his 
future fame; and the tender relation thus formed with the 
royal family smoothed all his future career. 

Unlike many artists, he was firm, exact, self-controlled, 
and orderly, and was rarely troubled by pecuniary difficul- 
ties ; for his wants were simple, and his economy exact. 
With a passionate love of beauty, he found delight in nature 
and art at every step ; and with tender sensibility of feel- 
ing, he had a rich life of friendship and parental joy. 
The one great want in his life did not make him cold and 
hard ; if it gave a touch of bitterness to the sweet waters 
of affection, they were still pure and invigorating. As a 
master he was strict and critical, but he stimulated his 
pupils' powers, recognized their skill, and rejoiced in their 
fame. 

Honor and length of days to the full measure of human 
life, and success which was fairly earned, were gifts frankly 
and modestly enjoyed. He grew more beautiful, more 
sweet and tender, with advancing years ; for his nature 
was healthy and true, and he gave and received with equal 
directness and simplicity. 

His patriotism was intense, but his thought was cos- 
mopolitan, and he recognized merit in every nation. His 
religion was not speculative nor dogmatic, but sincere 
and loyal, and content with the forms in which he first re- 
ceived it. 

If he had not the very highest range of mind, the inten- 
sity of Dante, the comprehensive grasp of Michel Angelo, 
the spirituality of Fra Angelico, the far-reaching imagina- 
tion of Shakspeare, he was fitted to do the work needed 
in his time, the renewed expression of the great thoughts 
of humanity in broad lines of artistic beauty which would 
impress them upon the minds and hearts of the people. 



RAUCH S SCHOOL AND INFLUENCE ON MODERN ART 319 

If he has not led modern art up to the very highest point, 
he has placed it on a firm and broad basis ; and on his 
shoulders others may climb still nearer to the heavens. 

In writing this volume I feel that I have done what I 
could to carry out the prophecy with which Dr. Eggers 
closes the volume of correspondence between Rauch and 
Goethe. After comparing their mutual work and their 
influence on each other to that of the great linked names 
of Homer and Phidias, and Dante and Michel Angelo, 
poets and sculptors singing and chiselling their country's 
thought, he ends by saying, " So may Goethe's produc- 
tions and Ranch's works be transmitted to distant races, 
and the track of their earthly days may lead into times, in 
places, and among people, who late, very late, may be called 
to enter into the rich inheritance of German art and culture, 
as well as all the well-guarded treasures of primitive days 
and of hoary antiquity." 

Rauch's first great work, the Queen Louise, was once 
in American hands, and was near coming to our shores : 
one of his last busts of Victory was made for an American. 
Let us hold our claim upon him by carrying on his work 
for art. America, the heir of all the nations, should accept 
the good and reject the evil of all. 



LIST OF WORKS 



INSTEAD of a list of 378 works of various kinds executed by Rauch during 
his long life, I have thought it would be more interesting to have a chrono- 
logical table indicating the date of his more important statues and busts, 
especially those mentioned in this book. The dates usually indicate the 
beginning of the work, but it is not always so. 

1795. Stag's head for Wilhelmshohe Cassel. 

1798. A bust of Hofrath Lenz, unfinished. 
A bust of Castellan Meister. 

1799. Seven busts, including one of the prince's huntsman and a young 

maiden. 

1800. Wach (the painter) as a boy, bust. 

1802. Artemis and Endymion, first work exhibited. 

1804. Ariadne. 

First model of Queen Louise, bust. 
Profile relief of Frederic the Great. 

1805. Jason. 

1806. Venus and Mars, relief. 

1807. Amor. 

1808. Caroline von Humboldt, bust. 
Gustav von Humboldt, bust. 

1809. Luise von Humboldt, bust. 
Teresa Calderani, bust. 

1810. Adelheid von Humboldt as Psyche 
Zacharias Werner, bust. 
Theodore von Humboldt, bust. 
Monsignor Capecelatro, bust. 
Queen Louise, bust. 

1811. Queen Louise, sleeping, second model, bust. 
Thorwaldsen, bust. 

Franz Snyders, bust. 



322 LIST OF WORKS 

1811. Hans Sachs, bust. 
Admiral Tromp, bust. 
Van Dyck, bust. 
Gottfried Schadow, bust. 
Princess Wilhelm of Prussia, bust. 
Friedrich Wilhelm III., bust. 
Countess Brandenburg, first model, bust. 

1812. Monument of Queen Louise. 

1813. Work on the monument in marble. 

1814. Profile portrait of Friederich Wilhelm III., relief. 

1815. Martin Sehbn, bust. 
Prince Bliicher. 

Emperor Francis of Austria. 

Emperor Alexander of Russia. 

Candelabra for the Mausoleum at Charlottenburg. 

jEsculapius. 

1816. Friederich Wilhelm III., bust. 
Frau von Maltzahn, bust. 
Prince Wilhelm of Prussia, bust. 
Prince Hardenberg, bust. 
Princess Charlotte, bust. 

Queen Louise with crown and veil, third model, bust. 

1817. Funeral statue of Queen Louise, second model. 
Emperor Alexander. 

Billow von Dennewitz. 

Candelabra for the soldiers of La Vendee. 

1818. Scharnhorst. 

Count York of Wartenburg. 

1819. Apollo. 

Genelli, bust. 

Count Ingenheim, bust. 

Frederic II. 

1820. Nymph for the long bridge in Berlin. 
Genii for Wartenburg, Leipzig. 

Dennewitz and La Rothiere on the Kreuzberg monument at Berlin. 

Bliicher for Breslau. 

Goethe, bust. 

Armorial Eagle. 

Victories, with the Dragon, Lion, Eagle, reliefs. 

1821. Apostle Thaddeus, statuette. 

Statue for the monument of Countess Schulenburg. 
Grand-duke Nicholas, bust. 
Minerva teaching, ~| 

fighting, > reliefs. 

arming, ) 



LIST OF WORKS 323 

1822. Agnes Rauch, bust. 

Count of Brandenburg, bust. 
Arms of Bliicher, relief. 
Sleeping Lion, relief. 

1823. One sketch for Goethe statue, standing. 
Bliicher for Berlin. 

Princess of Cumberland. 

Victory. 

Alexander von Humboldt, bust. 

Dr. Mundhenck, bust. 

Crown-Prince Friedrich Wilhelm of Prussia, first model, bust. 

1824. Companion to antique Danaid. 

Genius for Paris on the Kreuzberg monument. 
Wieland, bust. 

Elizabeth, Crown- Princess of Prussia, bust. 
Resting Stag, first model. 

1825. Genius for Belle Alliance for Kreuzberg. 
Professor Friedrich Tieck, bust. 
Professor Zelter, bust. 

1826. Striding Apollo. 

Max Joseph, King of Bavaria, bust. 
Bliicher monument in Berlin, decorative. 
Reliefs on Bliicher monument. 
Friedrich Wilhelm III. of Prussia. 

1827. Hero ] 

Leander > for the Elector of Hesse. 

Psyche J 

Francke monument in Halle. 

Friedrich Wilhelm I. in Gumbinnen. 

Prince Wilhelm of Prussia, first model, bust. 

Stags. 

1828. Funeral statue of Princess of Darmstadt. 
Goethe in the House-gown. 

Rauch's own portrait, bust: 
Design for medal to Humboldt, relief. 
Design for medal to Emperor Nicholas, relief. 
Design of a pedestal for Diirer monument, jrelief. 
Font for the cathedral at Berlin, relief. 
Felicitas Publica for the Max Joseph monument. 

1829. Sketch for a Lion-tamer. 

Nicholas, Emperor of Russia, remodelled bust. 
Max Joseph, sitting portrait for Munich. 
Schleiermacher, bust. 
Frederic II. for Aix, bust. 
Monument for Frau Cooper, relief. 



324 LIST OF WORKS 

1829. Bavaria for Max Joseph monument, relief. 
Pedestal to Goethe statuette, relief. 

1830. Praying Maiden. 

Prince Henry of Prussia, bust. 
Count Diebitsch-Sabalkanski, bust. 
Design for the medal to vaccination, relief. 
Striding Lion, decorative. 

1831. Sketch of Narcissus. 
Gable-field of Walhalla. 
Reliefs of Max Joseph monument. 

1832. Maiden Lorenz von Tangermiinde. 
Sitting Victory, holding a wreath. 
Son of Prince Demidoff, bust. 
Count Voss, bust. 

Dr. Olfers, bust. 
General von Schack, bust. 

1833. Expectation as Eurydice, sketch. 
Stepping Victory. 

Second stepping Victory. 

Dr. Hufeland, bust. 

George, Grand Duke of Mechlenburg-Strelitz, bust. 

Duke and Duchess of Cambridge. 

1834. Design for a medal for Hufeland, relief. 
Bacchic scene, relief. 

Religion, art, science, for Max Joseph monument, relief. 
Medal to Hufeland. 

1835. Boy with the cup. (Liebe.) 
Boy with the book. (Faith.) 
Fraiilein Engel as Flora, bust. 

For the Max Joseph monument, giving the constitution, relief. 

1836. Danaid. 

Profile portrait of architect Strack, relief. 

Profile portrait of the grandchildren of Rauch, Eugenie, Marie, 
Bertha, Guido d'Alton. 

1837. Albert Diirer for Nuremberg. 
Minister Count von Bernstoff, bust. 
Profile portrait of Bendemann. 

1838. Group of Polish kings. 
Gneisenau for Sommerschenburg. 
Sitting Victory throwing a wreath. 
Profile portrait of Agnes d'Alton, relief. 

1839. First Victory for Charlottenburg. 
Second Victory for Charlottenburg. 
State's Minister of Ladenberg, bust. 



LIST OF WORKS 325 

1839. Monument of Niebuhrin Bonn, relief. 

Profile portrait of Friedrich Wilhelm III., relief. 

1840. Victory for the Belle Alliance Platz in Berlin. 
Prince Frederic of Prussia, bust. 

Profile portrait of Baron von Clodt, relief. 
Life-sized Eagle with the Lightning. 

1841. Victory crowning Herself. 
Victory mourning. 

Horse for the Frederic monument. 
Frederic II., bust. 

1842. Equestrian figure, Frederic II. 
Funeral statue, Friedrich Wilhelm III. 
King William of the Netherlands, bust. 

1843. Funeral statue of Queen Frederika of Denmark. 
Baron von Clodt, bust. 

Victory of Penthelicon, marble bust. 

1844. Monument for Memel and Oels. 
Corner figure for Frederic monument. 
Eagle for the Minister of Finance in Berlin. 

1845. Minister of State Von Rother, bust. 
Therese von Billow, bust. 

1846. Paul Friedrich, Grand Duke of Mecklenburg-Schwerin. 
Beuth, Councillor of Finance, bust. 

Mercury, bust. 

Profile portrait of Eduard d'Alton, relief. 

1847. Pillar with Apotheosis of Frederic, sketch. 
Monument of Frederic. 

1848. Hope, undraped. 
Hope, draped. 

1849. One and two sketches for Goethe and Schiller group. 
Eugenie d'Alton, bust. 

Profile likeness of George Franks. 
Reliefs on Frederic monument. 

1850. Reliefs on Frederic monument. 

1851. Alexander von Humboldt, bust. 

1852. Count York of Wartenburg. 
Funeral statue of Ernst. 
August of Hannover. 

Designs for the pedestal of the Thaer statue. 

1853. Gneisenau for Berlin. 
Gneisenau's Arms, relief. 

Head of Christ for monument of Boisseree, relief. 
Eagle for sarcophagus. 

1854. Victory with tablet for Gneisenau relief, statue. 
Victory with tablet for York relief, statue. 



326 LIST OF WORKS 

1854. York Arms, relief. 

1855. Hope. 

Kant (statuette). 
Sulpice Boisseree, bust. 

1856. Equestrian statue, Frederic, sketch. 
Wilhelm III., with pedestal. 
Moses group. 

Emperor Nicholas sleeping, third model, bust. 

Design of a Victory on the battle-field at Roubach, relief. 

1857. Thaer for Berlin. 
Bust of Victory, bust. 
Eagle in the laurel wreath. 



INDEX 



A. 

Ache, 182. 

jEschylus, 195. 

Afinger, 306. 

Agier, Fraulein, 30. 

Aix, 191. 

Albano, 17. 

Albert, Prince, 285. 

Albrecht, Markgraf, 54. 

Alexander, Emperor of Russia, 7, 79, 80, 

95, 146. 

Alexandra, Empress, 139. 
Altenstein, 113, 118. 
America, 217. 
Ancillon, 207. 
Andersen, 282. 
Angelo, Michael, 126. 
Antwerp, 284. 
Ariadne, n, 12. 
Arnim, von, Achim, 125. 
Arnim, von, Bettina, 31, 126, 127, 133. 
Arolsen, i, 122, 230, 263. 
Austria, 143. 

B. 

Baba, 89. 

Barclay's Brewery, 285. 
Bartolini, 24, 292. 
Bartolommeo, Era, 178. 
Basel, 288. 

Baudin, Madame, 239. 
Bavaria, 187. 
Begas, 96. 
Begas, Karl, 236. 
Belgium, 233, 284. 
Belle Alliance Platz, 248. 
Benassi, 66. 
Benevento, 180. 
Berger, 206. 
Berghes, 106, 107, 170. 
Berlin, 112, 130, 137-153, 164, 182, 233. 
Bernstoff, von, 194, 211. 
Berri, Duke, 95. 
Bethmann, von, 123. 128. 
Beuth, 166. 

Bianconi, Domenico, 121. 172. 
Binder, 161. 
Blaser, 148. 

Bliicher, von, 26, 46, 77, 88, 92, 142, 144, 
163, 183. 



Boissere'e, 81, 112, 116, 123, 124, 127, 128, 

165, 181, 295. 

Boleslaw, King of Poland, 146, 150. 
Bologna, 66, 181. 
Borowsky, Bishop, 45. 
Boston, 289. 
Bourdeaux, 12. 
Boz (Dickens), 195. 
Brandenberg, Countess of, 22, 88. 
Brandt, 129-131. 
Braunschweig, 99. 
Brenner Pass, 181. 
Brentano, 123. 

Breslau, 88, 92, 123, 137, 141, 145, 169. 
Bruges, 284. 

Briihl, von, General Intendant, 114. 
Brunn, Frederika, 123. 
Brunswick, Duke of, 43. 
Buchhorn, 206. 
Btickhardt, 285. 
Biilovv, von, 137, 140. 
Bunsen, Chr. Karl Josias, 113, 119,253, 

285. 

Bunsen, von, George, 286. 
Burger, 195. 
Burgfreiung, 151. 
Burgschmiedt, 153, 161, 162. 
Burgsdorf, 77. 
Bussler, 25. 
Buti, Erau, 102, 103, 179. 



C. 

Camuccini, 85. 

Canova, 5, 25, 62, 63-68, 165. 

Carlsbad, 94, 123. 

Carrara, 23, 66-68, 78, 83, 88-93, IO S> 

147, 163, 178, 289. 
Carstens, 15. 
Cams, Dr., 301. 
Caspar, 207. 
Cassas, 167. 
Cassel, i, 229. 
Ceccardo, 89, 95, 105, 121. 
Cechino (Solan), 89. 
Cellini, Benvenuto, 182, 184, 185. 
Chantrey, 285. 
Charlotte, Princess, 87. 
Charlottenburg, 9, 20, 21, 69, 112. 



327 



INDEX 



Cherbourg, 69. 
Chinard, 12. 
Chodowiecki, 252. 
Clodt, Baron von, 276. 
Colantonio del Fiore, 180. 
Cologne, 112, 133, 283. 
Constantinople, 91. 
Cooper, Sir Edward, 224. 
Copenhagen, 103, 281. 
Corcoran, 217, 218. 
Cornelius, 84, 85, 171, 174, 235. 
Correggio, 14. 
Cortot, 1 66. 
Cotta, 131, 206. 
Crawford, 289. 
Custrin, 44. 

D. 

D'Agincourt, 16. 
Daguerre, 96. 

D'Alton, 176, 177, 188,278. 
D'Alton, Eugenie, Guide, Marie, Bertha, 

188, 281. 

D'Angiers, David, 166, 238, 239. 
Dannecker, n, 83, 128, 165, 166. 
Dantzic, 39. 
Darmstadt, 29. 
David, 15, 167, 235. 
Delacroix, 235. 
Delos, 113. 
Denmark, 103. 
De Stael, Madame, 16. 
Devaranne, 227. 
Devrient, Schroder, 301. 
Dewitz, 193, 194. 
Doria, Andrea, 13. 
Drake, 105, 173, 174, 210. 
Dresden, 7, 9, n. 
Duccio, 181. 
Duchesnois, 166. 
Duhan, 257. 
Dumas, 234. 
Dupr, 167, 291, 292. 
Diirer, 85, 96, 150-162. 
Diisseldorf, 89, 192, 275. 
Duvenet, 167. 

E. 

Eichens, 168, 207. 

Eilert, Bishop, 33. 

Eisenach, n. 

Eliza (privateer), 69. 

Elizabeth, Princess of Bavaria, 219. 

Engelhardt, 191. 

Estner, 245. 

F. 

Facius, Demoiselle, 130. 

Fernow, 15. 

Fischer, 205. 

Flechtdorf.Marhof Niggemannat( widow), 

98. 

Florence, 23, 66, 83, 178. 
Fohr, Karl, 86. 
Fougu6, von, Caroline, 213. 
France, 12, 94, 144, 196, 234. 



Franceschino, 89, 90, 120. 

Franchi, Franco, 290. 

Francke, August Hermann, 218. 

Frankfort, u, 30^123, 127-133. 

Franz, Emperor of Austria, 143. 

Fraunhofer, 175. 

Frederic Augustus II., 183. 

Frederic, Augustus, King of Saxony, 173, 

182. 

Frederic II., Elector, 82. 
Frederic, Emperor, 60. 
Frederic II., the Great, 6, 48, 183, 251. 
Frederic William, Elector, 29. 
Frederic William I., 145. 
Frederika, Princess, 52. 
Frey, Reverend Andreas, 30. 
Friebel, 258. 

Friedrich Wilhelm II. of Prussia, 6, 252. 
Friedrich Wilhelm III., 6, 20, 41, 75, 88, 

252, 270. 

Friedrich Wilhelm IV., 36, 58. 
Friedrich I., 69. 
Friedrich II., von Hesse, 5. 
Fuller, Margaret, 76. 



G. 

Gaetano (Sanguinetti), 83, 89. 

Gall, 124. 

Gallait, 284. 

Gartner, 160. 

Gastein, 173, 181. 

Gelieux, 30. 

Genoa, 13, 14, 178. 

Gentz, 43. 

Gerard, 167. 

Ge'ricault, 235. 

Germany, 25, 137, 234. 

Gerstacker & Schenk, 207. 

Giacomino, 289. 

Gibson, 289. 

Giuseppe, 83, 89. 

Giustiniani Gallery, 112, 116. 

Glatz, 282. 

Gneisenau, von, 52, 142, 210. 

Goethe, Frau Rath, 30, 31, 195. 

Goethe, Johann Wolfgang, 30, 34, 96, 97, 

122-136, 171, 181, 267. 
Gorzenski, Bishop, 147. 
Grahl, von, 117. 
Greece, 95, 113. 
Gropius, 169, 208. 
Grossbeeren, 25. 
Guebhardt & Co., 68. 
Gumbinnen, 144, 216. 
Gutenberg, 156. 

H. 

Halle, 161, 188, 189, 278. 
Haller, 184, 185. 
Hamburg, 68, 87. 
Hannover, 30. 
Hardenberg, 47, 98. 
Hasenclever, 236. 
Haugwitz, 42. 



INDEX 



329 



Hegel, 16. 

Heidelberg, 112. 

Heideloff, 154, 162. 

Helmsdorf, 166. 

Helsen, 4. 

Henry, Prince of Russia, 181. 

Herberg, 261. 

Herder, 39. 

Heringsdorf, 278. 

Herrenhausen, 2. 

Hess, Peter 177. 

Hesse Darmstadt,Princess Fredericka, 28. 

Hesse Darmstadt, Princess Charlotte, 29. 

Hietzing, 155. 

Hildebrandt, Johannes Mason, 98. 

Hildesheini, 99. 

Hirt, 6, 117. 

Hittorf, 166, 167. 

Hofer, Andreas, 54. 

Hohenthal, von, Count, 228. 

Hohenzieritz, 193. 

Holland, 233. 

Hopfgarten, 152, 183, 184. 

Hosmer, Miss, 210. 

Houdon, 166. 

Hufeland, 22, 43. 

Hugo, Victor, 234. 

Humboldt, Adelhied, 24. 

Humboldt, Caroline, 200. 

Humboldt, Theodore, 18. 

Humboldt, von, Alexander, 16, 17, 73, 

166-168, 196-199, 217, 295, 303. 
Humboldt, von, Frau, 16, 17, 19, 94, 115, 

123-125, 199. 
Humboldt, von, \Vilhelm, 16, 19, 62-64, 

73> 94, 9 6 > "5- I2 o, 144, I?', 178, 

1 80, 181, 197-200, 266. 
Huyot, 167. 

I. 

Immermann, 195. 
Ingenheim, Count, 116, 117, 118. 
Ingres, 167, 240. 
Innspruck, 172, 178. 
Italy, 8, 78, 178, 180,288. 



Jagemann, 
Jena, 123. 
Jersey, 68. 



J- 



K. 



Kalide, 203. 

Kant, 15, 294. 

Kastner, 184. 

Kaulbach, von, Wilhelm, 186, 275. 

Kaulbach, von, Frau, 293. 

Kiss, 203. 

Kleist, von, General 43. 

Klenze, 161, 164, 168, 171-176, 184, 243- 

2 45- 

Knobelsdorf, 69. 
Koch, 84. 
Kohlrausch, 22, 90-99. 



Konigsberg, 45, 52, 294. 

Kopisch, 261. 

Korner, Theodor, 144, 195. 

Kotzebue, 94. 

Kraut, 82. 

Kreuzberg, 137 

Kugler, 1 6, 149, 196, 231. 



Langhans, 92. 

Lante, 116. 

Lante, Princess, 117. 

Lauchhammer, 149, 150. 

Laura, Signora, 290. 

Lazzarini, 121. 

Leghorn, 68. 

Leguire, 152. 

Leipzig, 25. 

Lemaire, 240. 

Lenox, 249. 

Leo XII.. 95. 

Leonardo da Vinci, 14, 2&8. 

Leopold, Emperor, II., 30. 

Lequine, 183. 

Lessing, painter, 288. 

Lessing, poet, 15, 192. 

Leuchtenberg, Duchess of, 277. 

Leuthen, 248. 

Levezow, 114. 

Lewes, 123. 

Lieberkiihn, Fraiilein, 191. 

London. 113, 142, 285, 286. 

Longhi, 178. 

Louis, Prince, 37. 

Louise, Queen, i, 28-61, chap. iii. 

Louise, statues of, 62-76. 

Louise of Orange, 29. 

Lucca, 83-178. 

Lucerne, 288. 

Liideritz, 168, 206. 

Ludwig of Bavaria, 22, 23, 24, 97, 135, 

151-162, 163-187, 172-175, 243. 
Ludwigsburg, u. 
Luisenstift, 99. 
Lund, 21, 97, 103, 123, 188 
Lyons, 12. 



Magdeburg, 44-50, 210. 

Mainz, 9, 10, n, 34. 133. 

Maltzahn, Hofmarschall, 71, 72. 

Maltzahn, Frau Hofmarschall, So. 

Mandel, 168. 

Mannheim, 10. 

Mantegna, 86. 

Marseilles, 13. 

Max, Joseph, 157, 164. 

Mechfenburg, 145. 

Mechlenburg-Strelitz, von, Karl, 28. 

Mechlenburg-Strelitz, George, 29, 73, 

114, 192,225,249. 
Medem, 297. 
Meleager, 179. 
Memel, 44-51. 



330 



INDEX 



Mendelssohn, 152, 195. 
Mengeringhausen, 98. 
Metternich, Prince, 155. 
Meyer, 129. 
Meyerbeer, 261. 

Mieczyslaw, Duke of Poland, 146. 
Milan, 14, 178, 289. 
Mitsching, 269. 
Mb'llendorf, General, 251. 
Moller, 219, 220. 
Moltke, 53. 
Mundhenck, 98, 191. 
Munich, 22, 65, 68, 155, 163, 168, 169, 
171-179, 182, 187, 292. 

N. 

Naples, 1 8, 86, 179. 
Napoleon, 23, 38, 41-51, 62, 77, 78, 143, 

148. 

Nelson, 276. 
Nemeyer, 218. 
Nicholas, Emperor of Russia, 39, 95, 

139- 

Nienburg, 254. 
Mimes, 12. 
Nuremberg, 73, 151-162, 169, 182. 

O. 

Ohmacht, 166. 
Oken, 175. 
Olfers, von, 305. 
Orleans, Duke of, 233, 269. 
Ostermann, 79. 

Otto I., German Emperor, 146. 
Otto, King of Greece, 177, 194. 
Overbeck, Franz, 84, 85. 
Ovid, 195. 
Oxford, 285. 

P. 

Padua, 86. 
Paestum, 180. 
Paretz, 40. 

Paris, 113, 143, 144, 164, 165, 182. 
Parma, 14, 167, 181. 
Pasquale, 185. 
Pestalozzi, 54. 
Peter the Great, 266. 
Petersburg, St., 53, 266, 275. 
Pflug, 183. 
Pignatelli, 26. 
Pisa, 83. 

Pisano Niccolo, 181. 
Pius VII., 95. 
Pius IX., 290. 
Plainer, 161, 162. 
Poland, 145-150, 216. 
Pompeii, 179. 
Pontremoli, 27. 
Portsmoutn, 286. 
Posch, Herr, 130. 
Posen, 7, 146-150. 
Potsdam, 5, 34, 73, 112, 168, 227. 
Powers, Hiram, 291. 
Prieborn, 92, 93. 
Priessnitz, 228. 



Prussia, 7, 42, 187, 273. 
Pyrmont, 6, 42, 98, 99, 133. 



R. 

Raczynski, Count Edward, 148-150. 

Radziwill, Prince, 147-150, 195. 

Rainers, 106. 

Rambach, 6. 

Raphael, 170. 

Rauch, Agnes, 72, 98, 99, 120, 132, 161, 

185, 188, 301. 

Rauch, Doris, too, 161, 190, 279, 302. 
Rauch, Friedrich, 2, 3, 5. 
Rauch, Johann Christian, i. 
Rauch, Johann Friedrich, i. 
Regensburg, 242. 
Keichenbach, 229. 
Reimer, 133. 
Reindel, 159, 160, 223. 
Rennenkampf, von, 194. 
Rhine, 10. 
Richomme, 167. 
Richter, Jean Paul, 32. 
Rietschel, 87, 105-107, 134, 148, 149, 

155, 157, 170-182, 204, 244. 
Rietz, 5. 

Righetti, 184, 185. 
Ritter, 126. 
Robert, Leopold, 102. 
Robertson, Madame, 277. 
Rome, 4, 8, 9, n, 15, 179. 
Rostock, 145. 
Rothe, 92. 
Ruhl, 4, 102, 122. 
Ruhl, Julius, 102. 
Ruhl, Ludwig, 102. 
Rumohr, 15. 
Ruscheweyh, 119. 



S. 

Sabalkanski, Marshal Diebitsch, 233. 
Sachs, Hans, 22. 
Salerno, 180. 
Salzburg, 216. 
Salvetti & Co., 66. 
Sand, 94. 

Sand, George, 234. 
Sandretzky, 9. 
Sanguinetti, 170. 
Sans-Souci, 5. 
Sanzio, Giovanni, 116. 
Schadow, Felix, 284. 
Schadow, Gottfried; 6, 8, 15, 36, 37, 62, 

64, 6 5> 73-77, 97, 103, 108-110, 117, 

139, 183, 196, 238. 
Schadow, Rudolf, 20, 22, 24, 65, 67, 88- 

102, 117, 123. 

Schadow, von, Wilhelm, 235. 
Scharnhorst, 53, 87. 
Scheffner, 45. 
Schelling, 175. 
Schelling, von, 23. 
Schepeler, 191. 



INDEX 



331 



Schilden, von, Baron, 7, 8. 

Schiller, 15, 29, 156. 

Schinkel, 70, 81, 87, 96-98, 103, 112, 197, 

221, 222-253. 
Schlegel, von, 16. 
Schleiermacher, 213, 214, 284. 
Schliiter, 69. 
Schmidt, von, 174. 

Schnorr, von, Carolsfeld, 85. 208, 236. 
Schonbrunn, 155. 
Schrodter, 236. 
Schubert, 175. 
Schuhmacher, 230. 
Schutz, 82. 
Schwalbach, 9, 10. 

Schwanthaler, 97, 134, 186, 202, 240. 
Schwarzenberg, 163. 
Schweldt, 43. 

Schwerin, Princess of Mechlenburg, 41. 
Scott, Walter, 49. 
Sebald Church, 159. 
Seidler, Louise, 129. 
Shakspeare, 195. 
Siena, 181. 
Sigismund, 28. 
Silesia, 7, 88. 
Snyders, 22. 
Soest, 133. 

Solario, Antdnio, 180. 
Solly, 116. 
Sophocles, 195. 
Soult, Marshal, 167. 
Speier, 262, 263. 
Spezzia, 178. 
Spree, 257. 
Stagemann, 211. 
Stein, von, 31, 37, 50-53, 88, 92, 123, 

141. 

Stieglitz, Charlotte, 235. 
Stieglmaier, 153, 165, 176, 184, 185. 
Stockholm, 21. 

Straber, von, Court Bishop, 174. 
Strack, 188, 249. 
Strasburg, 30, 166. 
Strelitz, 55, 226. 
Stuart and Revett, 93. 
Stuttgart, 165. 
Stutzel, 75. 
Sue, Eugene, 234. 
Switzerland, 12. 

T. 

Talleyrand, 48. 
Talma, 166. 
Tatarkiewicz. 147. 
Taubert, 304. 
Tauentzein, Countess, 47. 
Tausing, 154. 
Tegel, 16, 197. 
Tegernsee, 171. 
Tenerani, 289. 
Teresina, 90. 
Tevi, 89. 
Thackeray, 133. 
Thaer, 294. 



Thaeter, 207. 

Theer, 155. 

Thorwaldsen, 17, 19, 23, 62-84, 102-110, 

J 33. H7, 156, 172, 179, 202, 284. 
Tieck, Ludwig, 24, 92. 
Tieck, sculptor, 16, 66, 67, 70, 78, 93, 98, 

107, 130, 163, 173, 198, 221. 
Tilsit, 46. 
Tolken, 304. 
Toschi, 167, 168, 181. 
Trajan, 180. 
Trautschold, 177. 
Tripple, 112. 
Tromp, 22. 

U. 

Ulm, 167. 
Unger, William, 209. 

V. 

Valentin, 4. 
Van Dyck, 22. 
Vatican, 81. 
Vaux, 286. 
Veit, Philip, 85, 235. 
Vendee, La, 86, 137. 
Venice, 86. 
Vernet, Horace, 167. 
Versailles, 167. 
Victoria, Queen, 285. 
Vienna, 19, 22, 54, 68, 134, 155. 
Vischer, Peter, 99, 100, 221. 
Voss, Count, 211. 
Voss, von, Oberhofmeisterinn, 34. 



W. 

Waagen, 117, 138. 

Wach, 83, 96, 103, 114, 190. 

Waga, Anton, 143. 

Wagner, 220. 

Walhalla, 97, 154, 164. 

Warsaw, 7, 39. 

Waterloo, 78. 

Weber, von, Lieut.-General, 303. 

Weimar, 127, 135, 171. 

\Veimar, Grand Duke, 135. 

Welcher, 17, 300. 

Wellington, Duke of, 141, 213, 285. 

Werner, Zacharias, 18. 24. 

Wessenburgh, 113. 

West, Benjamin, 4. 

Westmacott, 224. 

Wichmann, 73, 126, 127, 163. 

Wiesbaden, 9, 133. 

William, Emperor, 58. 

Winckelmann, 15. 

Wittenberg, 183. 

Wittig, 289. 

Wolff, Emil, 103, 105, 117, 119, 148, 157, 

192, 193, 204. 
Wolicki, Abbot, 147, 150. 
Wrangel, 273. 

Wrede, Field Marshal, Prince, 177. 
Wredow, 203. 



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